The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China SAQ CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How was French Indo-China formed ? [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008]
Ans. (i) French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858.
(ii) By the mid-1880s, they had established a firm grip over the northern region.
(iii) After the Franco-Chinese war, the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam, in 1887, French Indo-China was formed.
Q.2. ‘The French thought colonialisation necessary’. Give reasons.
Why did the French think that colonies were necessary ? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Supply of raw materials : Colonies were considered essential to supply of natural resources and other essential goods.
(ii) To civilize the uncivilized people : Most of the European countries were of the opinion that the Afro-Asian people were uncivilized, and thought it was the mission of the ‘advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilization to these backward people.
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Q.3. Who was Paul Bernard ? What were his views regarding the development of colonies ?
Describe the views of Paul Bernard on the question of development of the colonies. Mention any three barriers to which were a hurdle in improving the economy of Vietnam. [CBSE 2011]
How did Paul Bernard argue in favour of economic development of Vietnam ? Explain. [CBSE 2015 (O)]
Ans. Paul Bernard was an influential writer and policy maker who suggested a model to develop the French colonies.
(i) Believer of development of colonies :
He strongly believed that economic development of the colony was the only method which could help in serving the interests of the mother country.
(ii) Economic circle : He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. If the economy was developed and people had high per capita income, this would increase their purchasing power, and they would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for the French business.
According to Bernard there were following barriers :
(i) High Population levels.
(ii) Low agricultural productivity.
(iii) Extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants.
Q.4. Describe any three steps taken by the French to develop agriculture in Vietnam. [CBSE March 2012 (O), 2013 (D)]
Describe any five steps taken by the French for the development of the ‘Mekong Delta Region’. [CBSE 2015 (O)]
What did France do to increase cultivation in Vietnam ? How did it affect the rice cultivation by 1931 ? [CBSE 2014]
Describe the major steps taken by the French to develop agriculture in Vietnam.
Ans. (i) Building canals : The French began by building canals and draining land in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. The vast system of irrigation works canals and earthworks – built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production.
(ii) Building of ports : To export the surplus production French built ports. These ports were used to export the rice to the international market.
(iii) Increasing area under rice cultivation :
The area under rice cultivation went up from 274,000 hectares in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million in 1930. Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
(iv) Construction of rail network :
Construction of a trans-Indo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China was begun. This final link with Yunan in China was completed by 1910. The second line was also built, linking Vietnam to Siam (as Thailand was then called), via the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh.
(v) Establishing rubber estates : Many new rubber estates owned by the French businessmen were established. Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations.
Q.5. Why did the French policy makers want to educate the people of Vietnam ? Explain. [CBSE 2009 (D), March 2011 ]
Ans. (i) Civilizing Mission : Under this mission, the French claimed that they were bringing the modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce the modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions. Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native’.
(ii) To counter Chinese influence : The elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by the Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the tradational educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
(iii) To create Asiatic France Solidarity :
There were many policy makers who felt that by learning French the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilization of France. This would create Asiatic France Solidarity. The educated people inVietnam would respect French culture and see the superiority of French culture.
(iv) To justify Colonial rule : French also wanted to educate the people of Vietnam so that through textbooks and other materials, they could justify the colonial rule.
Q.6. ‘There were two broad opinions on the new education policy introduced by the French in Vietnam’. Discuss. [CBSE March 2011]
Explain the two opinions on the question of the use of the French language as the
medium of instruction in the French i schools established for the Vietnamese in Vietnam. [CBSE 2010 (D)]
Why did some French policy makers in Vietnam emphasis the need to use the
French language as the medium of instruction ? [CBSE 2015]
Ans. (i) Supporters of French : Some policymakers were in favour of the French language as the medium of instruction, because according to them, this would promote French culture in Vietnam. By learning the language, they felt, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help to create an Asiatic France solidly tied to European France\ The educatedpeople in Vietnam would respect Frenchsentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture and work for the French.
(ii) Supporters of Vietnamese : However, there were other group of thinkers who were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
Q.7. ‘The battle against the French colonial education became a part of the larger battle against colonialism and for the independence’. Explain.
