CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100
- All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
- Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
- Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Outside Delhi Set – I
Highlight any one feature of the multi-polar world as visualised by both Russia and India. 
Russia and India share a vision of multi-polar world order. It is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts.
What was the significance of ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’? 
On March 19th, 2003 the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the code name ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’. Its purpose was to prevent Iraq from developing Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) and to end the regime of Saddam Hussain.
Give a suitable example to show that globalisation need not always be positive. 
As a consequence of globalization, some farmers bought very expensive seeds supplied by the M.N.Cs, but the crops failed and they committed suicide.
Why does development have different meanings for different sections of the people ? 
Development has different meanings for different sections of the people. For example: An industrialist who is planning to set up a steel plant, is a development for industrialists and if same land is used for agriculture, it’s a development for farmer.
Why is violence between two communities considered as a threat to democracy ? 
Violence between two communities disrupts the functioning of the government, delays decision making and destabilizes the routine of democracy affecting the religious freedom of individual.
In which way did the policy of non-alignment serve India’s interests ? 
Policy of non-alignment helped India in following ways:
- Non-alignment allowed India to be independent and take international decisions and steps which were for its own good.
- India could also balance one super power over the other and could easily maintain its stance of neutrality.
Analyse the two political developments of 1940s that led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan. 
Following are the two major political developments of 1940s that led to the creation of Pakistan:
- An important resolution was passed by Muslim League on 23rd March, 1940. They demanded autonomy for the Muslim majority areas on the sub-continent.
- Mohammad Ali Jinnah was adamant to become the head of the nation.
Match the following meaningfully from the names in Column ‘A’ with’ the information in Column ‘B’: [4 × 1/2 = 2]
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(a) Indira Gandhi||(i) A member of Parliament from 1952 till his death.|
|(b) Ram Manohar Lohia||(ii) Symbol of opposition during emergency of 1975.|
|(c) Jai Prakash Narayan||(iii) Nationalisation of banks.|
|(d) Jagjiwan Ram||(iv) Best known for his sharp attacks on Nehru.|
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(a) Indira Gandhi||(iii)”Nationalisation of banks.|
|(b) Ram Manohar Lohia||(iv) Best known for his sharp attacks on Nehru.|
|(c) Jai Prakash Narayan||(ii) Symbol of opposition during emergency of 1975.|
|(d) Jagjiwan Ram||(i) A member of Parliament from 1952 till his death.|
How far did the Rajiv Gandhi—Longwwal Accord succeed in bringing normalcy in Punjab ? 
After coming power to following the elections in 1984, the new Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi initiated a dialogue with moderate Akali Dal leaders in July 1985. He reached an agreement with Harchand Singh Longowal, which was known as Rajiv Gandhi-Longowal Accord.
It was agreed that Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab. A separate commission would be appointed to resolve border dispute between Punjab and Haryana and a tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi-Beas water dispute among Punjab- Haryana-Rajasthan and agreed to give compensation for better treatment for those affected by the militancy of Punjab and the withdrawal of application of Armed Forces Special Power Act in Punjab.
What will happen if the regions are not given their due share in decision-making at the national level ? 
Power sharing is very significant for a democratic nation. The groups and parties from the region need to be given share in power at the State level. The regions must have a share in deciding the destiny of the nation. If regions are not given a share in the national level decision making, the feeling of injustice and alienation can spread.
So it becomes very important that the state level administration is also given their due share in nation building.
What was the main objective behind China’s adoption of the Soviet model of economy? In which two ways was China benefitted by it? 
The main objectives behind China’s adoption of the Soviet model of economy were :
- To create a state-owned heavy industries sector from the capital accumulated from agriculture.
- As it was short of foreign exchange that it needed in order to buy technology and goods on the world market, China decided to substitute imports by domestic goods.
China has benefited by it in many ways :
- This model allowed China to use its own resources to establish the foundations of an industrial economy that did not exist before.
- Employment and social welfare was assured to all citizens.
- China moved ahead of most developing countries in educating its citizens and ensuring better health for them.
Describe terrorism as a new source of threat to security. 
Terrorism is a new source of threat to security because :
- It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
- International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of more than one country.
- Civilian targets are usually chosen to terrorise the public as a weapon against the national government or other parties in conflict.
- Classic cases of terrorism involve hijacking of planes, planting bombs in trains, cafes, markets and other crowded places.
- One of the biggest terrorist attacks so far took place on 11th Sep. 2001 on the World Trade Centre in New York, U.S. Other many big attacks occurred in the Middle East, Europe, Latin America and South Asia.
