CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs is part of Physical Education Class 12 Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs.
Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs
4.1 Concept of Disability and Disorder
Disability and disorder are two separate terms that stand for different types of physical and mental conditions.
Concept of Disability
The term disability means any kind of impairment or permanent reduction in physical or mental capacity. The reduction can be related to any kind of physical loss, mental illness, intellectual impairment or reduction in the use of sense organs. This may be present from birth or occur during a person’s lifetime. This affects a person’s participation in different areas of life and reduces the full use of body structures and functions.
Definition – “A disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group,”
Concept of Disorder
Disorder is any ailment that disturbs the health of a person, hinders a person’s performance and diminishes his/her efficiency. Disorder grows inside a person, they are small in the beginning but may become serious and grow into a disability. There are many kinds of disorders like mental disorder, neurological disorder, hyper activity disorder, eating disorder, addiction disorder, attention disorder etc.
Definition – “Disorder can be defined as a blip in the usual functioning of a person.”
4.2 Types of Disability, Its Causes and Nature
Disability is conceptualised as being a multidimensional experience as it may affect the organs and body parts which hampers a person’s life in many ways.
Types of Disability
There are three types of disabilities which are as follows
[i] Cognitive Disability
The nature of this disability is mental since cognitive domain is related to using mental abilities and achieving results from it.
It is related to impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour. Intellectual functioning means person’s ability to plan, comprehend and reason while adaptive behaviour refers to applying social and practical skills in everyday life. Children suffering from dyslexia, learning difficulties, speech disorders, problem in solving math calculations, short span of attention and short of memory are said to have cognitive disability.
Causes of cognitive disability are as follows
- Cognitive impairment may be present at birth and may be genetic or chromosomal or result from complications of pregnancy.
- Chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome.
- Genetic abnormalities such as phenylketonuria, Hunter syndrome etc.
- Prenatal drug and infections and exposure to alcohol.
- Lack of oxygen during labour pain or birth.
[ii] Intellectual Disability
The nature of this disability is also mental since the intellectual domain is related to using the capacity of the mind. It is a disability characterised by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour. This is characterised by low intelligence quotient score (under 70) and significant problems in the ways learners adapt to new situations. It is different from cognitive because cognitive is a broad concept while intellectual disability is specific in nature.
Causes of intellectual disability are as follows
- Genetic Conditions These include things like Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.
- Problems during Pregnancy This can interfere with fetal brain development.
- Alcohol or Drug Use may also cause intellectual disability.
- Problems during Childbirth Like if a baby is deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature.
- Illness or Injury Infection like meningitis, whooping cough or measles can lead to intellectual disability. Extreme malnutrition, infections in the brain, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe neglect or abuse can also cause it.
[iii] Physical Disability
The nature of this disability is physical since it relates to physical functioning of the body parts including sense organs.
This refers to the limitation on a person’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. This includes upper or lower limb loss, poor manual dexterity, visual impairment, hearing loss or disability in coordination with different organs of the body. Apart from these, respiratory disorders, epilepsy and sleep disorders are also considered physical disability.
Causes of physical disability are as follows
- Illnesses like cancer, heart attack or diabetes cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
- Back pain, injuries and arthritis are also significant causes.
- Lifestyle choices and personal behaviour that lead to obesity are also becoming major contributing factors.
- Musculoskeletal disorders also cause disabilities. Examples include spine/joint disorders, fibromytis etc.
- Genetic causes like gene inheritance can cause this disability.
4.3 Types of Disorder, Its Causes and Nature
A disorder is referred to as a disturbance in physical or mental health or functions that causes dysfunction. Some types of disorder are discussed below
[Attention Deficit’ Hyperactivity Disorder]
The nature of this disorder is related to . behavioural changes or disorders. About 10% of school going kids suffer from ADHD,
Boys are more suspectible to this disorder than girls. The common symptoms of this disorder are hyperactivity, trouble focusing on a task, very short span of attention and missing details. . Children with ADHD may understand what’s expected of them but have trouble following the instructions required to complete the task. ‘ Young children mostly act in this way when they are excited or anxious but the difference with ADHD is that these symptoms are present over a longer period of time and take place in different settings. The ADHD disorder affects a child’s academic performance as well as social behaviour. Causes of ADHD are .
- Genes and Heredity Genetic inheritance and abnormalities in genes may cause this disorder.
