NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 5 Nomadic Empires
Class 11 History Chapter 5 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
Why was trade so significant to the Mongols?
The region which was occupied by Mongols lacked natural resources. The steppe region of Central Asia had extreme climate. Cultivation of food was not possible there, only trade could help their survival. The Mongols were forced to trade as the scanty resources of the steppes did not help cultivation. So the Mongols traded with neighboring countries and it was beneficial for both the countries.
Why did Genghis Khan feel the need to fragment the Mongol tribes into new social and military groupings?
The following reasons forced Genghis Khan to fragment the Mongol tribes into new social and military groupings:
- Mongols were the inhabitants of the steppe region. They had their own separate identities. So in order to bring them in touch with other tribes, Genghis Khan took this step.
- Mongols were courageous people. Because of this nature, Genghis Khan organized them into military groups and established a formidable army. A sound military organization could be very helpful in trade also .
- Childhood experiences of Genghis Khan were also responsible for the fragmentation of Mongol tribes. Genghis Khan himself had to suffer a lot during his childhood.
How do later Mongol reflections on the Yasa bring out the uneasy relationship they had with the memory of Genghis Khan?
Yasa were the rules and regulations. These were approved by Quritali during Genghis Khan’s reign. These rules were mainly concerned with Mongol army, hunting, postage system, social ladder, etc. They were compilation of traditions and customs that prevailed in Mongol tribal society itself.
“If history relies upon written records produced by city-based literati, nomadic societies will always receive a hostile representation.” Would you agree with this statement ? Does it explain the reason why Persian chronicles produced such inflated figures of casualties resulting from Mongol campaigns? (HOTS)
Yes, I agree with the statement. I give the following reasons for my view.
- There were vast differences between The Secret Society of Mongols and Marco Polo’s Travelogues in terms of events and their descriptions.
- Being the transcontinental span of the Mongol empire, the sources were written in different languages.
- Persian chronicles produced inflated figures of casualties resulting from Mongol campaigns to prove their cruelty or to prove them as cruel assassins
Class 11 History Chapter 3 Answer In A Short Essay
Keeping the nomadic element of the Mongol and Bedouin societies in mind, how, in your opinion, did their respective historical experiences differ? What explanations would you suggest account for these differences?
Mongols were tribes in the steppes of central Asia, a diverse body of people linked by similarity in language to Tatars, Khitan and Manchus in east and Turkic tribes to the west. Bedouins were Arab tribes moving from dry to green desert in search of food and fodder for cattle. Some Mongols were pastoralists while others were hunter-gatherers. On the other hand, Bedouins were pastoralists, agriculturists and traders because of central Islamic lands surrounded by seas from four sides. The steppes inhabitants usually produced no literature , so our knowledge of nomadic societies under Mongols are quite different and the Italian and Latin versions of Marco- Polo’s Travels to the Mongol Court do not match.
How does the following account enlarge upon the character of the Pax Mongolica created by the Mongols by the middle of the thirteenth century?
The Franciscan monk, William of Rubruck, was sent by Louis IX of France on an embassy to the great Khan Mongke’s court. He reached Karakorum, the capital of Mongke, in 1254 and came upon a woman from Lorraine (in France) called Paquette, who had been brought from Hungary and was in the service of one of the prince’s wives who was a Nestorian Christian. At the court he came across a Parisian goldsmith named Guillaume Boucher, ‘whose brother dwelt on the Grand Pont in Paris’. This man was first employed by the Queen Sorghaqtani and then by Mongke’s younger brother. Rubruck found that at the great court festivals the Nestorian priests were admitted first, with their regalia, to bless the Grand Khan’s cup, and were followed by the Muslim clergy and Buddhist and Taoist monks.
The above account depicts the character of the Pax Mongolica by the middle of the 13th century:
- It became clear from the above incident that the French Monarch Louis IX had sent his ambassador William of Rubruck to Karakorum, the capital of Mongke in 1254. This depicts that Mongol rulers had established a well-knit relation with their neighbours.
