NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 Social Justice
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
What does it mean to give each person his/her due? How has the meaning of “giving each his due” changed over time?
To give each person his/her due ensures the well-being of the people or equal importance should be given to all people, i.e. a doctor is concerned with the well being of his patients as well as the rules of government ensures the well being of citizens also. All these dues have been changed over times:
- The ideas of justice has been continued to be an integral part of the present day understanding and has changed from the time of Pluto.
- Today, the debates have also been taken place of what is due to each person as a human being.
- Human beings get the opportunities to develop one’s own potential as well as to pursue their chosen goals.
- Justice requires to give due and equal considerations to all individuals.
Briefly discuss the three principles of justice outlined in the chapter. Explain each with examples.
- Principle of treating equals equally refers to equal rights and equal treatment to individual who share certain characteristics as a human being, i.e. civil rights including right to life, liberty and property and political rights including right to vote, to enable rights to individuals to participate in political processes, etc.
- Principle not to treat any individual on the basis of discrimination on the grounds of caste, race, religion, colour, language, etc. the individuals should be judged on the basis of their capabilities they perform, i.e. made teachers get higher salary than female teachers, the persons performing the same tasks but getting different amount due to case is unjust.
- Equal treatment is not the only principle of justice because some circumstances may be appeared to be unjust if equal treatment is given, i.e. some marks to be awarded to all the students of a class if they have appeared in an examination in a uniform manner in place to award the marks on the basis of performance. This principle measuring people in proportion to the scale of equality of their efforts.
Does the principle of considering the special needs of people conflict with the principle of equal treatment for all?
- To promote social justice, principle of special needs of people are recognised. And peoples are required to be treated equally without any discrimination to reward proportionality.
- The principle of taking account of special needs of people does not contradict with the principle of equal treatment because the people who are not equal in certain important respect, may be treated differently to promote justice.
- People with special needs may deserve special assistance and particular respect but it is difficult to recognise the people who require special assistance.
- Some physical disabilities, age, lack of good education or health care facilities are considered of special treatment.
- In India, lack of good education, healthcare, amenities, etc. are generally combined with social discrimination on the basis of caste.
- Constitution of India, made the provisions for reservation in government jobs and quotas in educational institutions for the people who are deprived in the society.Hence, it can be concluded that it is necessary to recognize the people who need the special considerations and if it is mandate for justice, it cannot contradict with the principle of equal treatment for all.
How does Rawls use the idea of a veil of ignorance to argue that fair and just distribution can be defended on rational grounds?
- John Rawls argue that the only way we can arrive at a fair and just rule is to imagine ourselves to be in a situation in which are have to make decisions about how society should be organised despite we do not know the position to be occupied by ourselves in society. That is, we do not know what type of family we would be born either in upper caste or lower caste, rich or poor, privileged or disadvantaged.
- Rawls argue that if we don’t know who we will be and what options would be available to us in future society. We would support to those rules and organisations of future society to be fair for all members.
- Rawals under the concept of Veil of ignorance’ expects situation of complete ignorance, each person would decide in terms of their own interests only.
- But since no one knows who would be and what is going to benefit him, each will envisage the future society from the point of view of the worst off, it will be dear to a person who can reason and think for himself that those who are born privileged will enjoy certain privileges.
- If some people are born in a disadvantaged section, they will make sense to ensure reasonable opportunities to the weaker sections.
- The efforts would be made to make important resources available (education, health, shelter) to all persons.
- It is not easy to erase our identities and to imagine oneself about veil of ignorance. But then it is equally difficult to be self-sacrificing and to share good fortune with strangers.
- Hence, given these human failings and limitations it would be better to think of a framework that does not need extraordinary actions.
- “Veil of ignorance’ expect the people to think for themselves and select what they considered to be in their interest.
What are generally considered to be the basic minimum requirements of people for living a healthy and productive life? What is the responsibility of governments in trying to ensure this minimum to all?
- A just society should ensure basic minimum conditions to live healthy and secure lives and provide equal opportunities to pursue their chosen goals.
- A democratic government is responsible for a basic amount of nourishment to keep citizens healthy, education and minimum wages as well as housing, and supply of clean drinking water.
- But, to provide all these basic requirements put a heavy burden on government especially in the countries, where poor people are in a large number.
- If all of us agree that it is the responsibility of state, the conflicts may arise on choosing the methods to achieve these goals.
- The various debates have taken place on adopting the methods to ensure well-off of disadvantaged sections either by promoting open competition or should be taken the responsibility by the state or by a redistribution of resources.
- In India, different approaches are being suggested by different political groups who debate the relative merits to help marginalised sections of peoples.
