Structural Change – CBSE Notes for Class 12 Sociology
• The colonial rule has had a tremendous impact on Indian society in all aspects—railways, industries, postal system (social, cultural, economic, political).
• The previous ruler were unable to control the entire country (except Akbar, Ashoka), but the British controlled India with their aim of profit attainment.
• The mughals came to India to loot us and take our resources, whereas the British came for trade and imposed themselves on us (East India company);
• The British had two arms: Profit for themselves and establish control in India and make it clear to the people in rural and urban area to state that they were in control.
• Rural areas—»They wanted farmers to grow cash crops and told them what to grow (Indigo).
• Urban areas —»They told them what to manufacture.
• The British interfered in forest policies, displaced tribals.
• Introduction of Western Languages—English.
• Introduction to create a group of clerks to help in administration as there were many local dialects.
• This backfired as the educated Indians began using principle of equality, liberalism, individual, freedom and started revolts against the British which culminated the freedom struggle.
1. Much better edge in global world as English is universal.
2. Dalits being educated are edge over the non educated dalits.
Those who knew English looked down upon those who didn’t.
Movement of People
• People were not only sent to work in tea or coffee plantations, but were also sent to Africa and England.
• These included doctors, lawyers to work in industries, higher studies, had to work more inside and outside India.
• When they came back they were not accepted by the Indians so they settled in these places to avoid trauma.
• In all areas there has been a change in our food, clothing, language, architectures.
• Can be studied through Industrialisation and urbanisation.
Industrialisation and Urbanisation During Colonial Rule
• Two famous cities during pre-colonial rule were Surat (Gujarat), Masulipatnam (Andhra Pradesh).
• Slowly they became centres of export and import.
• They were centrally located, easy to approach, docking the ships and carrying out activities.
• Thus, Surat and Masulipatnam lost their importance and industries were not set up in these places and were set up in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
• This was known as ‘de-industrilisation’.
Features of Colonial Rule
• Capitalism is a system of the economy which is private ownership of property for the sole aim of profit.
Features of Capitalism
1. Dynamic-ever changing
2. Global in nature present whereas there are industries.
Private ownership — Capitalism
1. Great capacity for profit and growth.
2. Maximum use of science and technology.
3. Main aim was profit for the capitalists.
4. Concept of competition emerged.
• Territory, population, administration, sovereignty. Educated Indians wanted sovereignty (governing their own country), taking own decisions.
• Industrialisation requires setting of factories and employing labour.
• Manchester: Industrial city in England. Cotton from India was sent to Manchester, processed into silk made cloth and sold in India for cheaper prices.
• Along with Surat and Masulipatnam, Dhaka and Thanjavur were ruled by kings and they too lost their courts.
• Artisans, painters, dancers, singers lost their importance, (working class) had to look for alternative jobs.
• Where there were industries, population increased and people from rural areas migrated to urban areas.
• They realised that life in urban areas and factories was tougher (social and economic reasons).
• All castes were the same, felt their culture was getting encoded.
• Madras (coffee, indigo, spices)
• Bombay (cotton) first established as price capital counter for trading.
• Calcutta (jute)
An English merchant named Job Chamock (1690) came to West Bengal, selected three villages-
Kolikata, Gobindapur, Sultanuti.
• Combined 3 villages and stunted a trading post and the British wanted to build a fort in 1698 known as Tort William’ as military setup.
• In the middle there was a maidan far away and personnel.
• Around the maidan, cities were formed, people started infrastructure built.
• Thus the city of Calcutta developed which includes the Fort William and their villages.
Urbanisation and Industrialization
• Tea grows in hilly areas and requires rain, hence, Assam was ideal for tea plantation.
• Disadvantage of Assam —» low population, therefore people had to be moved from Bihar, Maharastra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
Life of Labourers
• Harsh weather conditions caused diseases.
• Moved away from hence culture shock (adjustment).
• Living and working conditions were poor.
Penal laws made by the British to punish the offender or workers if they did not report on time, try to run away or went against them.
• But their laws were in favour of the plantation owners.
• Industry was privately and publicly owned.
• Either plantation owners or planters and management was done by employing managers.
• Hetd a luxurious life and large bungalows with gardens which were maintained by the labourers.
• Industrialisation and urbanisation in independent India.
• Nehru and ministers felt a ‘drain of wealth’ as Britishers left us in a difficult position.
• Had to recognise the economy and led to develop industries.
• Nehru called ‘dams’ the temples of modem India as they provide employment, control floods and hydro electricity.
Urban-Rural Areas Impact
• People move from rural to urban areas in search of jobs, better standard of living, sense of anonymity.
— Social reason sense of anonymity, ability to choose one’s own job.
— Economic reason, better job opportunities, standard of living.
2. Classes between immigrants and residents; where immigrants move to urban areas, the residents resist this because they feel that they have to show housing facilities, job opportunities.
3. Metropolis: city + suburbs, sububs because part of city e.g. Chennai, Bangalore, Suburb areas had to reach because they were far away.
Megapolis: Suburbs of city because part of the city and also belong to other states e.g., NCR-Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Bombay, Calcutta Megapolis > Metropolis.
Words That Matter:
1. Capitalism: An economic system in which means of production are privately owned : and organised to accumulate profit in them as a marked systems.
2. Colonialism: An ideology by which a country seeks to conquer and forcibly colonise another.
3. De-Industrialisation: Decreasing capital investment and increasing production management of service sector are indicators of de-industrialisation.
4. Globalisation: Complex series of economic, social, cultural, political, and technological changes that have increased the interdependence, interaction and integration among people and economic companies in different locations.
5. Industrialisation: The development of modem forms of industry factories, machines and large scale production processes.
6. Migration: Movement of persons from one place to another in order to find work or to live.
7. Modem Iron and Steel Centres: Bhilai, Bokaro, Durgapur, Rourkela.
8. Paradoxical: Self contradictory system
9. Sanskritisation: Refer to the process by which middle or lower castes seek upward social mobility by limitating the rituals and social behaviour/practices of castes above themselves.
10. Structure: Widely seen as web of interactions, which are both regular and recurrent.
11. Structural change: Changes in social relationships are called structural change.
12. Trade centres developed by British: Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai.
13. Urbanisation: The process by which the population in the cities increases and people living in rural areas also internalise the life style of the urban society.