- Guillaume Boucher proved that Mongol rulers lived with great pomp and show and they had brought servants to serve them from different parts of the world. They were paid good salaries. That is why they reached to serve Mongol court from far away.
- Mongol rulers were not fanatics and anxious to get the blessings of all the people. They recruited administrators and armed forces from people of all ethnic groups and religions. There was a multilingual, multi-religious regime that did not feel threatened by its pluralistic constitution. The above descriptions display the best aspect of Pax-Mongolica. It is said that in a vast empire, the Mongols had established such a rule that one could walk freely without the fear of robbery.
Class 11 History Chapter 3 More Questions Solved
Class 11 History Chapter 3 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Who were Mongols?
Mongols were a nomadic tribe of Central Asia. They lived in present day Mongolia. Basically the Mongols were cattle herders and hunter-gatherers.
Who was the founder of Nomadic empire? When was he bom? What was his childhood name?
Genghis Khan was the founder of Nomadic empire. He was born in 1162 CE. His childhood name was Temujin.
Why was Genghis Khan renamed as Temujin and when?
Genghis Khan was renamed as Temujin by his father Yesugei. When he was bom , his father defeated the chief of Tatar tribe Temujin.
Define the term ‘Barbarian’.
The term ‘Barbarian’ is derived from a Greek word, ‘Barbaras’ which meant non-Greek. In Greek, they were
depicted like children who were unable to speak or reason properly.
What was the name of parents of Genghis Khan?
Genghis Khan’s father’s name was Yesugei, while his mother’s name was Oelun-eke.
Who restored the old alliances with the ruler of Kereyrts rules?
Genghis Khan (Temujin) restored the old alliance with the Kereyrt ruler Tughril Khan.
Who was Genghis Khan’s wife?
The name of Genghis Khan’s wife was Berte.
How did Oelun-eke infuse confidence in Temujin?
She infused confidence in Temujin by narrating the stories of glorious past of the Kiyat tribe.
When and by whom the most valuable research work on the Mongols was done?
The two Russian scholars Boris Vladimirtsov Yakovlevich and Vasily Vladimisrovich Bartold did most valuable research work on the Mongols during the 18th and 19th century.
In which languages are the most reliable sources of Mongols available?
The most reliable sources of Mongols are available in the following languages:
What do you know about Batu?
Batu was the grandson of Genghis Khan. He was a great and courageous warrior. He devastated Russian lands upto Moscow, seized Poland and Hungary and camped outside Vienna.
Who was Juwaini?
Juwaini was the Persian chronicler of the Mongol rulers of Iran. He wrote an account about the capture of Bukhara in 1220 CE.
Name the most trustworthy account of the Mongols.
“The Secret History of the Mongols” is the most trustworthy account of the Mongols. It is written by Igor-de-Rachewiltz.
What was the extent of the Genghis Khan’s empire?
Genghis Khan established a vast empire, which was extended from Persia to Peking and from Siberia to Sindh. To such a vast empire the traveler required nearly two years to travel throughout Mongol empire.
What does the term ‘Quriltai’ denote?
‘Quriltai’is an assembly of Mongol chieftains.
Which two important decisions were taken by Quriltai?
The two important decisions taken by Quriltai are given below:
- The Quriltai took the decisions pertaining to succession.
- It also took the decision regarding the further expansion of the empire.
Name any two sources of the Mongols.
Two important sources of the Mongols are:
- The Secret History of the Mongols.
- Travelogues accounts of Marco Polo.
“The affluent Mongol families used to have several followers.” Why?
The affluent Mongol families used to have several followers because they possessed large number of animals and pasture lands and were more influential in local politics.
Which types of clothes were worn by nomadic people?
The nomadic people used to wear cotton, silk and woolen clothes. Silk and cotton were imported from China. In order to protect themselves from cold, they used to wear expensive clothes. The clothing and head-gears were meant for women.
How did the Mongol dispose of their dead bodies?
They used to perform the last rites of their dead bodies after the sun set and buried at a place previously selected by the person concerned.
Did the Mongol undertake agricultural activities? Write in ‘Yes’ or ‘No’, and give argument to support your answer.