Which of the following arguments could be used to justify state action to provide basic minimum conditions of life to ail citizens?
(a) Providing free services to the poor and needy can be justified as an act of charity.
(b) Providing all citizens with a basic minimum standard of living is one way of ensuring equality of opportunity.
(c) Some people are naturally lazy and we should be kind to them.
(d) Ensuring a basic facilities and a minimum standard of living to all is a recognition of our shared humanity and a human right.
(b) Providing all citizens with a basic minimum standard of living on one way of ensuring equality of opportunity.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 NCERT Extra Questions Solved
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 NCERT Very Short Answer Type Questions
Justice relates all individuals with each other and connect with the fact as to what type of moral, social, economic, political, legal relations are developed together between individuals.
Whose duty was to maintain dharma in the society?
The kings’ primary duty was to maintain dharma in the society.
Who was Glaucon?
A friend of Socrates, famous thinker of ancient Greece.
Who wrote Republic?
Plato, a famous philosopher of Greece wrote ‘Republic’.
Who was Immanuel Kant?
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who gave due and equal considerations to all individuals.
Who was Confucious?
Confucious was a Chinese philosopher to argue to maintain justice to punish wrong-doers and rewarding the virtuous ones
Why do some people state “Justice delayed is justice denied”?
Because if a decision is delayed too long, the aggrieved person may not receive any benefit from judicial proceedings, i.e. if person is dead what is the use of getting a decision in favour.
What does Socrates state about justice?
Socrates states that justice involves well-being of all people including enemies also.
What is just society in the words of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar?
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar said that a society in which ascending sense of reverance and descending sense of contempt is dissolved into the creation of compassionate society.
What are the principles of justice?
- Equal treatment for equals.
- Provision of minimum standard of living and equal opportunities to the needy.
- Recognition of different efforts and skills during rewards and responsibilities.
Who is John Rawls?
John Rawls is a political philosopher who propounded the theory of veil of ignorance, i.e. rational justification for acknowledging the need to provide help to the least privileged members of society.
How has India ensured social justice?
Social justice refers to no discrimination among citizens on any ground. India has ensured social justice:
- Political authority establishes an equal society through legislature and executive.
- No discrimination is made on any ground guaranteed by the constitution under rights against exploitation.
What are political dimensions of justice?
- People enjoy universal adult franchise.
- Government influences serve the interests of all people.
- People enjoy the opportunities co put pressure on the government.
What are economic dimensions of justice?
- Every individual should access the same respectable way to earn one’s livelihood and sufficient wages.
- Government should provide social security in the form of scholarships, reservations, economic aid to unprivileged sections, etc.
- There should be equal pay for equal work.
- Private ownership over land, resources should be abolished.
What is moral justice?
Moral justice refers to natural principles, i.e.:
- To speak truth
- To show kindness
- To keep up the promises
- To behave liberally.
What are liberalists’ and Marxists’ views of justice?
- Liberalists’ view of justice emphasizes on individual liberty, freedom and its expression and state is intervention is minimal.
- Marxist view of justice emphasizes on just distribution of wealth and property, i.e. from each according to his ability to each according to his needs.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 NCERT Short Answer Type Questions
What is social justice? Mention its main features also.
Social justice refers to all the people living in a society are equal:
- All the people should enjoy the equal opportunities to develop one’s own potential and personalities.
- In order to attain social justice, caste and colour discrimination should be abolished. Hence, the Constitution of India has banned untouchability and misbehavior legally.
- There should be no discrimination on the use of public places, i.e. free access to the use of parks, cinemas, schools, wells, tanks and shops.
What do you mean by protective discrimination?
If a government takes some steps for the betterment of weaker society, known as protective
- It implies discrimination in favour of weaker section and unprivileged section of society.
- The reservation is given to scheduled castes and tribes and OBC’s.
- These sections are not provided with the special advantages to a particular section but raise them to a level to compete with other sections of society on equal footing.
- Thus, the protective discrimination removes the imbalances from the society.
What is economic justice? Mention some features of economic justice.
Economic justice refers to providing an equal opportunity to the citizens to acquire their basic needs or livelihood:
- It refers to providing basic minimum needs to one and all the citizens in the society, i. e. no one should be exploited economically.
- Equal wages should be given to the workers in the factories, clerks in the offices whose work is similar.
- It refers that a man should work according to his capacity and earn sufficient money to meet out basic needs in society.
What is concept of justice as per Plato?
For Plato, justice implies a life of people conforming to the rules of functional specialisation means that one man should practice only one thing to which his nature is best suited:
- Plato refers justices to be related with social order. He explains justice for the individual and the state on the basis of tripartite theory of appetite, courage and wisdom.
