CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 7 Test and Measurement in Sports is part of Physical Education Class 12 Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 7 Test and Measurement in Sports.
Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 7 Test and Measurement in Sports
Computation of Fat Percentage
The fat percentage or the amount of fat a person carries and whether he/she is normal, underweight or overweight can be calculated through computation of fat percentage. This can be done by BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat calculated on the basis of height and weight. To calculate BMI, take the weight in kilograms and divide it by square of height taken in metres.
With the help of BMI, it is determind whether a person in normal, underweight overweight.
BMI Weight Status
Below 18.5 Underweight
30.0 and above Obese
Slaughter-Lohman Children Skinfold
This is a standard skinfold test for measuring body fat in children under the age group of 6-17 years. The digital skinfold caliper is used to measure the triceps and calf region and then the measurement is inserted into a formula.
Slaughter-Lohman Children Skinfold Formula
For Triceps, measure vertically on back of arm midway between top of shoulder point and elbow.
For Calf, measure the inside of the right lower leg at the place where there is greatest calf girth.
Formula for males (6 to 17 years):
% body fat = (0.735 x sum of skinfold + 1.0)
Formula for females (6 to 17 years):
% body fat = (0.610 x sum of skinfold + 5.1)
Sum of skinfolds = Triceps + Calf
Measurement of Muscular Strength
Muscular strength refers to the amount of force the muscle or group of muscles can exert against resistance for short duration like in anaerobic activities. Muscular strength can be measured by Kraus Weber Test.
Kraus Weber Test
Kraus Weber Test originated in a posture clinic and was developed as a diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. Soon, it became familiar as Kraus Weber test of minimum muscular fitness. The test consists of six items which indicate the level of muscular strength and flexibility of key muscle groups.
Note The tests are done without the subject wearing shoes. The six test items of the Kraus Weber muscular strength test are given below
- Abdominals Plus Psoas (hip flexing) Muscles
- Abdominals Minus Psoas
- Psoas or P
- Upper Back or UB
- Lower Back or LB
- Back and Hamstring or BH
Motor Fitness Test-AAHPER
The AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation) youth fitness test was formed in 1965 in the United States, but this was revised in 1976. Now dance (AAHPERD) is also added. This test was administered on school students of 17 years age. The students are advised to warm up before they participate in the test. All the students must be medically fit.
This test has the following six items
1. (a)Pull-Ups (For Boys)
- Purpose To measure arm and shoulder strength.
- Procedure The bar is adjusted according to the height of the boy. The bar is held with palms facing away. He is then asked to raise his body so that the chin reaches the level of the bar. One score is awarded for each pull-up. One trial is given before the start of the test.
(b) Flexed Arm Flang (For Girls)
- Purpose To measure arm and shoulder strength.
- Procedure The bar is adjusted according to the standing height of the girl. The bar is held with over hand grasp. The girl lifts her body up with the assistance of testing personnel so that her chin reaches the bar level. The time in seconds she holds the bar is taken as her score.
2. Flexed Leg Sit-ups
- Purpose To measure abdominal strength and endurance.
- Procedure The youth is asked to lie on the floor on his/ her back keeping knees bent. The angle of knees should be around 90°. The feet are held by a partner,’ the youth’ puts hands behind the head with fingers interlocked. Then the youth curls up and touches the elbows to knees. The score is counted as maximum number of sit-ups in 60 sec.
3. Shuttle Run
- Purpose‘To.measure speed and agility.
- Procedure Two parallel lines are marked 30 feet apart and two wooden-blocks 2 x 2 x 4 inches are kept on one side of a marked line. The youth stands behind the line opposite to the line where wooden blocks are placed. At the start signal, the youth runs towards the wooden blocks and picks up one of them, carrying it back to the line from where the test started. Then places it behind the line, runs back, picks up the second block and carries back-to the starting line. Two trials are allowed and best score of the two is noted down.
4. Standing Long Jump
- Purpose To measure power.
- Procedure The youth is asked to stand behind the restraining line with feet apart and he/she bends the knees and swings arms before jumping. The youth lands on both feet together. The distance from take off line to the heel is measured in inches. The best of three trials is recorded as the final score.
5. 50 Yard Dash
- Purpose To measure speed.
- Procedure The youth is asked to run 50 yards from the starting line and the time is recorded nearest to one-tenths of a second.
6. 600 Yard Run-Walk
- Purpose To measure endurance.
- Procedure The youth is asked to run and/or walk for 600 yards and the time is recorded in minutes and seconds. This can be run in an open field or the inside track of an athletic field, by marking the distances appropriately.
General Motor Fitness
General motor fitness is an athlete’s general ability to perform different motor skills without getting too much fatigued. General motor ability consists of three items designed to test the motor ability of school and college boys and girls.
