People as Resource Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science Economics Chapter 2
Extra Questions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource
People as Resource Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
When there is investment made in the form of education, training and medical care, the population becomes _______ .
Question 2. Greater knowledge with the help of improved technology can rapidly improve the production of land resources. One big example of this in India is _______ .
India’s large population can be used as a great asset, like other resources. It can be treated as a _______ .
Activities like agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming and mining are part of _______ .
Quarrying and manufacturing is included in the _______ .
What do you mean by ‘death rate’ ?
Death rate is the number of people per 1,000 who die during a particular period of time.
The activities that result in the production of goods and services and add value to the national income are called _______ .
Economic activities are basically of two types _______ .
Market activities and non-market activities
Activities which include production of goods or services, including government service and are performed for pay or profit, are called _______ .
Self-consumption is _______ .
Our national policy aims at improving the _______ .
Accessibility of healthcare and family welfare.
The workforce population of India includes people from the age group of _______ .
Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the going wages, cannot find job. In India it is of two types in rural areas _______ .
Seasonal and disguised unemployment.
In urban areas, youths with graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find job. This type of unemployment is called _______ .
When does population become human capital ?
Population becomes human capital when investment is made in the form of education, training and medical care.
What do you understand by the term ‘National Income’ ?
National income is a sum of total income of goods and services produced in a country during a financial year.
What is Infant Mortality Rate ?
Death of a child under one year of age.
How can a large population be turned into a productive asset ?
A large population can be turned into a productive asset by making investment in human capital.
What do you understand by Seasonal Unemployment ?
People find work at the time of sowing, harvesting and weeding, etc., but rest of the year, they are unemployed. This is called seasonal unemployment.
How can infant mortality be reduced ?
Infant mortality can be reduced by protection of children from infection, ensuring the nutrition of both the mother and the child, and child care.
What does increase in longevity of life indicate?
Increase in longevity of life is an indicator of good quality of life marked by self-confidence.
What are the main consequences of unemployment?
Employment leads to wastage of manpower resources and it tends to increase economic overload.
What do you mean by “Birth Rate”?
Birth rate is the number of babies born for every 1,000 people during a particular period of time.
When we refer to a person as a ‘resource’, we are referring to which of his/her skills?
When a person is referred to as a resource, it refers to that person’s productive skills and abilities.
What is the main purpose of mid-day meal scheme?
Mid-day meed scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status.
What is the reason behind the development of vocational streams?
Vocational streams have been enveloped to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
Which sector of the Indian economy absorbs the maximum labour?
Agriculture is the most labour-absorbing sector of the economy.
What do you understand by the term “Sarva Siksha Abhiyan”?
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan is a flagship programme of Government of India that aims to provide elementary education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.
What is the name of the school set in each district by the government for the talented students of a rural area?
What is the current literacy rate of India, according to Census of 2011?
According to Census of 2011, the literacy rate of India is 74 per cent.
People as Resource Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
What is the main difference between ‘Human Capital’ and ‘Human Capital Formation’?
Human Capital: Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in the form of education, training and health care.
Human Capital Formation: When the existing ‘human resource’ or ‘human capital’ is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, it is known as human capital formation.
List the demerits of increase in population.
The demerits of population increase are :
- The per capita income drops.
- Non-productive force increases.
- The people below poverty line increases.
- Resources like land, factories or other tools and machinery are divided into more persons so profit becomes divided.
- Slums come up.
- Unemployment increases.
What is the importance of education.
The importance of education is as follows :
- It helps a person to realise his potential and the ability to do work.
- It provides new aspiration. It develops values of life. It contributes towards the growth of society also.
- It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.
List down the disadvantages of unemployment.
The disadvantages of unemployment are :
- It leads to wastage of manpower resource. People who are an asset for the economy, turn into liability Inability of educated people who are willing to work to find gainful employment implies a great waste.
- Unemployment is a social evil. Unemployed people are frustrated class. There is a feeling of helplessness and despair among the youth. Unemployment creates social unrest and tension. It leads to oppression and exploitation in the society.
- It tends to increase economic overload. The dependence of the unemployed on the working population increases.
Distinguish between market activities and non-market activities.
What are the two types of economic activity? Explain.
- Market Activities: Market activities involve remuneration to anyone who performs, i.e., activity performed for pay or profit. These include production of goods or services including government service.
- Non-market Activities: Non-market activities are the production for self-consumption. These can be consumption and processing of primary product and own account production of fixed assets.
Suggest any three ways to transform population load into an asset.
The three ways to transform population load into an asset are :
- To improve literacy rate: Education provides new aspiration and develops values of life. Education helps in enhancing the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.
- Health: The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. Increase in longevity of life in an indicator of good quality of life marked by self-confidence. It involves the protection of children from infection, ensuring nutrition and along with mother and the child and child care.
- Formation of skills: Providing vocational and skill-based education helps the people to get employment and therefore, they contribute to the national income later.
What is the nature of unemployment in India?
In India, unemployment is widespread. Unemployment is found both in its rural and urban areas. There is seasonal and disguised unemployment in its rural areas. People here are dependent on agriculture. Certain months do not provide much work to the people dependant upon agriculture.
In urban areas, educated unemployment has become a serious problem. Many educated youths are not able to find jobs. Unemployment among graduates and post-graduates has increased f§ster than among the matriculates.
What measures have been taken by the government to spread education and skills among boys and girls ?