The Mongol did not undertake agricultural activities because:
- Geographical conditions prevailing were unsuitable for growing crops or for agriculture.
- Agriculture was limited for a fix period.
“Trade was very significant for the Mongol”. Why?
The Mongol badly lacked resources for their livelihood. So trade was very significant for their survival.
How was trade carried out?
Trade was based on barter system, which was beneficial for both the parties.
Why was China Wall constructed?
The Great Wall of China was constructed by the Chinese ruler to safeguard their people from the danger of nomadic tribes of Mongolia. ,
What do you understand by Qubkur?
Qubkur was a tax paid to the Mongol government in lieu of cattle and other animal herds by the nomadic Mongol.
Name any two famous personalities who contributed a lot in the early life of Genghis Khan.
Two personalities who contributed a lot in the early life of Genghis Khan were: Boghuchu and Jomuqa.
Which two arch rival tribes were defeated by Genghis Khan at the beginning of his political career?
The two arch-rival tribes defeated by Genghis Khan were:
- The Khitans
- The Tatars
Who renamed Temujin as Genghis Khan and when?
Temujin was renamed as Genghis Khan by Quriltai in 1206.
How was China divided during the time of Genghis Khan?
During Genghis Khan’s time, China was divided into three realms, each was ruled by different dynasties. These dynasties were Hsi, Chin and Sung.
Which dynasty ruled over Peking? When was it conquered by Genghis Khan?
Peking was ruled by Chin dynasty. It was conquered by Genghis Khan in 1215.
Describe the brief and extent of Genghis Khan’s empire.
Genghis Khan established a vast nomadic empire. His empire was extended from Persia to Peking and from Siberia to Sindh. He made Karakoram, the capital of his empire.
What do you mean by Yesa? When was it given a final shape?
With the aim to re-organize the Mongol society and give it an altogether new shape, Genghis Khan laid down the legal code that is known as Yesa. Yesa was given final shape in 1226 C.E.
Write in brief the composition of Mongol army.
Mongol army comprised of the people of various tribes. In it, Genghis Khan also included the people of several area as brought under him: Kereyits and Ueghuru were also the part of Mongol army.
What are the two features of Mongol army?
Write any two basic features of Mongol army.
- Army was organized on the basis of decimal system.
- Soldiers were to obey strict rules and regulations.
What was the position of the emperor in Nomadic empire? Write any two features.
- Khan was the supreme authority and enjoyed unlimited powers.
- He was also vested with all the authority to formulate both internal and external policies.
What was Yam?
Yam was a military post created by Genghis Khan. The horse riders carried messages from one place to another.
Define the concept of Ulus.
‘Ulus’ means a specifically defined area. It was given to the emperor’s son to rule over his conquered area.
Name the sons of Genghis Khan.
Genghis Khan had four sons. They were:
What do you know about Yeh-lu-ch’u-tsai?
Yeh-lu-ch’u-tsai was a Chinese minister, who was taken under the captivity of Mongol in 1215. He contributed immensely in giving a new shape to Mongol empire.
(i) When did Genghis Khan pass away?
(ii) Name his two successors.
(i) Genghis Khan passed away in 1227.
(ii) His two successors were:
- Ogedei, who ruled from 1229-41.
- Guyrik ; who ruled from 1246-1248 C.E.
When and by whom was the Yuan Dynasty founded?
The Yuan Dynasty was founded by Qubilai Khan in 1260.
Write any two features of the religious life of the Mongol.
- Tengri was their chief deity and considered Him to be omnipotent.
- They followed the policy of tolerance towards other religions.
Who was Guyuk?
Guyuk was the son of Ogodei. He became the new Khan in 1246 and ruled till 1248. His tenure is known for
the diplomatic relations established with Pope.
What do you know about paiza?
Paiza means passes. These passes were issued by the Mongol government for safe conduct with the travellers. These were of three types, i.e. gold, silver and iron. The travellers had to tie these passes on their forehead.
Who was the founder of II-Khan id dynasty?
The founder of II-Khan id dynasty was Helegu in 1256 C.E.