Test 1 Standing Broad Jump .
This test measures the explosive leg power. In this test, the student stands behind the restraining line, with feet several inches apart and the toes pointed straight ahead. The student should swing the arms forward, extend the knee’s and jump forward as far as possible.
Test 2 Zig – Zag Run
The materials, required are a stop-watch, five traffic cones, floor measuring tape and floor area of 30 feet by 50 feet. Cones are placed on the floor in a zig – zag manner. The objective is to measure the agility. The examine or the student stands at the starting point. On the signal ‘go’, he/she runs the course without touching the cones. The student continues to run the course three times and each time, the time is recorded with the help of a stopwatch. The score is the time recorded to the nearest tenth of a second. If the cones are moved during the run, then the trial is retaken.
Test 3 Medicine Ball Put
The material required is medicine ball. The objective is to measure arm and shoulders girdle explosive strength. The student is required to put a 6 pound medicine ball as far as possible. Three trials are taken and the best score of the three is recorded. For boys the explosive strength throw test is for 3 kg medicine ball and for girls it is 1 kg.
Measurement of Cardiovascular Fitness
Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen, rich blood to the working muscle tissues and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movements. This type of fitness is required to sustain physical activity and is essential for performing aerobic activities.
1. Harvard Step Test
This test is also known as Aerobic Fitness test. It was developed by Brouha and others in 1943. It is used to measure the cardiovascular fitness or aerobic fitness by checking the recovery rate.
Equipment Required Bench 20 inches high, for men and 16 inches for women, stopwatch and metronome.
2. Rockport Test
This test also known as Rockport One Mile Test or Rockport Fitness Walking Test is used for testing cardiovascular fitness. It requires minimal equipment. This test consists of walking, which may be easy for middle-aged and older adults. This test tells us about the aerobic fitness of an individual.
Equipment Required 400m track, stopwatch and weighing scale.
Computation of Fitness Index
Fitness index is computed using the following formula
Rikli and Jones- Senior Citizen Fitness Test
Rikli and Jones prepared various physical fitness tests for senior citizens in 2001. Senior citizens can’t do exhaustive workouts however fitness is very important even in old age.
These tests are designed to access the functional fitness of older adults with the help of simple activities like getting up from a chair, walking, bending and stretching. These tests are safe, enjoyable and meet scientific standards of reliability and validity. That is why easy tests prepared for different body parts are given.
1. Chair Stand Test for Lower Body Strength
The Chair Stand Test is similar to a squat test to measure leg strength. This test is part of the senior fitness test protocol and is designed to test the functional fitness of seniors.
- Purpose This test assesses leg strength and endurance of senior citizens.
- Equipment Required A straight or folding chair without arm rests (seat 17 inches/ 44 cm high) and stopwatch.
2. Arm Curl Test for Upper Body Strength
The Arm Curl Test is a test to measure the upper body strength of senior citizens or old people.
- Purpose This test measures upper body strength and endurance.
- Equipment Required 5 pound weight for women, 8 pound weight for men, a chair without arm rests, stopwatch.
3. Chair Sit and Reach Test for Lower Body Flexibility
The Chair Sit and Reach Test is part of-the senior fitness test protocol, and is designed to test the functional fitness of seniors. It is a variation of the traditional sit and reach . flexibility test.
- Purpose This test measures lower body. – flexibility.
- Equipment Required Ruler, a chair with straight back or folding chair (17 inch/44 cm high).
4. Back Scratch Test for Upper Body Flexibility
The shoulder stretch is a simple flexibility test to determine if the hands can be brought together behind the back particularly the shoulders. This test is part of the fitness programme as an alternative to the back saver sit and reach test.
- Purpose This test measures upper arm and shoulder girdle flexibility.
- Equipment Required None.
5. Eight Foot Up and Go Test for Agility
The Eight Foot Up arid Go Test is a coordination and agility test’for the elderly-which is pair of the senior fitness test protocol.
- Purpose This test measures speed, agility and balance while moving.
- Equipment Required Stopwatch, straight back or folding chair ( seat 17 inches/44 height) cone rriarker, measuring tape, area clear of obstacles.
6. Six Minute Walk test for Aerobic Endurance
The Six Minute Walk Test is a part, of the senior fitness test protocol arid is designed to test the functional fitness of seniors. It is an adaptation of the Cooper 12 – minutes run for people who use orthopaedic devices When walking as well as people who have difficulty in balancing.
- Purpose This test measures aerobic fitness or aerobic endurance.
- Equipment Required Measuring tape to mark out the track distances, stopwatch arid chairs positioned for testing.
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