Class 11 History Notes Chapter 10 Displacing Indigenous Peoples
- The American empires of Spain and Portugal did not expand after the 17th century.
- The countries like Holland, France and England began to expand their trading activities and to establish colonies in America, Africa and Asia after 17th century.
- The word ‘Settler’ is used for the Dutch in South Africa, the British in Ireland. New Zealand and Australia and the Europeans in America.
- The native people led a simple life. They did not claim their rights over land.
- The continent of North America extends from Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Cancer and from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.
- The inhabitants of North America used to live in groups before the advent of the Europeans.
- The original inhabitants of North America came from Asia about 30,000 years ago.
- The inhabitants of North America grew vegetables and maize. They ate fish and meat also.
- The people of North America believed in subsistence economy.
- People spoke numerous languages, but none of them is available to us in written form.
- Accounts of historical antecedents were recorded by each tribe.
- They used to transfer their historical knowledge orally to the next generation.
- Technique of clothes weaving was also known to the inhabitants.
- In 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the continent of America.
- News of discovery of gold and silver mines in America spread throughout the world.
- The Hopis were a native tribe who lived near California.
- Wampum belts are made of colored shells, sewn together.
- At the end of 18th century Canada came into existence.
- England had 13 colonies on the eastern coast of America.
- In the 1840’s, traces of gold were found in the USA, in California. It led to the ‘Gold Rush’, when thousands of Europeans hurried to America in the hope of making a quick fortune. It also led to the building of railway lines across the continent.
- British colonies in America declared a war against England in 1776 to gain independence.
- The War of Independence of the colonies continued till 1783.
- In 1860, the USA had an undeveloped economy. In 1890, it was the leading industrial power in the world.
- Invention of barbed wire in 1873 brought out revolution in American agriculture.
- The American President Abraham Lincoln played a key role in the abolition of the slavery.
- Explorer William Jansz of Dutch reached Australia in 1606.
- A.J. Tasman followed the route of William Jansz and named Tasmania after his name.
- A.J. Tasman discovered New Zealand.
- Another British explorer, James Cook reached the island of Botany Bay in 1770 and named it New South Wales.
- In Australia, economic prosperity of the mining industry played a crucial role.
- Canberra was declared the capital of Australia in 1911.
- The process of economic development enhanced with rearing of Marino sheep.
- Colonial: Belonging to a country that controls another country.
- Oral History: To write history or to dictate others so that it could have been recorded.
- Native: Citizens of the colonized countries. ‘The Hopis’ are California’s native tribes.
- Subsistence Economy: It means to produce as much as required for the fulfillment of their basic necessities.
- Settler: People who settle at a place of which they are not inhabitants.
- Wampum Belt: A belt made of colored shells.
- Indigenous people: People belonging naturally to a place.
- Multiculturalism: A policy that implies a treatment of equality for the cultures of native Europeans and Asian emigrants.
- Terra Nullius: A policy that implies recognizing no one’s right over a given piece of land.
|1497||John Cabot reaches Newfoundland.|
|1763||Quebec conquered by the British.|
|1770||British sailor James Cook reached Australia.|
|1774||Quebec Act was passed.|
|1781||Britain recognised the USA as an independent country.|
|1783||British give Mid-west to the USA.|
|1788||British Penal colony formed. Sydney founded.|
|1803||The USA purchased Louisiana from France.|
|1865||Slavery was abolished in the USA.|
|1867||Confederation of Canada.|
|1870||Transcontinental railway introduced in the USA|
|1869-85||Red River Rebellion by the Metis in Canada|
|1892||‘End’ of American frontier.|
|1954||Declaration of Indian Rights|