Explain any four negative consequences of globalisation for the people of India. 
Negative consequences of globalisation on India are :
- Expensive seeds purchased from MNCs compelled farmers to commit suicides due to crop failure.
- Slowly and gradually MNCs started buying Indian companies, resulting in instability in market.
- While some advances were made in certain areas, critical sectors such as health, housing and primary education did not receive the attention they deserved.
- India had a fairly sluggish rate of economic growth even after globalisation. The desire for higher rates of economic growth have not been fulfilled they are yet to be achieved.
- De-regulated various sectors including trade and foreign investment or any other relevant consequences.
Highlight any four consequences of the partition of India in 1947. [4 × 1 = 4]
Following are the consequences of the 1947 partition of India:
- 1947 was the year of largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of the population. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border.
- In the name of religion, people of one community were ruthlessly killed and they maimed people of the other community.
- People were forced to abandon their houses and move across border which led to immense suffering and pain.
- In many cases, women were abducted on both sides of the border and during the journey, they were attacked and raped.
What distinguished the dominance of the Congress Party in India from the one-party dominance in other countries ? Explain. 
Congress party dominance in India was different from one party dominance system of other countries in following ways :
- Indian dominance was not under compromised democratic conditions.
- Unlike other countries where only one party was recognized, in India many parties contested in the free and fair elections. Inspite of a large number of parties contesting, Congress won the elections fair and square.
- In India, there was no military interference like that in Myanmar and Egypt.
- Thus, dominance of one-party, i.e., Congress, was not because of some democratic compromise, all types of parties were given opportunities and freedom to contest, out of which Congress won elections after elections fair and square. ‘
Examine the dramatic changes that took place in the party system in India during 1969 to 1977. 
Many dramatic changes took place in the party system in India during 1969 to 1977 like by November 1969, the congress group led by the Syndicate came to be referred as the Congress and the other group led by Indira Gandhi came to be called as The Congress Requisition. These two parties were also referred as Old Congress and New Congress.
Indira Gandhi projected the split as an ideological divide between socialists and conservatives, between the pro-poor and pro-rich. First formation of Janta government in 1977 was the result of an accommodative attitude of the constituent political groups. Morarji Desai headed the four party Janta Government for two years, from 1977-1979, following the 1977 general elections.
Study the following carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The smaller states in the alliances used the link to the superpowres for their own purposes. They got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local rivals, mostly regional neighbours with whom they had rivalries. The alliance systems led by the two superpowers, therefore, threatened to divide the entire world into two camps. This division happened first in Europe. Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US and those of Eastern Europe joined the Soviet camp. That is why, these were also called the ‘western’ and the ‘eastern’ alliances.
(i) Name one organisation each related to the ‘western’ and the ‘eastern’ alliances.
(ii) Why were the smaller states interested in joining the super alliances ?
(iii) How did the ‘alliance system’ threaten to divide the world? [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) Western Alliance ws formalised into the NATO while Eastern Alliance formalised into Warsaw pact.
(ii) Smaller states joined the super alliance for their own motive as they were promised protection, weapon and economic aid against their local rivals.
(iii) Alliance system was led by the two superpowers, which threatened to divide the entire world into two camps.
Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The lack of genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan has further encouraged the military to continue its dominance. The United States and other Western countries have encouraged the military’s authoritarian rule in the past, for their own reasons. Given their fear of the threat of what they call ‘global Islamic terrorism’ and the apprehension that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal might fall into the hands of these terrorist groups, the military regime in Pakistan has been seen as the protector of Western interests in West Asia and South Asia.
(i) What is meant by ‘global Islamic terrorism’?
(ii) Why did Pakistan lack genuine international support for democratic rule?
(iii) Why was the military regime in Pakistan considered as the protector of Western interests in West Asia and South Asia? [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) Global Islamic Terrorism can be defined as any terrorist act or compaigns committed by individuals or groups funded by various Islamic nations.
(ii) United states and other western countries have encouraged the military’s authoritarian rule in the past for reasons such as fear of ‘Global Islamic terrorism’ and never supported genuine democratic rule in Pakistan.
(iii) The military regime in Pakistan has been seen as the protector of western interest in West Asia and South Asia as Pakistan nuclear arsenal is in their control.
Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow :
Critics of popular movements often argue that collective actions like strikes, sit-ins and rallies disrupt the functioning of the government, delay decision-making and destabilise the routines of democracy. Such an argument invites a deeper question: why do these movement resort to such assertive forms of action ? We have seen that popular movements have raised legitimate demands of the people and have involved large scale participation of citizens. It should be noted that the groups mobilised by these movements are poor, socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society from marginal social groups.
(i) Popular movements resort to which two types of assertive actions ?
(ii) How far do you agree with the arguments given by the critics ?
(iii) Why are groups involved in popular movements mostly from marginal social groups ? [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) Popular movements resorts to generally two types of actions (a) Strikes, (b) Rallies.
(ii) We agree with the argument of critics that such movements disrupt the functioning of the government, delay their decisions etc., but. popular movements have also raised legitimate demands of the people, who belong mostly to economically weak sections of society.
(iii) The groups mobilised by these movements are poor, socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society from marginal social groups because they get less attention from political parties and suffer a lot. This causes disappointment and hatred in them.
Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow :
(i) Identify and name the person who is holding the balancing beam between the public sector and the private sector.
(ii) Why has a big tilt towards the public sector been shown in the cartoon ?
(iii) How did the over-emphasis on public sector adversely affect the Indian economy ? [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) The person holding the balancing beam between the public sector and the private sector is Pt. [awahar Lai Nehru.
(ii) India did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector nor did it follow the socialistic model. Elements from both these models were taken and mixed together public sectors given majority holdings by government to handle. Heavy industries and other important works/departments were given to public sector.
(iii) The enlarged public sector under the control of government, with powerful vested interests of government ministers and ministerial secretariat has created enough hurdles for private capital specially in giving licenses and permits to private sector. A new class, middle class was created because of this. The state controlled more tilings than were necessary and this led to inefficiency and corruption.
In the given political outline map of the world, five countries have been shown as (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E). With the help of the information given below, identify these countries and write their correct names along with the serial number of the information used and the related alphabet as per the following format in your answer-book:
|Sr. no. of the Information used||Alphabet Concerned||Name of the Country|
(i) The country where Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987.
(ii) This country is of the view that the major responsibility of curbing gas emissions rests with the developed countries.
(iii) This country is known for its forest movements.
(iv) The first anti-dam movement aimed to save the Franklin River and its surrounding forests was launched in this country.
(v) The largest producer of mineral oil in the world. [5 × 1 = 5]
|Sr. no. of the Information used||Alphabet Concerned||Name of the Country|
Highlight the circumstances which gave birth to the idea of New International Economic Order (NIEO). Explain any two factors that weakened this initiative.
In what three ways did the collapse of the Soviet Union affect the world politics ? Explain.
The idea of New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with the realisation that United Nation Conference on Trade and Development brought out a report in 1972 entitled towards a new trade policy for development.
- Give the LDCs control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
- Obtain access the western market so that LDCs sell their product and make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
- Reduce the cost of imported technology from the western country.
- Provide the LDCs with a greater role in the international economic institution.
Reasons of weakening of NIEO:
- It had faded mainly because of the stiff opposition by the developed countries.
- NAM became an economic pressure group and struggled to stay united.
The collapse of Soviet Union and the Socialist systems in Eastern Europe had profound consequences on World Politics.
(i) It meant the end of Cold war. This led to the end of ideological disputes over whether Socialist system is better or Capitalist. Since this dispute had triggered massive arms race and accumulation of nuclear weapons and existence of military blocs; now with its end, arms race ended and gave hope for a new peace in the world.
(ii) The end of Soviet Bloc meant the emergence of many new countries. All these countries had their own independent aspirations and choices. Some states like Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuvania, Ukraine, Georgia) and the Eastern European states wanted to join the European Union and become part of the NATO. The Central Asian countries wanted to take advantage of their geographical location, so they continue to have close ties with Russia at one side and with West, the US, China on the other side.
(iii) The Power Relation in the World also changed and so did the relative influence of ideas and institutions. The end of Cold War left the possibility of :
- Either strengthening of one of the superpowers remaining i.e., US would dominate and create a unipolar system.
- Different countries or group of countries could become important players in the international
Examine the U.S. hegemony as a structural power system, thereby bringing a multipolar system where no one power could dominate.
Assess the role of ASEAN as an economic association. 
The sudden collapse of Soviet Union left US hegemony to begin and stay in 1991. US aid not start behaving like a hegemonic power overnight, infact there was a gradual increase in power and after 1991 it became clear that the world was living in the period of hegemony. US has hegemony in all aspects.