The schools became an important place for political and cultural battles in Vietnam against French colonialism. Support the statement with examples.
[CBSE 2010 (O)]
Ans. (i) Educational and colonial battle. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education whereas Vietnamese intellectuals wanted to use education as a power to motive the students to resist against colonial rule.
(ii) Teachers and education : Teachers and students did not follow the curriculum framed by the French. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers used to modify the text which was against the Vietnamese.
(iii) Saigon Native Girls School incident : In the Saigon Native Girls School, when a Vietname girl was asked to vacate front seat for a French girl, she refused to do so. She was expelled from the school. When angry students protested, they too were expelled. This led to an open protest by the people forcing the government to take the student back.
(iv) Students and education : To fight against colonial government, students formed various political parties such as Party of Young Annan. They also used print culture to highlight how the French rule was dangerous for the people. They issued national journals such as the Annanese Student.
(v) Go East Movement : It was a national movement launched by the students to drove the French out of Vietnam. Under . this movement many Vietnamese students went to Japan to look for foreign help.
Q.8. What were the major features of the new schools of Western learning introduced in Vietnam by the French ?
Explain four features of the education being given in the Tonkin Free Schools which was started to provide the western style of education in Vietnam. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008]
Ans. (i) In the new education system, more stress was given to Science, Hygiene and French.
(ii) Along with the western education, the schools encouraged the adoption of western style such as having a short haircut.
(iii) These schools also encouraged students to wear western clothes, and play the western games like tennis.
(iv) For the traditional Vietnamese hair has the same significance as the head. So the establishment of new schools gave a major setback to the Vietnamese traditional culture.
Q.9. What was rat hunt ? How was it contradictory to the civilising mission of the French ?
Ans. The rate hunt was started in 1902 in Hanoi to check the spread of plague in the city. Under this workers were asked to catch rats. It was contradictory in the civilising mission because under the civilising mission the French claimed that they were bringing modem civilisation to the Vietnamese but under rat hunt mission they asked locals to enter sewers to catch rat for them.
Q.10. What was Scholar’s Revolt ? Explain. [CBSE 2015 (D)]
Ans. (i) This was an anti French Movement launched in 1887.
(ii) The main aim of the movement was loyalty to the monarchy and hatred for the French.
(iii) The movement was led by officials at the imperial court.
(iv) The movement was very intense in Ngu An and Ha tien province.
(v) More than 1,000 Catholics were killed by the rebels.
(vi) Though movement was crushed by the French but it served to inspire people to rise up against the French.
Q.11. What was ‘Go East Movement’? [CBSE 2008 (D), March 2011]
Ans. (i) It was, movement which was launched in the first decade of the twentieth century.
(ii) In 1907-08, some 300 Vietnamese nationalist students went to Japan to acquire modem education.
(iii) For most of them, the primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and reestablish the Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French.
(iv) These nationalists looked for foreign arms and help. They appealed to the Japanese help as fellow Asians.
Q.12. Explain the reasons for the popularity of ‘Go East Movement. [CBSE March 2011]
Ans. (i) The anti French movement was launched in the first decade of the 20th century.
(ii) The movement become popular because early Vietnamese nationalists had a close relationship with Japan and China.
(iii) They provided models for those looking to change, a refuge for those who were escaping French police, and a location where a wider Asian network of revolutionaries could be established.
Q.13. What was the impact of the Great Depression of 1929 on Vietnam ?
[CBSE March 2011]
Ans. The Great Depression of the 1930s which shattered most economies of the world had a severe impact on Vietnam too.
(i) The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprisings, such as in the provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh.
(ii) These provinces were amongst the poorest, had an old radical tradition and were called the ‘electrical fuses’ of Vietnam. When the Great Depression started showing its impact, people started demonstrating against the colonial government.
(iii) The colonial government put these uprisings down with great severity, even using planes to bomb demonstrators. The Great Depression and the brutality of the French against the workers provided an opportunity to the nationalist leaders to group together.
Q.14. ‘The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as well as criticising the Vietnam war/ Explain.
