NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Garbage In, Garbage Out are part of NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science. Here we have given NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage In, Garbage Out.
NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage In, Garbage Out
Multiple Choice Questions
The method of preparing compost with the help of earthworms is called
(b) Vermicomposting is the method of preparing compost with the help of redworms or earthworms.
Steps for vermicomposting are as follows :
(i) Dig a pit in a suitable place in your garden.
(ii) Spray sand on the floor of the pit.
(iii) Add vegetable peels and fruits waste in the pit.
(iv) Sprinkle water to keep it moist.
(v) Place redworms in the pit.
(vi) Cover loosely with a gunny bag or a layer of grass.
(vii) Leave it for 3-4 weeks. After 3-4 weeks vermicompost is ready.
If you dump kitchen waste in a pit, it may, after sometime
(a) convert into compost
(b) convert into vermicompost
(c) remain as such
(d) remain forever in its dried form.
(a) Kitchen waste is biodegradable so it readily gets converted into compost. Vermicompost is formed when we introduce earthworms or redworms in the pit along with the waste.
Which of the following activities does not reflect responsible behaviour with regard to waste disposal?
(a) Goods carried m paper bags or cloth bags.
(b) Waste collected in polythene bags for disposal.
(c) Waste separated into those that degrade and those that do not.
(d) Making handicrafts with used up notebooks.
(b) Polythene bags are non-biodegradable. They remain as such in the environment and harm it. So waste collected in polythene bags reflects irresponsible behaviour.
Paheli gave the following ill effects of the practice of burning dried leaves and other plant parts.
(i) Burning degrades the soil.
(ii) Burning produces harmful gases/fumes.
(iii) Precious raw materials to obtain manure at low cost is lost.
(iv) Lot of heat is generated unnecessarily.
The correct reasons of why we should not burn leaves are
(a) i, ii and iv only
(b) i, ii, iii and iv
(c) ii and iii only
(d) ii, iii and iv only.
(b): Burning of dried leaves and other plant parts produces smoke and harmful gases/fumes that generate a lot of heat and are harmful to our health. Burning degrades the soil and also results in the loss of precious raw material that could be converted into useful compost.
A garbage collector separate items mentioned below in the garbage into red, green and blue containers for their transfer to
landfill, composting pit, and recycling unit respectively.
(i) Plastic bags
(ii) Newspaper and journals
(iii) Screw and nuts
(iv) Vegetable peels
(v) Metal chips
(vi) Egg shells
Which item was transferred to which bin?
|(a)||(i) and (iv)||(ii) and (iii)||(v) and (vi)|
|(b)||(i) and (iii)||(ii) and (v)||(iv) and (vi)|
|(c)||(i), (iii) and (v)||(iv) and (vi)||(ii) only|
|(d)||(i) and (v)||(ii) and (iv)||(iii) only|
(c): Plastic bags, metal chips, screw and nuts are non-degradable so they should be transferred to a landfill. Vegetable peels and egg shells are biodegradable so they should be transferred to a composting pit. Newspapers and journals can be recycled, so they should be transferred to recycling unit.
The steps required for conversion of kitchen garbage into manure are given below in a jumbled form.
(i) Put garbage in a pit.
(ii) Cover the bottom of the pit with sand.
(iii) Cover the pit loosely with a gunny bag or grass.
(iv) Add worms.
Which of the following shows the correct sequence of the above steps?
(a) (ii); (i); (iii); (iv)
(b) (i); (ii); (iii); (iv)
(c) (ii); (iv); (i); (iii)
(d) (iv); (i); (ii); (iii)
(None) : The correct option should be (ii); (i); (iv); (iii). Refer to answer 1.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Read the items mentioned in columns-l and II and fill in the related process in the column III.
|Column I||Column II||Column III|
|(a) Organic waste||Earthworms||(i) …………..|
|(b) Garbage||Dig pit and fill with garbage||(ii) …………..|
|(c) Old newspaper||Paper bags||(iii)…………..|
|Column I||Column II||Column III|
|(a) Organic waste||Earthworms||(i)Vermicomposting|
|(b) Garbage||Dig pit and fill with garbage||(ii) Landfill|
|(c) Old newspaper||Paper bags||(iii)Recycling|
Correct the definitions of certain terms given below by changing only one word.
(i) Compost: Substances converted into manure for use in industries.
(ii) Lanfill: Garbage buried under water in an area.
(iii) Recycling: Reuse of unused material in the same or another form.
(i) Compost: Substances converted into manure for use in agricultural fields.
(ii) Landfill: Garbage buried under soil in an area.
(iii) Recycling – Reuse of used materials in the same or another form.
Provide the suitable term that expresses the meaning of each of the following statements.
(a) Greeting cards made from newspaper.
(b) Contents of the waste bins.
(c) Worms converting certain kinds of waste into manure.
(d) An area where a lot of garbage is collected, spread out and covered with soil.