- Brain Injury and Epilepsy Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD-like symptoms.
- Environmental Causes Prenatal exposure to smoke, exposure to high levels of lead as a toddler and preschooler is possible contributor.
SPD [Sensory Processing Disorder]
This is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. The SPD is related to mental nature. There the sensory inputs are not organised by the brain in an appropriate manner.
The common symptoms are showing heightened reactivity to sound, touch or movement. Under-reactive in certain situations example not noticing when name is called, lethargic, disinterested, poor motor skills, lack of attention, impulsive behaviours etc. The SPD interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning. They also have delayed communication and social skills. SPD also impacts on a person’s ability to interact with different environments. Causes of SPD are as follows
- Genetic or hereditary factors such as having a family history of autism, SPD.
- Have been understimulated during critical periods of neurological development.
- Have been exposed to variety of environmental toxins.
- Have food allergies.
- Having developmental delays and other , neurological disorders.
ASD [Autism Spectrum Disorder]
The nature of this disorder is related to mental illness which then changes the behaviour. It is a complex .developmental disorder that affects normal brain development. The symptoms of ASD are difficulty in communication and interaction with people. They also have repetitive behaviour patterns like flicking a light switch repeatedly, smelling everything, flipping objects etc.
Children with ASD also have sensory sensitivities such as not using eye contact, confused by language, repeating a word etc. Here the brain does not function in the typical’way due to which they face developmental challenges.. Children and adults with ASD do not acquire good social skills and face many behavioural problems. They often stare at a particular person or object, like a few foods, get over excited by certain sounds etc.
Causes of ASD are as follows
- ASD can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations.
- It can also cause through abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.
- Environmental factors related to exposure to drugs, toxins like lead, insecticides, hydrocarbons and dietary factors may cause ASD.
ODD [Oppositional Defiant Disorder]
The nature of this disorder is related to social behaviours. This behaviour disorder usually takes place in early teens. Apart from teens, ODD also affects young children especially boys. In children it begins from the age of 8 years. About 2-16% of children are affected by ODD. The main symptoms of ODD are similar patterns of anger, irritable mood, saying hateful things, flaring up at trivial matters, seeking revenge etc.
Here children in their early teens try to defy authority every now and then, they express their defiance by arguing, disobeying, talking back to parents, teachers and other adults. Though this type of behaviour is normally seen among all the teenagers but the difference in ODD is that the behaviour lasts more than 6 months and is excessive in comparison to other children of the same age. This kind of behaviour often disrupts the child’s normal daily activities and hampers academic performance.
Causes of ODD are as follows
- Genetics A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function may cause ODD.
- Environment Problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect also cause ODD.
OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder]
The nature of this disorder is related to mental illness. This usually takes place in people of middle ages. Males and females both are equally affected by OCD. About 15-20% of the people experience OCD in mild forms. The symptoms of this disorder are people doing repetative behaviours, performing routine tasks over an over again or having certain thoughts repeatedly.
Some examples of this type of disorder are frequent or excessive hand washing, counting to things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked again and again. These activities occur to such a degree that it affects a person’s life negatively. The OCD can become serious and may cause other problems related to mental illness.
Causes of OCD are as follows
- Familial Disorder The disorder may run in the family, therefore close relatives of people with OCD are likely to develop it.
- Behavioural Causes The behavioural theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help reduce the fear or the stress related to that situation.
- Cognitive Causes This happens when people misinterpret their thoughts like the feeling of dirty hands even when they are cleaned many times.
- Environmental Causes This means stressful situation present in the environment such as within the family or society that triggers OCD in people.
4.4 Disability Etiquettes
Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines to deal with the people facing physical or mental disabilities. It was started as a clinical play on existing rule sheets, written for non-disabled audiences that were seen as demeaning by civil rights activists in 1970s. The term serves to communicate people with disabilities more respectfully in all types of situations. It refers to educate people regarding disabilities. It involves treating people with disabilities with respect and care, and try to bring them into a normal life.
Disability Etiquettes in General
- Always respect the dignity of a disabled person, individuality and desire for independence.
- Treat a person with disability in the same manner and with the same respect and courtesy as with others.
- Speak directly to the person rather than through the friend, attendant or sign-language interpreter who may also be present.
- Never speak about the person as if they are invisible, can’t understand what is being said. .
- Don’t put people with a disability on a pedestal or talk to them in demeaning terms.
