CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports and Sports is part of Physical Education Class 12 Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports.
Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports
Sports Psychology and Its Importance
The word psychology refers to the study of human behaviour and sports psychology denotes a sub-category of psychology that deals with the behaviour of athletes and teams engaged in competitive sports Sports psychology is important because it.
- analyses the behaviour of sportsmen
- identifies talent for specific sports
- creates a better learning situation
- stabilises the performance of athletes for a longer period
- encourages players to make a comeback in professional sports
- is important from the research point of view
Understanding Stress and Its Management
Stress is experienced when individuals feel that they cannot cope with a situation with which they are presented. If athletes are in a stressful situation then their athletic performance, whether this be in competition or in training, will be affected.
Management of Stress
There are many aspects of an athlete’s life that can be stressful at certain times. By proper planning, the level of stress that the athletes and perhaps the coach will encounter can be reduced This can be done by following the steps given below.
- Aim to exercise regularly
- Eat healthy
- Get enough sleep
- Set realistic goals
- Accept mistakes
- Use imagination
- Take a break
- Use relaxation techniques
In psychology, coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems and seeking to master, minimise or tolerate stress or conflict. We are discussing here only two types of coping strategies.
(i) Problem Focused Coping
Problem focused coping targets the causes of stress in practical ways which tackles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently, directly reducing the stress. Problem focused strategies aim to remove or reduce the cause of the stressor Problem focused strategies include.
- Taking control
- Information seeking
(ii) Emotion Focused Coping
It is directed towards changing one’s own emotional reaction to a stressor Emotion focused coping strategies are effective in the management of unchangeable stressors. These coping mechanisms involve a cognitive reappraisal process that includes self-reflection and taking control over one’s emotions. Emotion focused strategies include.
- Keeping yourself busy to take your mind off the issue.
- Letting off steam.
- Praying for guidance and strength.
- Distracting yourself (e.g. watching TV, eating).
- Building yourself up to expect the worst.
The word personality is derived from Latin word persona meaning the mask. In ancient Greece, the actors used to wear masks to hide their identities while portraying their roles in a theatrical play. To an ordinary person, the word personality conveys the meaning of one’s physical appearance, his habits, his ways of dressing, his reputation, his manners and other similar characteristics.
Definitions of Personality
According to Macionis, “It is the constant pattern of thinking, feeling and actions.” According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “The totality of sentiments, attitudes, ideas, habits, skills and behaviors of an individual is personality.”
Types of Personality
[Sheldon and Jung Classification]
The concept of personality and its types have been formulated by many psychologists. The personality type on the basis of physical attributes is given by William Herbert Sheldon. It is as follows
- Endomorph The endomorph is physically quite round, with wide hips, narrow shoulders which makes them pear-shaped Lot of fat is spread across the body. They are sociable, fun-loving, tolerant, even-tempered, good humoured, relaxed and love food.
- Ectomorph They are quite the opposite of endomorph. They have narrow shoulders and hips, thin, narrow face, high forehead, thin, narrow chest and very little body fat. They are self-conscious, private, introvert, socially anxious, intense, emotionally restrained and thoughtful.
- Mesomorph They are somewhere between endomorph and ectomorph. They have large head, broad shoulders, narrow waist (wedge shaped), muscular body, strong limbs and little body fat. They are well proportioned. They are adventurous, courageous, assertive, bold, competitive, with a desire to dominate, take risk, rise to power.
The personality type on mental basis is formulated by Carl Jung. These are as follows
- Extroverts Have more self-confidence, take more interest in others, are outgoing, lively and realistic. They are very social and form friends quite easily. Actors, social and political leaders etc belong to this group.
- Introverts Are too self-conscious, more interested in their own thoughts and ideas, self-centered, shy, reserved and lovers of solitude. They do not make friends easily andkeep in’the’ background op social occasions. Philosophers, poets, artists and scientists belong to this class.
- Ambiverts Doubting whether people can be divided into these two extremes, he put most of the people in this category and they-have been labelled as ‘ambiverts.’ The.ambiverts are a mixture of both the extremes in a balanced manner. Ambiverts are neither outgoing nor reserved to themselves. They are able to adjust themselves to any situation.