Short Answer Type Questions
To what use can you put the following kinds of garbage and how?
(i) Rotting smelly garbage
(ii) Dry leaves collected in a garbage
(iii) Old newspapers
(i) Rotting smelly garbage can be converted into compost or vermicompost. Compost can be made by hurrying the organic waste (vegetable peels, fruit peels, dry leaves etc.) into a pit and covering it with soil. Vermicompost is made by using redworms-as fellows:
- Dig a pit or keep a wooden box in a suitable place in your garden.
- Spread 1 or 2 cm thick layer of sand or a net or chicken mesh at the bottom of the pit or the box.
- Spread the rotting smelly garbage along with dry leaves, dried stalks of plants, dried animal dung etc. over the layer of sand.
- Sprinkle some water over it to make the layer moist, and keep the layer loose.
- Put redworms in the pit.
- Cover the pit loosely with a gunny bag or an old sheet of cloth or a layer of grass.
- Compost will be ready in about a month (3-4 weeks).
(ii) Dry leaves collected in a garbage can be converted into compost or vermicompost. Refer to answer 10 (i).
(iii) Old newspapers can be used for covering the books, for making the paper bags, for making paper pulp for use in handicrafts and also for making recycled paper. For recycling, old newspapers can be given to the kabadiwala (junk dealer).
Paheli was writing a letter to her friend. She crumpled and threw the first draft of her letter on the floor as it had become untidy. Similarly she crumpled and threw 6 more papers on the ground. In the end, she picked them up and put them in a polythene bag and threw it on the road outside her house. Do you think Paheli’s action were responsible? What would you have done if you were in her place?
Paheli’s action shows an irresponsible behaviour. By doing so, she is adding the garbage to the environment. Instead of throwing the used papers, she can use them in different ways. Moreover, by throwing polythene bag on the road, she is adding non-biodegradable waste to the environment. If I were, at her place, then I would have either used the waste paper for doing rough work or converted the waste paper into paper pulp to make handicraft items or recycled paper.
Read the poem written below and then answer the questions from the information gathered from the book or elsewhere.
(i) Name the two kinds of waste that need to be separated from each other in two different waste bins.
(ii) Name two items of waste each that need to be sent to a (a) landfill, (b) for composting
(i) The two kinds of waste that need to be separated from each other in two different waste bind are named as biodegradable waste and non-biodegradable waste. Two different coloured waste bins, green and blue can be used to separate garbage. The green bin would contain biodegradable waste that can be converted into compost by bacteria or earthworms. The blue bin would contain dry recycleable waste. The waste in green bin is used for composting while that in blue bin is used for landfill.
(ii) (a) The two items that can be sent to landfill are empty glass bottles and plastic plates.
(b) Kitchen wastes and animal dung can be sent for composting.
Beera, a farmer would clear his field every day, and burn dry leaves fallen on the ground. After some time he found that those living in huts near his field were suffering from cough and breathing problems.
(i) Can you explain why?
(ii) Also suggest an environment friendly way to dispose the dry leaves.
(i) Burning of dry leaves produces harmful fumes and gases which cause cough, breathing problems etc. People living in huts near Beera’s field suffered from these problems as they inhaled the harmful fumes and gases released by the burning of dry leaves.
(ii) Dry leaves can be put in a pit for composting. Composting is a method of preparing manure. It is an environment friendly way to dispose the dry leaves. The manure produced from the dry leaves can be used by farmers in the agriculture field for enrichment of the soil.
Long Answer Type Questions
Put a tick () against the garbage items given in Table 16.1 which could be converted into manure. Put a cross () against the others.
|Garbage Items||Make manure or not|
|(v)||Broken pieces of glass|
|(vi)||Nails and screws|
|(viii)||Left over food|
|(ix)||Steel broken vessel|
|Garbage Items||Make manure or not|
|(v)||Broken pieces of glass||X|
|(vi)||Nails and screws||X|
|(viii)||Left over food||✓|
|(ix)||Steel broken vessel||X|
The pie charts A and B shown in Fig. 16.1 are based on waste segregation method adopted by two families X and Y respectively.
Which of the two families X or Y do you think is more environmentally conscious and why?
Family X is more environmentally conscious because it segregated biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances separately, and on the basis of the further use of the waste as for composting, recycling or landfill. It disposed kitchen waste (biodegradable) and polythene bags (non-biodegradable) separately unlike family Y who disposed kitchen waste and polythene bags together as one waste.
Given below are steps in vermicomposting and each step has been given an alphabet. Rearrange the steps in the correct sequence and write the alphabets on the chart provided. One step is done for you.
F Dig a pit in a suitable place, in your garden.
C Spread sand on the floor of the pit.
E Add vegetable peels and fruits waste in the pit.