There is a provision made for providing universal access, retention and quality in elementary education with a special emphasis on girls. There is also an establishment of pace setting of schools like Navodaya Vidyalaya in each district. Vocational streams have been developed to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
What are the objectives of the 12th Five Year Plan in the field of education?
The 12th plan endeavoured to raise the country’s Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education in the age group of 18 to 23 years to 25.2% by 2017-18 and to reach the target of 30% by 2020-21, which would be broadly in line with world average. The strategy focuses on increasing access, quality, adoption of state-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology. The plan also focuses on distance education, convergence of formal, non-formal, distance and IT education institutions.
What are the measures taken by the government to improve literacy conditions in India?
The following the measures have been taken by the government to improve literacy conditions in India
- Opening of Navodaya Vidyalayas: Government has started to establish Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district. Vocational streams have been developed to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
- Sarva Siksha Abhiyan: It is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children of age group 6-14 years. It is an initiative of the Central Government in partnership with the States, the local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
- Mid-day Meal Scheme: It is a programme aimed to encourage attendance and retention of children in schools and improve their nutritional status.
Why did Japan emerge as a developed country inspite of its poor natural resource?
Japan emerged as a developed country inspite of its poor natural resource because :
- As they did not have any other resource they invested in the development of human resource.
- They import the natural resource needed in their country. They have invested on people, especially in the field of education and health.
- These people have made efficient use of other resources, like land and capital. Efficiency and the technology evolved by people have made these countries rich and developed.
How are the children of educated parents different from those of uneducated parents?
The children of educated parents are different from those of uneducated parents in the following ways :
- Children of educated parents get better opportunities and support in their education.
- Their nutritional values are taken care in a better way by the educated parents in comparison to the uneducated parents.
- The children of educated parents do not lack in hygiene as the educated parents are conscious about it.
Give an account of educational achievements made in India so far.
Over the past 50 years, there has been a significant growth in the number of universities and institutions of higher learning in specialized areas.
The plan outlay on education has increased from ₹ 151 crore in the first plan to ₹ 3766.90 crore in the eleventh plan. The expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP rose from 0.64% in 1951-52 to 3.0% in 2015-16 (B.E.) and has remained stagnant around 3% from past few years. The literacy rates have increased from 18% in 1951 to 74% in 2010-11.
People as Resource Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
How does investment in human capital yield a return just like investment in physical capital?
(i) Investment in human capital (through education, training, medical care) yields a return just like investment in physical capital. This can be seen directly in the form of higher incomes earned because of higher productivity of the more educated or the better trained persons, as well as the higher productivity of healthier people,
(ii) Not only do the more educated and the healthier people gain through higher incomes, society gains also in other indirect ways because the advantages of a more educated or a healthier population spreads to those also who themselves were not directly educated or given health care. In fact, human capital is in one way superior to other resources like land and physical capital. Human resource can make use of land and capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on its own.
What different the strategies should be made by the government to solve the unemployment in India.
The strategies made by the government to solve the problem of unemployment in India:
- Heavy Investment in Basic Industries: Investment in heavy and basic industries and consumer goods industries should be increased. They provide more employment along with the supply of consumer goods.
- Development of Cottage and Small-scale Industries: They provide more employment by adopting labour intensive techniques.
- Change in Educational System: More emphasis should be given to vocational education.
- Checking of Population Explosion: Rapidly rising population should be checked by adopting family planning and welfare schemes.
- Modernisation of Agriculture: Modernisation of agriculture should be done. Waste lands should be utilised.
- Introduction of Rural Works Programmes: Rural works programmes should be increased.
- Developing Infrastructure of Economy: Infrastructure of the economy should be developed.
- Subsidies to Private Sector: Subsidies and other incentives should be given to private sector.
- Stress on Self-employment: Young entrepreneurs should be encouraged for sell-employment by giving proper training and financial assistance.
What is an economic activity ? What cue various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector ?
Economic activities: All the activities which give us some income are called economic activities. Pulling cycle-rickshaw, cleaning houses, selling vegetables and working in schools, factories, banks, etc. are economic activities.
Activities undertaken in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors are :
- Primary Sector: Activities concerned with collecting or making available material provided by nature are included in primary sector like agriculture, poultry farming, mining, fishing, etc.
- Secondary Sector: The activities which are associated with transforming raw material or primary products into commodities useful to man such as manufacturing, etc.
- Tertiary Sector: The activities which are essential for running modern factories in a big way are termed as tertiary sector. Activities like trading, banking, health, education, insurance, etc. are included in tertiary sector and all there providing services.
What are the different types of unemployment found in India?
The different types of unemployment found in India are :
- Disguised unemployment: In disguised unemployment, people appear to be employed. They have agricultural plot where they find work. This usually happens among family members engaged in agricultural activity.
- Seasonal unemployment: Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependant upon agriculture usually face such ldnd of problem. There are certain busy seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing is done. Certain months do not provide much work to the people dependent on agriculture.
- Educated unemployment: Educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon in urban areas. Many youths with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are not able to find job. A study showed that unemployment of graduate and post-graduate has increased faster than among matriculates.
How does Sarva Siksha Abhiyan help in improving elementary education in India?
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years by 2010. It is a time-bound initiative of the Central Government, in partnership with the States, the local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
Along with it, bridge courses and back-to-school camps have been initiated to increase the enrolment in elementary education. Mid-day meal scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status. It is because of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan that there has been a significant growth in literacy \ rates in India from 18% in 1951 to 74% in 2010-11. These policies have added to the literate population of India.