When was Nishapur occupied by Genghis Khan? Why did he carry out terrible destruction here?
Nishapur was occupied by Genghis Khan in 1219. He carried out a terrible destruction because a Mongol Prince was killed during this expedition.
Write any two causes for the defeat of the Mongol at the hands of Egyptian soldiers.
Reasons behind the defeat of the Mongol at the hands of Egyptian soldiers were:
- The Mongol took more interest in China.
- The Mongol sent a comparatively smaller army to face Egyptian forces.
Name a famous traveler from Venice (Italy) who visited China. Where did he stay?
Macro-Polo, the Venice traveler visited China during the period 1275 to 1292. He stayed at the court of Qubilai Khan.
Class 11 History Chapter 3 Short Answer Type Questions
What do you know about the Mongol? Discuss their occupations in brief.
The nomadic people inhabiting in the regions of present days of Mongolia in Central Asia were known as the Mongol. They were predominantly pastoralists and hunter gatherers. They dwelt in tents and were divided into several patriarchal dynasties. They were constantly at war with other tribes like tatars, Naimans and Khitans. The main occupation of the nomadic tribe during the 12th century was pastoralism. They reared animals such as horse and sheep. In addition to these animals, they also reared goats and camels. They reared them for getting milk, meat, and wool. The geographical conditions prevailing here were not in favour of adapting agriculture. Nomadic Empires 109 Consequently, their economy was not geared to feed the regions having higher population concentration.
Write a note on the Mongol society.
Describe the main characteristics of the Mongol society in 12th century.
- The Mongol society was patriarchal in nature.
- The eldest male member was the head of the family who used to take care of the needs of their family members.
- The rich families were larger in size. The birth of son was highly solicited in the society.
- Polygamy was in practice in the society.
- Regarding marriage, strict rules were followed. There was ban on marriage within family circle or within a tribe.
- There were constant wars among different sections of the society.
- Some tribes with an aim to keep harmonious relations arranged marriages between their respective tribes.
- Women were not secluded to hearth and home alone; rather than as per the needs of the hour, they used to equally assist their male counterparts in the battlefield.
- In case of death of their husbands, they too looked after children and the property of their respective families.
How did the Mongol carry out their trade?
The scarcity of resources forced the nomadic tribes (the Mongols) to depend on the other neighboring countries for the essential goods for trade. Their trade was based on barter system, which was beneficial for both parties engaged in trade. They imported agricultural products and made implements from China and in line of these they used to export horses, fur and animals used for hunting. The nomadic people used to suffer less as compared to their opponents. The possible reason behind that was the nomadic people quickly disappeared from the place of their strife after carrying out loot and plunder. It meant several losses for trading partner, i.e. China. In order to safeguard their people from Mongol strife’s, the ruler of China constructed the ‘Great Wall of China’.
Write a brief description of Genghis Khan.
Discuss the early career and achievements of Genghis Khan.
Genghis Khan was the greatest Mongol who laid the foundation of Nomadic empire. His contribution was immense in unifying Mongols. It was due to his efforts that a vast Mongol empire was established. He was born in the year 1162. He was born near the river Onon. His father’s name was Yesugei, who was the chief of the tribe, Kiyat. His mother Oleun-eke belonged to Onggerat tribe. His original name was Temujin. He grew up as a brave man. He organized a powerful army which helped him to lay down the foundation of a vast empire. His main achievements were the conquest of Northern China, conquest of Qara Katie, etc. During the period from 1219 to 1222 CE the Mongol forces occupied Bukhara, Samarqand, Balk, Marv, Nishapur and Herat. Genghis not only built vast empire but also contributed a lot in improving the civil administration of the empire.
How did Temujin become Genghis Khan? Discuss.
