CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Sociology 2016
What is the meaning of dependency ratio ? 
The dependency ratio is a measure which compares the part of a population which is composed of dependents (i.e., elderly people who are very old to work., and children who are very young to work) with the part that is in the working age group, generally defined as 15 to 64 years.
What are the three forms of capital on which social inequality is based ? 
The three forms of capital on which social inequality is based are economic capital such as material assets and income, cultural capital such as status and qualification and social capital such as social associations of the person.
State the two factors which encourage regionalism. 
The two factors which encourage regionalism are :
- geographical concentration
- sense of regional deprivation.
What are the criteria for forming community identity ? 
The community identity is based on ‘birth’ and ‘belonging’ to a particular family, caste, religion, kinship, etc. and is an ascribed status.
Give the meaning of Sanskritisation. 
The term ‘Sanskritisation’ refers to a process in which the people of middle/lower caste take up the rituals, beliefs, way of life and ideology of the higher caste, specifically twice born caste in an attempt to raise their own social status.
What do you understand by the term decentralised democracy ? 
The term decentralised democracy means transferring functions, resources and decision making powers to the lower-level democratically elected bodies.
How have ‘matrix events’ taken place in the rural society ? 
Matrix events are results of a range of factors coalesing together. The suicides among farmers have become matrix event in rural society. The farmers who commit suicide are marginal farmers who try to increase their productivity particularly by adopting green revolution. They have to face several risks, such as rise in cost of production due to decrease in subsidies, instability in market; which eventually forced farmers to borrow money and doomed them in debts.
In what way does ‘Time Slavery’ influence Industrial society ? 
Time slavery refers to employee working for more than 10-12 hours a day in order to meet the deadlines and complete the projects. Sometimes it leads to condition where the employees work overnight and sometimes might put extra stress on them.
What is the meaning of Glocalisation ? 
The term Glocalisation refers to process of mixing of the global with the local culture. It is a strategy adopted by the foreign firms while dealing with the local traditions for improving their marketability. For example, serving of purely vegetarian food by some multinational food chains, like Me Donalds.
In what way ‘Fordism’ influenced the production and marketing of goods ? 
Fordism refers to a system of mass production and mass consumption at a centralised place. This was started by Henry Ford. It popularized the assembly time method of mass production of cars. Due to fordism the cost of production goes up due to high labour charges and marketing of the goods often becomes difficult in the same market due to mass production.
How has ‘Corporate Culture’ transformed society ? 
Corporate culture is a branch of management theory that seeks to increase productivity and competitiveness. It involves all members of a firm and promotes enhancement of employee solidarity and loyalty through events, rituals, tradition etc. It is a way of promoting & packaging of products.
Give two examples of Peasant movements. 
Two examples of Peasant movements are the Tebhaga movement (1946-47) and the Telangana movement (1946-51).
Mention two important reasons that can be attributed for the rise of Dalit Movements. 
Two important reasons that can be attributed for the rise of Dalit movements are quest for equality and eradication of untouchability.
Why do environmental movements take place ? 
The environmental movements take place due to concerns related to checking of the use of natural resources. They take place to check the exploitation and depletion of natural resources. In the name of development, habitat of people is forcibly changed enticing environmental movements.
Highlight the main features of demographic dividend in India. 
The main features of demographic dividend in India are as follows:
- India has a very young population — that is, majority of Indians average age of Indians is less than that for most other countries.
- India has a large portion of working age population, i.e. between 15 to 64 years.
- It has relatively small proportion of old age population to support.
- The dependent portion of population would turn into working age population in some time, due to demographic transition; thus raising the prospects for growth.
What were the major issues of Adivasis struggle after independence ? 
The major issues of Adivasi struggle after independence were alienation of land resources which they depended upon and issues related to cultural identity. During the latter part of nineteenth century, the colonial rule has reserved forests for its use, which also served the rights of the adivasis for food gathering and shifting cultivation. However, the access of forests to the adivasis was denied as they were protected for maximising timber production. Moreover, the mineral resources and power generation capacities were mostly concentrated in the Adivasis area and were required for industrial growth. Their land was acquired for mining and dams projects, without paying proper compensation or rehabilitation.
Why Communalism is still a challenge to our unity and harmony ? 
Communalism refers to aggressive chauvinism which is based on religious identity. The person considers his group superior to all others. It is closely related to politics. It is a threat to unity and harmony as communalists condemn or attack others who don’t share their policy. It is a recurrent source of communal riots as the selfish motives of the political parties are exploited in the name of communalism. For example, anti-Sikh riots of Delhi in 1984.
