NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Democratic Politics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements
Popular Struggles and Movement CBSE Class 10 Chapter 5 Democratic Policies NCERT Solutions
In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics :
- Information campaigns, organizing meetings, file petitions: Pressure groups carry out information campaigns, organize meetings, and file petitions to attract public attention and gain support for their activities.
- Media: They take help from the media in order to reach to a large number of people through news channels and in order to gain maximum support.
- Strikes: Pressure groups exert influence by strikes and hunger strikes. This is a nonviolent way which was a great effect on politics. The government is, thus, pressurized to take note of their demand.
- Advertisements and hoardings: Pressure groups and movements put up advertisements and boards everywhere in the city so that people may know about their activities.
- Lobbying and participation in official meetings: Business groups often employ professional lobbyists. Some persons from the group or movement participate in the official meetings and offer advice to the government.
- Take a political stance on major issues: Interest groups and movements do not directly take part in party politics but try to exert influence on political parties by taking a political stand on different issues. They have their own political ideology and political position on major issues.
Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties?
The relationship between pressure groups and political parties can take different forms. It may be a direct or indirect relationship as mentioned below :
- Formation of pressure groups by leaders or led by them: Pressure groups are often formed and led by politicians and political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organizations in India are either established or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Examples are NSUI, ABVP.
- Formation of political parties out of movements: Political parties sometimes grow out of movements. Parties like DMK and AIADMK were formed this way. Similarly, when the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, Asom Gana Parishad was formed.
- Indirect relation: Sometimes pressure groups and movements and political parties take positions that are opposed to each other. But they remain in contact with each other. Most of the new leadership of political parties comes from interest or movement groups. For example, student leaders of Delhi University join politics in the long run.
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Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.
The pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy. Putting pressure on the rulers is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as everyone gets this opportunity. Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small group of rich and powerful people. Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of countering this undue influence and reminding the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.
What is a pressure group? Give a few examples.
Pressure group is an organization that attempts to influence government policies. They do not aim to directly control or share political power. These are formed when people with common occupation, interests, aspirations, or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective. The term pressure group, therefore, refers to any interest group whose members share certain common attributes, make claims on other groups, and on the political process. Examples are FEDECOR and BAMCEF.
What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?
Pressure groups are organizations that attempt to influence government policies. But unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power. These organizations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations, or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.
In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organizations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Most of the leaders of such pressure groups are usually activists and leaders of party.
Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to a long drawn social reform movement during the 1930 and 1940s.
Organizations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called__________groups.
Organizations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called Sectional interest groups.
Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party?
(a) Parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues.
(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve a larger number of people.
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
(d) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilize people, while parties
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
What were the three demands that were made by the SPA in Nepal?
- The three demands were ……………… Restoration of parliament
- Power to an all-party government
- A new constituent assembly
The World Bank pressurized the government of Bolivia, which is a poor country in Latin America, to give up its control of municipal water supply. These rights were sold for the city of Cochabamba to a multi-national company (MNC), and the cost of water was increased. There was a protest among the people since one-fourth of the income had to be paid for water.
In January 2000 a successful four-day general strike was organised in the city by a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders. The strike was called off when the government agreed to negotiate. In February 2000, since the government had not taken any action the people agitated again, and the police took brutal action. In April 2000, another strike followed and the government imposed martial law. The officers of the MNC were forced to flee the city and the government was made to concede to all the demands of the protesters, due the power of the people. Water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates and the contract with the MNC was cancelled. This was known as Bolivia’s water war.
Define pressure groups.
Government policies are influenced by a few organisations called Pressure groups. Pressure groups do not aim to control or share political power directly, unlike political parties. When people with the common occupation, interest, aspirations, or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective these organisations are formed.
Write a brief note on the Narmada Bachao Movement.