A Sprinkle water to keep it moist
D Place red worms in the pit
B Cover with a gunny bag or grass
Step 1 – F
Step 1 – F
Step 2 – C
Step 3 – E
Step 4 – A
Step 5 – D
Step 6 – B
Write 3 sentences on what comes to your mind when you chance to see the following.
- A rag picker.
- A cow eating a polythene bag.
- Foul odour emanating from garbage at the entrance of your house.
(i) A rag picker represents poor people or poverty around us.
(ii) He removes the garbage generated by us by sorting out the recyclable waste from non- recyclable waste.
(iii) He is exposing himself to the harmful substances generated by the solid waste.
(i) A cow eating a polythene bag shows irresponsible behaviour of humans towards disposal of garbage in the form of polythene bag.
(ii) A cow eating a polythene is exposing itself to hazardous material generating from garbage.
(iii) There is a possibility of polythene bag choking in the gut of animal which can lead to its death.
(i) Foul odour emanating from garbage at the entrance of our house represents the production of large quantity of waste.
(ii) It shows our irresponsibility towards garbage disposal, as we are expecting others to clear the waste generated by us.
(iii) The foul garbage shows unhealthy surrounding with unpleasant sight which would lead to the spread of diseases. It shows the irresponsible behaviour of the municipality concerned as they should get the garbage cleared from the city.
Beautiful hand crafted articles like boxes and toys are made of paper pulp in our country. Can you explain how paper pulp which is made from paper can be used to make hard boxes and other articles?
The paper pulp obtained from paper is mixed with glue and saw-dust. Glue and saw-dust make the paper hard. For making hard boxes, toys, etc. few coats of this hard pulp is applied over the framework. It is then allowed to dried up. Once the pulp is dried up, hard boxes and toys can further be processed.
Recently, a ban on plastic bags has been imposed in many places? Is the ban justified? Give reasons in three sentences.
Yes, a ban on plastic bags is justified because:
- Plastic gives out harmful gases on heating or burning. These gases may cause pollution and many health problems including cancer in humans.
- People fill garbage in plastic bags and throw it away on roads and other places like garbage dumps. When stray animals look for food in these bags, they end up swallowing the bags too. This results in their death due to choking.
- Plastic bags thrown away carelessly on roads and other places get into drains and the sewage system. As a result, drains get choked and the. water spills on the roads. During heavy rains, it might even create a flood like situation.
Why should we not burn plastic items?
We should not burn plastic items because:
- Plastic is a non-biodegradable substance, so it cannot be easily burnt.
- On burning, harmful gases and fumes are liberated out which are hazardous to the health of humans and animals and also to the environment.
- The left over burnt pieces of plastic can be eaten by animals which may lead to their death by choking them.
- The ashes left after burning of plastic are toxic in nature and thus, harm the environment.
- Plastic is not environment friendly. Its burning causes soil pollution and air pollution.
What happens when
- cooking medium is made to flow down a drain
- insecticides, motor oil, paints are poured down the drain
- tea leaves, cotton swabs and old soft toys are thrown into the drain.
- When cooking medium is made to flow down a drain, it may choke the pipes causing drainage problem and water spills. If the cooking medium reaches to the soil, it will clog the pores in the soil causing aeration problems which results in the death of useful microbes present in the soil, decrease in soil fertility and soil pollution.
- When insecticides, motor oil and paints are poured down the drain, they may choke the pipes causing drainage problem. On reaching the agricultural field; they clog the pores of soil leading to aeration problem. If the discharge reaches the water bodies, it pollutes the water and may cause various harmful diseases in aquatic animals.
- Tea leaves, cotton swabs and old soft toys may choke the drain if they are made to flow down the drain leading to drainage problems.
Answer the following questions in one or two words or sentences.
- Why should we prefer to use paper bags rather than polythene bags?
- Who, out of the following should properly dispose of th& garbage – father, mother, elder brother, younger sister?
- Which one out of beetles, roundworm and earthworm are used for vermicomposting and why?
- We should prefer to use paper bags rather than polythene bags because paper bags can be recycled and degraded but polythene bags being non-degradable, are harmful for humans, animals, plants and for the environment.
- Every member of the family should properly dispose of the garbage as proper garbage disposal is not the responsibility of only one person. It should be a concern of every citizen be it is a mother, father, elder brother or younger sister.
- Earthworms are used for vermicomposting because earthworms convert waste from plants and animals or their products into compost.
NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science Solutions
- Chapter 1 Food: Where Does It Come From?
- Chapter 2 Components of Food
- Chapter 3 Fibre to Fabric
- Chapter 4 Sorting Materials into Groups
- Chapter 5 Separation of Substances
- Chapter 6 Changes around Us
- Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants
- Chapter 8 Body Movements
- Chapter 9 The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings
- Chapter 10 Motion and Measurement of Distances
- Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections
- Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits
- Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets
- Chapter 14 Water
- Chapter 15 Air Around Us
- Chapter 16 Garbage In, Garbage Out
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