No doubt, Temujin was a bom commander. His initial success made him more influential. Jamuque was unable to see the growing friendly relations between Temujin and Tughril Khan. Thus, he started be-friending all the tribes hostile to Temujin. Temujin was unable to tolerate it and gave a crushing defeat to Jamuqua with the help of Tughril Khan. Encouraged by the defeat over the powerful Jamuqua, he concentrated towards Taters, Naimaans and Kereyits. Later on Tughril Khan also became hostile to Temujin and was defeated. Thus, he became the most influential person in the politics of steppe region. Keeping his achievement in mind, Quriltai awarded him with the title of Genghis Khan which means universal sovereign.
Describe in your own words the conquest of northern China by Genghis Khan.
During the tenure of Genghis Khan, China was divided into three realms. These realms were North-West region, North China and South China. Each realm was governed by different ruling dynasties. His campaign against China was the result of a long drawn-out process. Northern China was invaded by Genghis Khan in 1211. It was then under the influence of Chin dynasty. The Chin ruler gave him a stiff competition. He also posed many difficulties for Genghis Khan. Tc win over him, Genghis Khan took recourse to diplomacy and instigated the people of the South Manchuria against Chin ruler. This resulted in weakening of the position of Chin ruler. Thus, he succeeded in occupying Peking in 1215. After this, Genghis Khan unleashed a reign of loot and terror in Peking. This victory of Genghis Khan encouraged his soldiers to a great extent. After this successful invasion he returned to Mongolia in 1216.
“Genghis Khan laid special emphasis on discipline in the army”. Keeping this statement in your mind, describe the rules formulated by him in the sphere of military administration.
Genghis Khan made several rules in military administration with an aim to ensure discipline in the army. Some of these rules are:
- All the soldiers in the army had to obey the order of their chief commander.
- Soldiers could not take part or indulge into loot and plunder without the prior permission of their commander.
- The soldiers who were on leave immediately had to report back in case of hostilities.
- No soldier was allowed to move out of his own unit or to enter another unit.
- All the soldiers had to inspect their weapons properly before the departure for the battlefield.
Discuss the methods of the warfare of Mongol army.
- Prior to any expedition, the Mongol Khan convened the meeting of the Quriltai.
- An elaborate discussion pertaining to the arms and planning for war were taken here. All the military leaders/commanders took part in it and used to receive special direction.
- The Mongol spies spread rumours in the enemy’s country, with the aim to demoralize its soldiers.
- The enemy was given the option to surrender or to face annihilation.
- After these initial preparations, when the actual war was to begin, the Mongol soldiers used to encircle the area that was to be attacked from all the sides.
- The Mongol soldiers faced the enemy’s army face to face, the tactic adopted by them was to show that they were deserting the war field. The enemy soldiers thought that the Mongol army had deserted the field. But no sooner had they reached at a particular place, the Mongol soldiers used to attack soldiers and gave them a crushing defeat.
Narrate the position of Khan in Mongol administration.
- The Khan (Empire) occupied the highest rank in the administration.
- He was vested with the unlimited powers and had the authority to formulate both internal and external policies of the state.
- He was the chief commander of the army. All the armed forces of the state used to act as per his sole discretion.
- He was the sole authority to appoint all higher and civil authorities.
- He was authorized to levy any kind of new taxes.
What do you know about Ulus system? Explain.
Ulus system was established by Genghis Khan. According to this system, Khan used to transfer the administration of newly conquered lands to his four sons, namely Jochi, Chaghatai, Ogedei and Toluy. His eldest son Jochi was given the region of Russian steppes. Chaghatai was given the charge of Transoxiana steppe and the region of north of Pamir Hills. It was an indication from the Khan that his third son Ogedei would succeed him as the Khan. Toluy, the fourth son was given the region of Mongolia. Ulus was not fixed. The size of Ulus used to change. Under this system, the position of the son of Khan was that of a deputy ruler. They were made the independent in-charge of the military troops, known as Tama. They (Persons holding Ulus) can appoint the person under their region and can also levy new taxes.
Write a short note on Yam.