Narmada Bachao Andolan in India was an Issue-specific movement. The specific issue of this movement was the displacement of the people by the creation of the Sardar Sarovar dam on the Narmada river. Its objective was to stop the dam from being constructed. It gradually became a wider movement that Questioned all such big dams and the model of development that required such dams.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. In Bolivia protest against water privatisation was led by: [CBSE(CCE)2012]
(a) Trade Unions
(c) Human Rights Organisation
(d) Anti-liquor movement
2. How did King Gyanendra take advantage of the weak democratically elected government? [CBSE (CCE)2012]
(a) He dissolved the Parliament
(b) He dismissed the Prime Minister
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) He rigged the elections
3. In which two ways, the Public Interest Groups achieve their aims? [CBSE (CCE) 2012]
(1) They organize meetings to win Public Support.
(2) They raise slogans against the Government and disrupt the public.
(3) They try to influence the media by drawing their attention to their cause.
(4) They set up the public property on fire.
(a) (1) and (2)
(b) (1) and (3)
(c) (1) and (4)
(d) (2) and (3)
4. What did the leaders of the movement in Nepal reject in April 2004? [CBSE (CCE) 2012]
(a) Half-hearted concessions made by the king.
(b) Democratic elections.
(c) Restoration of Parliament.
(d) Formation of an alliance.
5. To which one of the following Continents, Bolivia belongs? [CBSE (CCE) 2012]
(c) South America
6. Which one of the following features distinguishes a Pressure group from a Political Party? [CBSE(CCE)2012]
(a) Political parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues.
(b) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilize people, while political parties do.
(c) The pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power while political parties do.
(d) The pressure groups are confined to a few people or a few sections of society, while Political parties are related to a greater area and issues.
7. Which one of the following is the main feature of Bolivia’s struggle? [CBSE (CCE) 2012]
(a) About one specific policy of the Democratic government.
(b) It involved people’s claims on elected democratic government.
(c) It was about the foundation of the country’s politics.
(d) It aimed at restoring democracy in the country.
8. Which one of the following is not the quality of democracy? [Delhi 2012]
(a) It promotes equality among citizens.
(b) It takes quick decisions.
(c) It improves the quality of decision making.
(d) It enhances the dignity of the individual.
9. Which among the following led the struggle against ‘privatisation of water’ in Bolivia? [Delhi 2012]
(a) Political parties
(c) Factory workers
10. Which one of the following is the ‘Third Wave’ country that had won democracy in 1990? [Delhi 2012]
11. Which one of the following is the ‘Third Wave’ country that had won democracy in 1990? [Delhi 2012]
12. In which one of the following countries is democracy not preferred over dictatorship? [AI 2011]
(c) Sri Lanka
13. Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation (BAMCEF) is an example of which one of the following? [Delhi 2011]
(a) Public interest group
(b) A movement for equality
(c) A sectional interest group
(d) A political party
14. Match List I (organizations and struggles) with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [NCERT]
|List I||List II|
|(i) Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group||A.Movement|
|(ii) Organisations that seek to promote the common interest||B. Political parties|
|(iii) Struggles launched for the resolution of a social problem with or without organizational structure||C. Sectional interest groups|
|(iv) Organisations that mobilize people with a view to win political power||D. Public interest groups|
(a) C D B A
(b) C D A B
(c) D C B A
(d) B C D A
15. Match List I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [NCERT]
|List I||List II|
|(i) Pressure group||A. Narmada Bachao Andolan|
|(ii) Long-term movement||B. Asom Gana Parishad|
|(iii) Single issue movement||C. Women’s movement|
|(iv) Political party||D. Fertiliser dealers, association|
(a) D C A B
(b) B A D C
(c) C D B A
(d) B D C A
16. Consider the following statements about pressure groups and parties. [NCERT]
(i) Pressure groups are organised expression of the interests and views of specific social sections.
(ii) Pressure groups take positions on political issues.
(iii) All pressure groups are political parties.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) (i), (ii), and (iii)
(b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (i) and (iii)
17. The word MNC is related to which issue :
(a) Nepal’s popular struggle
(b) Bolivia water war
(c) Environmental movement
(d) Narmada Bachao Andolan
18. Observe the statement and choose the correct option.
(i) Democracy evolves through popular struggle.