Role of Sports in Personality Development
Sports helps an individual much more than in the physical aspects alone. It builds character, teaches and develops strategic thinking, analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking. It teaches individual to develop the following which ultimately develop the personality of the individual
- Team spirit
- Leadership skill
- Never give up
- Great leveller
- Strength and abilities
- Process and result
- Earnestness and sincerity
- Observation and analysis
- Positive attitude
Big Five Theory
The ‘big five’ are the broad categories of five personality traits that are universal. They are as follows
- Extraversion It is characterised by excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. People high in extraversion are extroverts and low in extraversion are introverts.
- Agreeableness This includes attributes like trust, kindness, affection and other social behaviours. People high in agreeableness are more cooperative and people low ih this trait are more competitive and manipulative.
- Conscientiousness Characteristics include high level of thoughtfulness, good impulse control and goal-directed behaviours. People high on this trait are organised and mindful of details.
- Neuroticism Characteristics are sadness, moodiness and emotional instability. People high in this trait experience mood swings, anxiety, irritability and sadness. People low in this trait are more stable and emotionally , resilient.
- Openness Characteristics are imagination and insight. People high in this trait are creative, adventurous and have a broad range of interests. People low in this trait are more traditional and less in abstract thinking.
Motivation and its Types
Motivation is a process through which an individual is inspired m stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction. Motivation is of two types
1. Internal Motivation or Intrinsic Motivation
This motivation is within an individual and guides one to perform better to satisfy one’s own personal feelings. Internal motivation depends upon basic needs like biological needs (thirst, hunger), social needs (family, friends etc), psychological needs (interest, attitude, love, self-esteem) and personal needs (safety, personality, economical etc).
2. External Motivation or Extrinsic Motivation
This motivation depends upon environmental factors. External motivation has great impact on an individual’s performance. It is of various types like
- Active participation
- Equipment and surroundings
- Teaching methods
- Audio-Visual aids
- Test-evaluations and competitions
- Teacher-pupil relationship
Techniques of Motivation
Various techniques of motivation are applied on sportspersons which can enable them to achieve the top positions in the field of sports and games. These techniques of motivation are
- Haying an Innovative Curriculum Many elementary skills basic to sports development have already developed in most of the children by the time they reach primary school age.
- Knowing Your Athlete Each athlete comes from a different background with varied experiences and having different degrees of maturity.
- Teacher as a Motivator A teacher or coach who has participated in the sport himself, who is highly skilled and can demonstrate and explain the skill more accurately and can plan the next competition wisely, is a great asset in motivating the athletes.
- Freedom to Beginners To motivate young beginners, they should be allowed a greater degree of freedom in their early attempts.
- Level of Aspiration/ Goal Setting As we know that achieving performance goals is a sign of competence that affects motivation positively, it is necessary to set realistic goals based on one’s own abilities.
- Identifying Incentive Factors If an athlete perceives that any particular kind of experiences are available to him in a given sport and he feels that these will be pleasant, enjoyable or satisfying, then he will choose to participate in that game or sport and not any other.
- Assigning Well-Defined Roles Assigning well-defined roles to athletes enhances their perception of self-competence.
Exercise adherence refers to maintaining an exercise regimen for a prolonged period of time following the initial adoption phase. Exercise adherence is voluntary, self-regulated and largely a psychological issue.
Determinants of Exercise Adherence
Following are the determinants of exercise adherence
- Demographic Variables Education, income, gender, socio-economic status etc are some of the demographic variables which determine the exercise adherence of people. Educated people with high income are health-conscious and they are adherent with their exercising habits.
- Spousal Support It is critical to enhance adherence rates for people in exercise programmes.
- Group Exercising It generally produces higher levels of adherence than exercising alone. Group exercising makes people exciting and interesting.
- Early Involvement If people engage in sports and physical activity during childhood, they are adherent to their exercising habits.
Reasons to Exercise
We all unconsciously know that exercise is good for us. It is fair to say that everyone wants to be healthy. At the same time, it is probably equally fair to say that most of us are not exercising enough. The main incentive that can make us start exercising is overall health improvement.
Here is the list of powerful reasons to exercise
People who are physically active live longer. Regular exercise habit reduces the risk of dying prematurely.
2. Weight Control
Regular physical activity helps to reach and maintain a healthy weight. Exercises speed, up, the rate of , energy use, resulting in increased metabolism. When metabolism increases through exercise, the body weight remains under-control.
3. Bone Strength
An active lifestyle benefits bone density. Regular weight-bearing exercise promotes bone formation, delays bone loss and may protect against osteoporosis (form of bone loss associated with aging).