Yam was a military post, established by Genghis Khan. During the Mongol Empire, such posts were created at a distance of 25 miles. At these posts cavaliers and messengers were appointed and horses were placed at their disposal. These cavaliers used to carry official records from one place to another. Each cavalier was required to tie a bell with the neck of his horse. Whenever, a message used to reach near a post, the messenger present at post, on listening the ring of the bell so tied with the neck of horse, used to get ready along with horse to leave for the next destination. At Yam, proper arrangements were also made for the travellers. With the aim to make their stay secure and comfortable the travellers were issued official passes, known as Paiza. These passes were of three types—gold, silver and iron. The travellers had to tie these passes (Paiza) on their forehead. The travellers were provided facilities at every Yam, according to these passes. The institution proved very successful for the Mongol administration.
Describe the religious beliefs of Mongols.
Religious beliefs of Mongols:
- Mongols had deep faith in religion.
- They worshiped the main deity, Tengzi, i.e. the Sun God and believed him to be omnipotent.
- In order to please their deity they used to perform animal sacrifices.
- They (Mongolian, people of Mongol) used to show special respect for holy religious man called ‘Shamans’.
- Genghis Khan believed that destiny has ordained royalty for mongers. Therefore, it is a religious obligation for the Mongol to bring more and more regions under their direct suzerainty.
- Mongols were secular in nature and followed the policy of religious tolerance. They allowed the people to respect their religion with full liberty.
- The recruitment’s under the Mongols were made only on merit basis and religion had no role to play in it.
Critically evaluate the Mongol administration.
The Mongols belonged to a nomadic society. The main aim in their life was to collect booty for their survival. Mongols were much inclined towards establishing a good administration for the people being ruled by them. Their system of administration as implemented by them was at best, a makeshift effort on their part. But they did not pay heed towards the military administration. They failed to achieve anything remarkable in regard to the civil administration, which was a prerequisite for the consolidation of their empire.
What do you know about Ogodei? Write his achievements in brief.
Ogodei was declared as the new Mongol Khan by Quriltai in 1229. He ruled from 1229 to 1241. After becoming the new Mongol Khan, he paid his attention towards Mughal empire. At the time of accession to power the position of Mongols in the Northern China was not much stable. In order to establish his control over Northern China, he entered into an alliance with the Sung ruler of Southern China.
- In 1234, he occupied regions of Northern China.
- In 1231, he had also inflicted a crushing defeat to the ruler of Iran Jalal-ud-din, who had escaped to India, during the time of Genghis Khan.
- Ogedei not only helped the Mongol empire to expand, rather than he also played an important role in consolidating it with an objective of strengthening the economic condition. He also regularised taxes and encouraged trade.
- He established a chain of courts in empire to give justice to all his citizens.
- To encourage education he also opened schools.
- He also did a number of civil reforms and further expanded the Yam system.
Write a short note on Jochid dynasty.
Jochid dynasty was also one of the prominent dynasties of the Mongols. Jochid, the eldest son of Genghis Khan was the founder of this dynasty. Genghis Khan had transferred the region of Russian steppe to Jochid in 1224. The region of Russian steppe granted to him is also known as Southern Russia or Golden Horde. Jochid died in 1227 and was succeeded by Batu. Batu proved to be an able ruler and conquered entire Russia, Hungary, Poland and Austria during his compaigns from 1236 to 1242. He took several steps to expand Golden Horde to a large extent. He also took numerous steps to strengthen his economy and also modernised his force. After his death in 1256, his successors continued to rule up to 1359 CCE.
Class 11 History Chapter 3 Long Answer Type Questions
Which favourable conditions encouraged Genghis Khan to launch an expedition against the Muhammad Shah of Khwarazm?
Following favourable conditions encouraged, Genghis Khan to launch an expedition against the Shah of Khwarazm:
- Shah had established a vast empire, but nothing had been done to consolidate it.
- Shah also refused to recognise the Khalifa of Baghdad. This mistake resulted in the hostility of Muslim community against him.
- By annexation of a number of regions to his vast empire, Shah antagonised a large number of people.
- The mutual relations between Turkish and Iranian officers were not cordial. They never missed a chance to let down each other.
- He had also imposed many taxes on the farmers and general public but did care a little about their grievances. So the people wanted to get rid of such tyrannical regime.
- There was also a fear of loot and plunders. So there was restlessness among the traders as well as the common people.