How has Casteism influenced politics ? 
Casteism though a different sphere from politics, sometime plays a dominant role in influencing the voting choice of the people. The people of a particular caste becomes the voting bank for a political party as they choose to opt the candidate with the same caste without considering his abilities, qualifications and past achievements. Here, caste serves the selfish motives of a particular party.
Elaborate the power and responsibilities of the Panchayat. 
The following powers and responsibility of the Panchayats:
- To prepare plans and schemes for economic development
- To promote schemes that will enhance social justice
- To levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees
- To help in the devolution of governmental responsibilities, especially that of finances to local authorities.
Explain the impact of land reforms on Indian agriculture after independence.
Briefly highlight transformations of rural society after independence. 
The impact of land reform on Indian agriculture after independence was not able to bring about any significant progress in increasing the productivity as there were many loop holes in the system. The abolition of zamindari system only removed the top layer landowners, but could not wipe of the landlordism, tenancy or share cropping system. The Tenancy Abolition and Regulation Act failed to implement properly for safeguarding the interest of the tenants. The Land Ceiling Act was misused through Benami transfers.
The transformation which has taken place in rural society after independence is as follows :
- Rise in number of agricultural labours as cultivation has become an intensive process.
- Instead of payment in kind, such as agricultural products or grain, there is a shift to payment in cash.
- Increase in a section of labourers, referred as ‘free wage labourers’.
- Shift in traditional relationship between the landowner and agricultural labourer, which were termed as bonded labour.
- There has been transitition to capitalist agriculture.
Discuss the issues faced by ‘migrating labourers’. OR
Explain the major forms of job recruitment in India. 
The labourers migrate from their native place in search of livelihood. The breaking of patronage bond between landowner and labourer, and seasonal agricultural production are some reasons for migration of the labourers. The main migration is from drought prone areas to the ones which offer better job opportunities. The other reasons for migration are the rising inequalities in rural areas, which force them to indulge in multiple employments. They lack roots and are often termed as ‘footloose labour’ but they lack independence as well. Such labourers migrate to farms of Punjab or Haryana, or brick kilns of UP or construction sites in Delhi.
The chief issues faced by migrating labours are :
- Low wages.
- Long working hours.
- Poor working conditions.
- Cramped, unhygienic living conditions.
- Bare minimum benefits-medical, education of children etc.
- Job insecurity.
- Contractual binding which is usually unfair to them.
- Cut-off from their place of origin.
- Easily exploited.
- Work based on seasonal demand.
- Increasing inequalities.
- Breakdown of bonds of patronage.
Job recruitment takes different forms in India. Very few jobs are acquired through advertisements. In professions like, plumbing, and carpentery are self employed. Among the educated section, tutors, writers and architects are self employed. Mobile phones play a dominant role in acquiring work for them. There is a lot of flexibility in their working hours.
A few workers are employed as a permanent boss head worker and get proper compensation, status and position for their work, whereas sometimes personnels are employed even on contract basis. Major forms of job recruitment are :
- Employment Exchange.
- Mobile phones.
- Personal Contacts.
“The institution of caste is both visible and invisible in many respects.” Justify the statement with suitable examples.
What are the rules and regulations that caste system imposes on its members ? 
Caste system refers to a social stratification in which different castes are placed on the horizontal ladder of social status. Traditionally the twice born castes such as Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya enjoyed the privileges and Sudras were considered as the down trodden section. Though the social reforms have played an important role in eradicating caste system and untouchability, it is still prevalent in our society. The affluent and dominant group generally belong to higher strata and the deprived and exploited sections are the lower caste. Though reservation policy in spheres has tried to eliminate this difference by providing educational and employment opportunities to them, yet this difference exists due to reservation policy. As a certain section of the society is demarcated as downtrodden arid deprived, hence, caste system exists in our society in visible and invisible forms.
The rules and regulation which a caste imposes on its member are as follows :
- Inability to move up or down the status ladder : An individual is required to remain in the same caste in which he had a chance to born. The movement up and down the status ladder is practically impossible.
- Endogamy: Marriage outside the caste is strictly prohibited.
- Restriction on feeding and social intercourse : The twice born caste can’t accept kaccha food from Sudra. The social interaction with the lower caste is restricted, for example even the shadow of Sudra is considered to spell a disaster on a Brahmin.
- Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation : The members of caste are required to follow the occupation which is meant for that particular job. For example the Brahmins are meant for priestly job, Kshatriyas as warriors, Vaisyas as traders and Sudras for worst menial jobs.
- Civil and religious disabilities : The people of lower caste are subjected to several discriminations. They are required to live at the outskirts of the village and are not allowed to draw water from the village well. Their entry in the temple is strictly restricted.
“The policy of liberalisation has brought about changes in our society.” Elaborate. 
“The policy of liberalisation has brought about changes in our society.” This statement is very true though the changes are beneficial in some case and disadvantageous in some other cases. Liberalisation refers to a number of policies such as privatisation of public sector enterprise; loosening of government regulations, reduction in tariffs and import duties.
The result of liberalisation is evident in form of more foreign firms entering in Indian markets. This is followed by economic growth and prosperity. More employment opportunities are generated. The foreign goods are easily available in country at low costs. Though some sectors like software and information technology and agriculture (Like fruit and fish) are benefitted by liberalisation, yet there are some sectors which fail to compete with the global market, such as (automobiles, electronics or oilseeds). This was also followed by loss of employment in many sectors.
Changes brought about due to Liberalisation :
- Participation in WT.O—free international trading system.
- Opening up of Indian markets to imports.
- Exposure to competition from global markets.
- Withdrawal of State support and protected markets.
- Entry of M.N.Cs example—Contract farming, consumer goods etc.
- Reduction in Public Sector and increases in Private Sector.
- Economic reforms in all major sectors- agriculture, trade, industry, foreign investment etc.
- Cultural Changes.
- Integration into global market—global village.
In what ways has colonialism brought about a social, economic and political influence on Indian society to promote urbanisation; 
Colonialism refers to British rule over India. The objective of colonialism was to promote the interests of the colonial rule.
Social Influence: In order to get educated working class of people who can serve the British rule, western education was imparted; this led to opening of schools and colleges. There was a mass production of books, literature, etc. Mass media such as radio, newspaper and magazine were also promoted to safe guard the interest of the British rule.
Economic Influence : In order to generate profits, it opened many industries and introduced modern technology to gear up the process of production at lower expenses. This led to industrialisation in the country. The factory produced goods were liked and purchased by people, which helped in making their lives comfortable.
Machines were used even in the agricultural production to enhance the yields. This also led to labourers getting jobs in factories. The colonial rule promoted roads and transportation for smooth transfers of raw material and goods, which led to construction of road in country.
Opening of schools, colleges, hospitals and setting up of industries and modern means of transportation were some of the influence of colonialism in social, political and economic spheres which ushered urbanisation in the country.
Political Influence :
- Parliamentary system, Legal system, Police, Administration, Education on the British model, were all adopted to encourage urbanisation.
- Official buildings on British architecture.
- Western Education led to rise of nationalism.
- Nation-states became the dominant political form.
Read the following passage and answer the given question:
The place is a cramped rented shack stacked with music tapes and rusty electrical appliances which doubles up as Raghav’s radio station and repair shop.
He may not be literate, but Raghav’s ingenuous FM station has made him more popular than local politicians. Raghav’s love affair with the radio began in 1997 when he started out as a mechanic in a local repair shop. When the shop owner left the area, Raghav, son of a cancer-ridden farm worker, took over the shack with his friend. Sometime in 2003, Raghav, who by now had learned much about radio… In impoverished Bihar state, where many areas lack power supplies, the cheap battery-powered transistor remains the most popular source of entertainment. “It took a long time to come up with the idea and make the kit which could transmit my programmes at a fixed radio frequency. The kit cost me 50 rupees”, says Raghav. The transmission kit is fitted on to an antenna attached to a bamboo pole on a neighbouring three-storey hospital. A long wire connects the contraption to a creaky, old homemade stereo cassette player in Raghav’s radio shack. Three other rusty, locally made battery-powered tape recorders are connected to it with colourful wires and a cordless microphone,
(a) What changes has media experienced over the last few years ? 
(b) How can media be successful in representing the weaker section of society ? 
(a) There has been a phenomenal expansion in the use of mass media, such as television, radio, newspaper, etc. over the past few years, as it helps in spreading news information and entertainment to masses.
(b) Media can be successful in representing the weaker sections of the society as:
- It has a wide reach.
- It can represent issues faced by the weaker sections of the societies like gender based discrimination, untouchability, exploitation, etc.
- It can help in mobilising people to act against the social evils prevalent in society.
- It can help in spreading awareness about the equality for all, irrespective of caste, religion, language, gender or class.