4. Strong Immune System
Regular exercise is beneficial for immune function. Exercise or physical activity may help flush bacteria out of the lungs and airways. This increases the immunity of body and reduces chance of getting a cold, flu or other illness.
5. Cholesterol Lowering Effect
Physical exercise favourably influences blood cholesterol levels in our body. Exercise positively alters cholesterol metabolism by increasing the production and action of several enzymes in the muscles and liver that function to convert some of the cholesterol to a more favourable form.
Benefits of Exercise
Exercise is defined as any movement that makes body’s muscles work and requires body to bum calories. There are many types of physical activity, including swimming, running, jogging, walking, dancing etc. Being active has been shown to have many health benefits, both physical and mental. Here is the list of scientifically proven health benefits the regular exercise brings
- Exercise has been shown to improve our mood and decrease feelings of depression, anxiety and stress. It produces changes in the parts of the brain that regulate stress and anxiety.
- Exercise plays a vital role in building and maintaining strong muscles and bones. Physical activity like weightlifting can stimulate muscle building when paired with adequate protein intake.
- Regular exercise has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular fitness and body composition, yet decrease blood pressure and blood fat levels.
- Exercise can provide antioxidant protection and promote blood flow, which can protect skin and delays signs of aging.
- Exercise improves blood flow to the brain and helps health and memory. Among older adults, it can help protect mental function.
- Exercise can help us to sleep better and feel more energised during the day.
- Exercise has favorable effects on the pain that is, associated with various conditions. It can also increase.pain tolerance.
- Exercise is crucial to support a fast metabolism and for burning more calories per day.
- Exercise is also helpful in maintaining self-confidence.
Strategies for Enhancing Adherence to Exercise
The choice of whether of not to exercise is a daily decision Although a person’s risk of dropping out of an exercise programme is lower when he/she has maintained participation for six months or longer. Following should be strategies for enhancing adherence to exercise
- An individual should identify situations when he/she is likely to experience lapses in his/her exercise programme. The most common situations include travel, holidays, illness, stress, poor weather, and competing family obligations.
- People should use realistic plans that work with the exercise schedule and willingness.
- You should make your exercise fun, interesting, challenging and enjoyable.
- There should be adequate break during intensive exercise.
- Exercise should be scheduled with a group or club and isolated exercise habit should be avoided.
Aggression in Sports
Aggression or aggressiveness means the intention to cause mental or physical harm to a person. This is done by doing physical harm, showing unkind or nasty behaviour, abusing or using cruel words. A person shows aggression due to stress, anger or even due to insecurity. Aggression may come instantly or may build up over time. It can be positive as well as negative. According to Baron and Richardsons, “Any form of behaviour towards the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment is aggression.”
Concept of Aggression in Sports
In sports, aggression is often seen in the field where players play aggressively. There is a desire to excel which leads the players to play with high intensity. So aggression is positive when players play within the rules of the game with high intensity and without harming other players.
However aggression becomes negative when players have an intention to harm other players, use abusive language or doing other such things which are not within the laws of the game. For example, pushing another player over a game of football or using abusive language for other players or teams.
Types of Aggression in Sports
In sports, aggression has been defined into two kinds or types. These are instrumental aggression and hostile aggression.
1. Instrumental Aggression In instrumental aggression, the main aim is to achieve a goal by using aggression. It is a positive form of aggression. Here the aim of the player is to excel in the sport that he is playing through high intensity output and competitive spirit. For example, a football player using aggression to tackle his opponent and win the ball. He is not harming any player but only using his aggressiveness to gain the ball. Experienced players show instrumental aggression on the field as they have greater self-control to manage their aggression.
2. Hostile Aggression In hostile aggression, the main aim is to cause harm or injury to your opponent. It is usually an unplanned, impulsive reaction towards a player who may have become a threat in achieving the goal. However it may also be planned to cause injury to intended player on the field. This kind of aggression often arises from insult, hurt, bad feelings, jealousy and threat.
For example, a bowler throwing a bouncer to deliberately injure the batsman or to shake up his concentration. In some extreme cases, hitting an opponent or deliberately obstructing his path leads to his fall on the ground. This kind of aggression is usually seen in new players who want to achieve success quickly. The difference between the two is that instrumental aggression is positive where the aim is to excel by own efforts while hostile aggression is negative. Here the aim is to excel by causing harm to others.
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