Ans. (i) Hollywood made films in support of the war, such as John Wayne’s Green Berets (1968). This has been cited by many as an example of an unthinking propaganda film that was responsible for motivating many young men to die in the Vietnam war.
(ii) Other films were more critical, as they tried to understand the reasons for this war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the United States.
Q.15. Under what circumstances did the US enter the Vietnam war ? Explain.
Ans. (i) After the Geneva Peace Agreement, Vietnam was divided into the North and South Vietnam.
(ii) Ho Chi Minh and the Communists, took power in the North while Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in the South.
(iii) The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Diem.
(iv) His rule was opposed by many people and organisations including the National Liberation Front (NLF). The NLF wanted unification of the country.
(v) America wanted the anti-communist government in South Vietnam to continue at any cost. So it directly entered the war.
Q.16. Explain the impact of Vietnam War on Vietnam.
Ans. (i) Use of modern war equipments : Thousands of US War troops arrived in Vietnam with heavy weapons and tanks, airships etc.
(ii) Use of Chemical weapons and gases : These War troops used all kind of chemical weapons Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs which destroyed many cities, villages and decimated jungles.
(iii) War and Women : War provided an opportunity to Vietnamese women to come out of the houses.
In the 1960s, photographs in magazines and journals showed women as brave fighters. There were pictures of women militia shooting down planes. They were portrayed as young, brave and dedicated.
(iv) Women as workers : Women were represented not only as warriors but also as workers : they were shown with a rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other. Whether young or old, women began to be depicted as selflessly working and fighting to save the country. As casualties in the war increased in the 1960s, women were urged to join the struggle in larger number.
Many women responded and joined the resistance movement. They helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels and fighting the enemy.
Q.17. State the contribution of Ho Chi Minh In the Freedom movement of Vietnam. CBSE March 2012, 2013 (D)]
Who was Ho Chi Minh ? State his contribution in the freedom movement of Vietnam. [CBSE 2012]
Explain any four contributions of Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam’s struggle for Independence.
How could you relate Communist Movement with ‘Vietnamese Nationalism’? Explain in four points.[CBSE 2012]
Relate communist movement with ‘Vietnamese Nationalism’ and explain.
Ans. (i) As a leader : Ho Chi Minh, real name Nguyen Tat Thanh, Vietnamese Communist leader and the principal force behind the Vietnamese struggle against French colonial rule .
(ii) Formation of Communist Party : In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party. He was inspired by the militant demonstrations of the European communist parties.
(iii) Chairman of Democratic Republic of Vietnam : In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.
(iv) Important symbol for unification ofVietnam : He was an important symbol forthe unification of Vietnam. The importance of his role is clear from the fact that the most important route connecting north and south Vietnam was named after him.
Q.18. What is the Ho Chi Minh trail? Describe any three points of its importance. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008, March 2011]
Ans. The Ho Chi Minh trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads, used to transport men and materials from the north to the south during the Vietnam war.
(i) The story of the Ho Chi Minh trail is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the United States.
(ii) It symbolises how the Vietnamese used their limited resources against the biggest military power.
(iii) The trail was used by about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops who came to the south each month using this trail.
Q.19. What was the main motive of the French to develop the Infrastructural projects in Vietnam ? Explain how far did they succeed in their mission. [CBSE 2010 (D), March 2011]
Ans. (i) The basic aim of the French to develop the infrastructural projects in Vietnam was to get supply of natural resources and other essential goods.
(ii) The French succeeded in their mission as
* The area under rice cultivation went from merely 274,000 hectare in 1900 and 2.2 million in 1930.
* By 1930 Vietnam became the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
* The French succeeded in linking northern and southern parts of Vietnam through rail.
* Vietnam was also linked to other nation like China, Thialand through rail.
Q.20. How did students in Vietnam fight against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent Vietnamese from qualifying for ‘white collar jobs’ ? Explain. [CBSE 2014(0)]
Ans. (i) They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society.
(ii) By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan, and publishing nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student.
(iii) Many young students went to Japan under the Go-East movement to get higher education.