- There are three classes in a society corresponding three elements of soul, i.e. producers, militia and the ruler means harmonious order between these classes.
- When each class minds one’s own business without meddling in other classes, justice exist in the state.
- In the individuals justice consists in keeping a balance between different elements.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 NCERT Passage-Based Questions
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 55) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Although there might be broad agreement in modern society about the equal importance of all people, it is not a simple matter to decide how to give each person his/her due. A number of different principles have been put forward in this regard. One of the principles is the principle of treating equals equally. It is considered that all individuals share certain characteristics as human beings. Therefore they deserve equal rights and equal treatment. Some of the important rights which are granted liberal democracies today include civil rights such as the rights of life, liberty and property, political rights like the right to vote, which enable people to participate in political processes, and certain social rights which would include the right to enjoy equal opportunities with other members of the society.
1. Mention any one principle to decide equal importance of all people.
2. What does this principle refer?
3. What are political rights?
1. Principle of treating equals equally.
2. To consider that all individuals share certain rights who deserve equal rights and equal treatment, i.e. right to life, liberty and property.
3. Right to vote, to contest elections to hold public offices, etc.
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 59) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Differences of opinion on matters such whether, and how, to distribute resources and ensure equal access to education and jobs arouse fierce passions in society and even sometimes provoke violence. People believe the future of themselves and their families may be at stake. We have only to remind ourselves about the anger and even violence which has sometimes been roused by proposals to reserve seats in educational institutions or in government employment in our country. As students of political theory however, we should be able to calmly examine the issues involved in terms of our understanding of the principles of justice. Can schemes to help the disadvantaged be justified in terms of a theory of justice? In the next section, we will discuss the theory of just distribution put forward by the well-known political philosopher, John Rawls. Rawls has argued that there could indeed be a rational justification for acknowledging the need to provide help to the least privileged members of a society.
1. On which issue sometimes violence may be provoked?
2. Who is John Rawls?
3. What does John Rawls reveal?
4. Give an example when violence had been occurred on just distribution of resources.
1. On the issue of distribution of resources and to ensure equal access to education and jobs.
2. A well known political philosopher.
3. He argued that there could indeed be a rational justification for acknowledging the need to provide help to the least privileged members of a society.
4. On the proposals to reserved seats in educational institutions or government employment
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 NCERT Long Answer Type Questions
What are the different kinds of concepts of justice?
Justice refers to faithful realization of existing laws against any arbitrary dealing and the ideal element in law to which a good law should aspire for. Justice can be classified as:
1. Social justice:
- No discrimination should be made among the citizens of country on the ground of religion, colour, caste, race, language, etc.
- Equal opportunities should be provided to one and all for one’s own development,
- An equality based society should be established.
2. Political justice:
- To exercise political power to serve the interests of all
- Every citizen should enjoy their right to vote without any discrimination.
- Every person should have the right to contest elections at par.
- Every citizen should have an opportunity to put pressure on government.
3. Economic justice:
- It refers to provide equal opportunities to one and all to earn money and to spend to meet the needs of life.
- National income and resources should be evenly distributed among all the people.
- Economic welfare of weaker section should be looked after.
4. Moral justice:
- Natural principles exist in the universe.
- To determine mutual relations among individuals.
- Speaking the truth, showing kindness, keeping the promises, behaving liberally, etc.
5. Legal justice:
- To frame genuine legislation to be enforced by law.
- Equal provisions of punishments should also be made without any partiality.
- State established justice by means of law.
Mention the steps taken by Constitution of India to ensure social justice.
This is the duty of state to establish a society based on equality through executives and legislatives:
- Article 39 A (42nd Amendment) provides that state shall try to secure equal justice and free legal aid to its citizens.
- Article 42 states that the state shall make provisions to secure just and human conditions.
- Article 46 provides that the state shall promote the educational and economic interests of weaker sections of society especially for SC’s, ST’s and to protect them from social injustice.
- Article 46 says that the state shall within the limits of its economic capacity make provisions for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in areas of unemployment, old age and sickness, etc.
What measurements have been taken by India to secure social justice?
- The preamble to the constitution of India declares its objectives to ensure social, economic and political justice.
- Since independence, various programmes have been set up to eradicate poverty in India.
- The Antyodaya Schemes have been launched for the upliftment of the poorest.
- The government has launched five year plans and many other programmes also for downtrodden people.
- To improve special status of SCs and STs, government has made provisions for their reservations in educational institutes and government jobs.
- The government of India assures right also to poor and and downtrodden people in education, age, sickness or any other disablement.