- There was lack of discipline in his army.
- The continued intrigues of his mother further eroded his position. She wanted him to overthrow.
Discuss the causes of the success of Genghis Khan.
Prior to his death, Genghis Khan had established a vast empire within a short span of 20 years.
Some of the main causes of his success are listed below:
- He was a born commander and distinctively fortunate to get success, wherever he went. He became a real terror of his opponents.
- He also established a large disciplined army. It was not easy to face such a huge army.
- His spies used to collect every bit of information about the opponent’s army and gave it to him.
- He knew the importance of psychological warfare and used to unleash the region of terror. In this effort, people could not face his army.
- He used to make people dread his forces, so that the people could surrender without waging a war against him.
- The Mongol soldiers were experts in horse riding and archery.
- Genghis Khan usually launched his expedition during the winter season. Because during this season rivers used to freeze and make it easier to cross them.
- The use of Naphtha Bombardment destroyed enemy forts and had dreadly results in the course of the war.
Why did Genghis Khan become unpopular? Explain.
Describe the causes of the unpopularity of Genghis Khan.
No doubt, Genghis Khan had established a vast empire. The newly vanquished people had no inclination towards their new ruler. Several causes were responsible for this.
The main causes were:
- The Mongols during the course of their expedition destroyed several beautiful cities and towns. Most of these cities lost their glory after his attack.
- Their invasion also badly affected the agriculture, because when the huge forces passed away they destroyed standing crops.
- During war year or the time of invasion trade and commerce was badly affected.
- A large number of people lost their lives due to their invasion. Many became handicapped and helpless.
- A number of people were slaves.
- As a result of their invasion, the timely repair to the underground rivers in the arid region was not carried out.
- All his invasions resulted in rapid desertification of newly conquered areas.
- People from all walks of life had to face hardships.
Discuss the rules and regulations of the Yasa as evolved by Genghis Khan.
Rules and regulations of the Yasa:
- People should believe in one God, because He gives us life and death, riches and poverty.
- All religions are equal. They must be respected. The priests should be exempted from all kinds of taxes, transcending all religious barriers.
- Any person, who proclaimed himself to be a Khan without the recognition of Quriltai, should be awarded death penalty.
- Do not indulge into adultery. People doing so will be given death penalty.
- Do not tell a lie.
- Always respect the aged and the poor and not deceive anyone.
- It was mandatory for all able-bodied persons to serve in the army.
- On the opening of hostilities, the soldiers on leave, were asked to resume their duties immediately.
- Passion involved in spying, giving the false information/evidence/witness should be punished with death penalty.
- No one in his empire can employ a Mongol as his slave or servant.
- If a soldier indulges into loot and plunder without the prior permission of the commander, he should be awarded death penalty.
- All the Mongol princesses should preserve this Yasa, and at the time of need, they should take help from it.
- The armed forces are to be organized into units numbering 10,100, 1000 and 10000. This makes it easier for the army commander to control over military. Yasa played a remarkable role in unifying the Mongols and kept their tribal identity intact. Without any hesitation, we can say that Yasa played a remarkable role in making of global Mongol empire.
Discuss the role of civil administration in Mongol administration’
Genghis Khan belonged to nomadic society. On the basis of capacity he established a vast empire. His empire included the people from various walks of society and they were civilized people. To rule such a diverse society was not an easy task. Hence, he appointed the people belonging to civilized society to look after the civil administration. The officers were concerned with civil administration and were appointed on the basis of merit. No credit was given to tribals or religious affinities while appointing them in civil administration. The civil administration played an outstanding role in strengthening and consolidating the foundation of Mongol empire. They even influenced the Mongol rulers to transform their policies pertaining to administration. He also made Genghis Khan aware about the ‘Importance of Yan system’ as followed in China.