Disability Etiquette Guidelines
[i] ill Persons with Speech Difficulties
- Give attention to the person who has difficulty
- Keep manner to encourage rather than correcting.
- Give extra time for the conversation and be patient.
- If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.
[ii] Person with Hearing Loss
- Get the person’s attention with a wave of the hand, or a tap on the shoulder.
Speak clearly and slowly, but without exaggerating your lip movements or shouting.
- Many persons with hearing loss read lips. Place yourself facing the light source and keep hands, cigarettes and food away from your mouth when talking in order to provide a clear view of your face.
- When an interpreter accompanies a person, direct your remarks to the person rather than to the interpreter.
- Look directly at the person and speak expressively.
- Use sign language if you and the person are both familiar with it.
[iii] Persons with Vision Loss
- When enter the room, indicate who is there. Let the person know when leaving the room.
- When talking to a person with a visual impairment, begin to identifying yourself by name and that you are speaking to them.
- When offering your assistance, do not grab the person’s cane or arm.
- If you are walking with a person who is blind, offer your arm for him/her to hold.
- Walk at the norma! pace. It is helpful to speak casually and naturally about the environment, objects and buildings you are passing as you walk.
- Not all visually impaired people read Braille. Ask the person what alternative format they prefer.
(iv) Persons with Cognitive / Language Impairments
- Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
- Do not argue with the person.
- Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.
- Give extra time for the person to process what: you are saying and to respond. Look for signs of stress and/Or confusion:
The rules of etiquettes and good manners to deal with people with disabilities are generally the same as the rules for good etiquettes in society. These guidelines address.specific issues which frequently arise for people with disabilities; Since everyone is different, these guidelines only hold true for most individuals most of the time.
4.5 Advantage of Physical Activity for Children with Special Needs
According to the Department of Health and Human Services, USA, physical activity generally refers to movement that enhances health.
It means the movement of the body that uses energy. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. For health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous intensity.
Exercise is a type of physical activity that’s planned and structured. Lifting weights, taking an aerobics class and playing on a sports team are examples of exercise.
Advantage of Physical Activity for Children with Special Needs
Regular physical activity is good for everyone but it’s particularly important for children with special needs. These are most important for their growth and development. There are numbers of advantages of physical activities.
These are as follows
- It strengthens the heart muscle thereby improving cardiovascular efficiency, lung efficiency and exercise endurance. This helps in controlling repetative behaviours among disabled children.
- Besides improving fitness, physical activity develops social relationships with other children, teammates and teachers.
- This brings positive changes in the social behaviour of these children.
- It helps to improve energy level in the body. Regular physical activity often makes children more energetic, allows them to become active.
- It regulates blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes. Physical activity reduces stress level.
- It helps to control weight. The children with disabilities are not physically active or may have deficit of calories, which takes fat away and lowers weight and regular exercises help in regulating weight.
- Physical activities help in improving muscle strength, coordination and flexibility among disabled children.
- This also improves motor skills, brings better balance and body awareness which is lacking in these children.
- Physical exercise finds an outlet to channelise the physical energy which helps these children to cope with stress, anxiety and depression.
- Physical activity enhances the metabolism of brain in the children. It leads to cognitive improvement in children with special needs allowing them to acquire new skills, learn new things and focus on specific goals.
- Physical activity decreases anxiety, reduces depression, and improves mood and outlook in children. In addition, their
- quality of sleep is also improved.
4.6 Strategies to Make Physical Activities Accessible for Children with Special Need
The various strategies or ways by which physical activities can be made accessible for children with special needs are as follows
- Inclusive Classrooms It means development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
- Assistive Technology It refers to creating devices, tools or equipments that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
- Adaptive Physical Education Depending on student’s disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
- Creating Specific Environment Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children, so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
- Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.
- Focus on Creative Games Instead of competitive games and physical activities, the strategy is to develop creative games. This helps in team building and cooperation and prevents unnecessary competition and boosts the confidence of these children.
- Accomodations and Modification Since the individual needs of the children with special needs ard different^ it is essential for . the teachers to modify the teaching strategies in order to accommodate the children with disabilities. Therefore constant modification and accommodation is required.
- Professional Courses Developing more professional courses and teacher certification programs for teaching physical education to children with special needs is essential to popularise the adaptive physical education programme.
We hope the given CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs will help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.