(ii) Pressure groups never influence people’s movement.
(iii) Political parties exert pressure on the government.
(iv) Mobilisation and organisations shape the concept of democracy.
(a) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(b) (i), (iii), (ii) only
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) (ii) and (iv)
19. Movement signifies:
(a) An organisation that attempt to influence government policies.
(b) Entities that is not an organisation and depend on spontaneous mass participation.
(c) Groups which promote collective good.
(d) An organisation seeks to capture political power.
20. The city of Cochabamba is related to which issue ?
(a) Nepal’s Popular Struggle
(b) Bolivia Water War
(c) Environmental Movement
(d) Narmada Bachao Andolan
21. Fill in the following statements :
(a) The government of …………….. sold water right to the MNC. (Nepal / Bolivia)
(b) Democracy evolves through ……………. (Popular Struggles / Interest Group)
(c) The SPA Party called for a ………… strike in Kathmandu. (three days / four days)
(d) ………….. are groups that attempt to influence government policies. (Pressure Groups / Political Parties)
22. Fill in the blanks with the help of options given in the bracket.
(a) The movement in Nepal was to establish ………….., while they struggle in Bolivia involved claims on elected democratic government. (Democracy / Kingship)
(b) On 24th April 2004 the SPA chose ………….. as the new Prime Minister of the interim government. (Girija Prasad Koirala / King Birendra)
(c) ………….. is organisation that does not attempt to influence government policies. (Pressure Groups / Interest Groups)
(d) Narmada Bachao Andolan is a good example of ……………… groups. (Movement Groups / Pressure Groups)
23. Write the full form of the following with the reference of Help Box.
(a) SPA ………….
(b) WTO ………….
(c) MNC …………….
(d) BAMCEF ………………
(e) NAPM ……………..
(i) Multi-National Corporation
(ii) National Alliance for People’s Movement
(iii) World Trade Organisation
(iv) Seven Party Alliance
(v) Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation.
24. In which year Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement?
25. What was the mysterious massacre of 2001?
(a) Killing of Prince of Nepal
(b) King Birendra was killed
(c) King Gyanendra was killed
(d) All of the above
26. What were the aims of the movement started by the SPA ?
(A) Restoration of Parliament
(B) Unlimited power to the monarch
(C) Power to an all-party government
(D) A new Constituent Assembly
Select the correct options from the above:
(a) (A), (C) and (D)
(b) (B) and (D) only
(c) (A), (B) and (C)
(d) (A) and (C) only
27. What are the objectionable activities of ‘Nepalese (Maoist) Communist Party’?
(a) Don’t believe in Parliamentary Democracy.
(b) Armed struggle against the Nepali government.
(c) Control the large parts of Nepal.
(d) All the above.
28. Who were Maoists?
(a) Communists who believe in the ideology of Mao.
(b) Democrats who believe in the democratic form of government.
(c) Members of the SPA group.
(d) Members of the royal family.
29. Consider the following statements regarding similarities between Nepal’s and Bolivia’s struggle.
(A) Both these were the instances of popular political conflict that led to popular struggles.
(B) Both these struggles had similar aims.
(C) Both instances involved the critical role of political organisations.
(D) Both these struggles involved mass mobilisation,
(a) (A) and (B) only
(b) (A), (B), and (C)
(c) (A), (B), (C), and (D)
(d) (A), (C) and (D)
30. Which king of Nepal refused to accept democratic rule?
(a) King Birendra
(b) Girija Prasad Koirala
(c) King Gyanendra
(d) None of the above
31. Which pressure group seeks to promote collective good.
(a) Sectional Interest (Pressure Group)
(b) Public Interest Group
(c) Movement Groups
(d) Loose Organisation
32. In which year Nepal was declared as a constitutional monarchy?
33. What does NAPM signify?
(a) National Agreement for People’s Movements.
(b) National Alliance for Public Movements.
(c) National Alliance for People’s Movement.
(d) National Alliance for People’s Mobilisation.