Class 11 History Chapter 3 Passage Based Questions
Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
The Capture of Bukhara:
Juwaini, a late-thirteenth-century Persian chronicler of the Mongol rulers of Iran, carried an account of the capture of Bukhara in 1220. After the conquest of the city, Juwaini reported, Genghis Khan went to the festival ground where the rich residents of the city were and addressed them: ‘O people know that you have committed great sins, and that the great ones among you have committed these sins. If you ask me what proof I have for these words, I say it is because I am the punishment of God. If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent a punishment like me upon you’… Now one man had escaped from Bukhara after its capture and had come to Khurasan. He was questioned about the fate of the city and replied: They came, they [mined the walls], they burnt, they slew, they plundered and they departed.’
(i) By whom is the above passage written? What does he describe in it?
(ii) What do you know about Genghis Khan?
(iii) What did Genghis Khan say to the conquered people?
(iv) Write any two contributions of Genghis Khan.
(i) The above passage is written by a Persian chronicler Juwaini. In it, he described Genghis Khan’s conquest of Bukhara.
(ii) Genghis Khan was born in 1162 CE. He was the founder of nomadic empire. He was a good commander and later on established a vast Mongol empire. His original name was Temujin. He was bestowed with the title of Genghis Khan in 1206.
(iii) Genghis Khan said to the conquered people that:
- It was a punishment from God.
- The great ones of the society has committed a great sin and, he was to redeem to those sins.
- He established firm control over his army and maintained discipline.
- He made Mongols, the fighting forces with destructive powers.
Ghazan Khan’s Speech:
Ghazan Khan (1295-1304) was the first Il-Khanid ruler to convert to Islam. He gave the following speech to the Mongol-Turkish nomad commanders, a speech that was probably drafted by his Persian wazir Rashiduddin and included in the minister’s letters :
‘I am not on the side of the Persian peasantry. If there is a purpose in pillaging them all, there is no one with more power to do this than I. Let us rob them together. But if you wish to be certain of collecting grain and food for your tables in the future, I must be harsh with you. You must be taught reason. If you insult the peasantry, take their oxen and seed and trample their crops into the ground, what will you do in the future ? … The obedient peasantry must be distinguished from the peasantry who are rebels.
(i) Who drafted this speech?
(ii) What do you know about Ghazan Khan?
(iii) What was the tenure of Ghazan Khan?
(iv) What did Ghazan Khan’s speech depict?
(t) This speech was drafted by Ghazan Khan’s wazir Rashiduddin.
(ii) Ghazan Khan was the first II-Khanid ruler to convert to Islam. Genghis Khan, the great Mongol empire was his grandfather.
(iii) Ghazan Khan ruled from 1295-1304. His tenure was expanded over just nine years.
(iv) Ghazan Khan’s speech depicted two things:
- He was against those peasantry class who was in favour of rebellion.
- He was in favour of those peasantry class, who was against the rebellion and was hard working.
In 1221, after the conquest of Bukhara, Genghis Khan had assembled the rich Muslim residents at the festival ground and had admonished them. He called them sinners and warned them to compensate for their sins by parting with their hidden wealth. The episode was dramatic enough to be painted and for a long time afterwards people still remembered the incident. In the late sixteenth century, ‘Abdullah Khan, a distant descendant of Jochi, Genghis Khan’s eldest son, went to the same festival ground in Bukhara. Unlike Genghis Khan, however, ‘Abdullah Khan went to perform his holiday prayers there. His chronicler, Hafiz-i Tanish, reported this performance of Muslim piety by his master and included the surprising comment: ‘this was according to the yasa of Genghis Khan’.
(i) What is the meaning of Yasa?
(ii) After which conquest, Genghis Khan had assembled the rich Muslim residents at the festival ground?
(iii) What is the importance of Yasa?
(i) The meaning of Yasa is a legal code
(ii) After the conquest of Bukhara in 1221, Genghis Khan had assembled the rich Muslim residents at the festival ground.
(iii) Yasa is important because:
- It acknowledged Mongol’s affinity to Genghis Khan and his descendants.
- All religions should be respected and exempted from all sorts of taxation.
Class 11 History Chapter 3 Map Skills
On the given map of South-East Asia mark and locate the following places related to Mongol empire:
With the help of arrow and place mark and locate the campaigns of the Mongols.