- This power can be in the form of military dominance, economic strength, political influence/ power and cultural superiority. US share of world economy is a big 28 percent. This gives it a strong hold on world economy.
- Internet is an outcome of us military research project, and connects the world, through largely relies on US.
- US is present in all parts of world, economically culturally or any other way.
- US has foil dominance on world’s hard power. The base of US power lies in the superiority of the military power. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative.
- US hegemony is a structural power therefore, this hegemony means economic superiority is reflected by the roles played by the US in providing global public goods.
- US’s naval power also establishes its hegemony.
ASEAN is principally an economic association :
(i) Where ASEAN as a whole is much smaller than US, EU, Japan but yet its economy is growing faster than US, European Union and Japan. ASEAN is also showing growth in these regions and beyond.
(ii) Objectives of ASEAN as an economic community are as follows :
- To create a common market and production base within ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region.
- This community would also like to improve the . existing ASEAN dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
- ASEAN has focused on creating a Free Trade Area (FTA) for investment, labour and services. The US and China have already moved fast to negotiate FTA’s with ASEAN.
Mention the six principal organs of the United Nations and describe the functions of any two of them. [2 + 4 = 6]
Describe the security challenges faced by the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War. 
The principal organs of United Nations systems :
- Security Council
- International Court of Justice
- General Assembly
- Economic and Social Council
- Trusteeship Council
Security Council: It has five permanent members (with veto right) and ten elected members i.e., total fifteen members.
- It has liable for the maintenance of international peace and security.
- May jidopt compulsory resolutions. International Court of Justice: Fifteen judges are elected for nine years by absolute majority in both General Assembly and Security Council based in Hague.
- Handling disputes between the states and recognize its jurisdiction.
- Issues legal opinions.
- Renders judgement by relative majority.
The newly independent third world countries of Asia and Africa are facing the following challenges:
- The new countries face the prospect of military conflict with neighbouring countries.
- Internally, these countries are worried about threats from ‘Separatists Movement’ which want to form independent countries based on language and religion.
- Many lives were lost in some of these arenas like Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan but the world was spared a nuclear war and global hostilities.
- Sometimes, countries outside the two blocs, for example the non-aligned countries, played a role in reducing cold war conflicts.
- Starting in the 1960s, the side i.e., US and USSR signed three significant agreements within a decade. They were : (1) Limited test ban treaty, (2) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and (3) Anti Ballistic missile treaty. They fear external wars with superpowers.
Do you agree with the statement that “the foreign policy of independent India has pursued the dream of a peaceful world”? Support your answer with any three suitable arguments. [3 × 2 = 6]
Give any three suitable arguments in favour of “India being a staunch supporter of the decolonisation process and in firm opposition to racialism”.
Aim of the India’s Foreign relations was to respect the sovereignty of all other nations and to achieve security through the maintenance of peace.
(i) One major object of Foreign Policy was to preserve the hard-earned sovereignty. Nehru wished this through his strategy of Non-Alignment. Parties and groups in the country believed that India should be friendly with the bloc led by US.
(ii) Another objective was to protect territorial, integrity. Our leaders opposed communism. They believed India should be friendly with the bloc US because that bloc claimed to be pro-democracy.
(iii) Third objective was to promote rapid economic development. Our country had many economic problems. Nehru adopted such a foreign policy which could help in our economic progress.
India is a staunch supporter of the decolonisation process and firm opposer of racialism. In support of this statement, following explanation is given :
(i) Under the leadership of Nehru, India convened the Asian Relation Conference in March 1947. India was a staunch supporter of the decolonisation process and firmly opposed racism and apartheid in South Africa.
(ii) Prior to India’s independence, there were contacts between the Indian nationalist leaders and those of other countries, united as they were in their common struggle against colonisation and imperialism.
(iii) Condemned Racial Discrimination—India fought racism in a determined way. The Eighth summit in 1986, under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi, established the “Africa Fund” with the objective of assisting Front Line states in South Africa to end the inhuman apartheid regime and India was entrusted with the chairmanship of the Fund Committee.
Highlight the acts of dissent and resistance of the Emergency imposed in 1975. In your opinion, how did these acts affect the public opinion ? [2 + 4 = 6]
Analyse the issue ‘Indira vs the Syndicate’. What type of challenges did the issue pose before Indira Gandhi ?
On 12th June, 1975 Justice Jagmohan Lai Sinha of Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi’s Lok Sabha election as invalid. Opposition demanded resignation from Indira Gandhi. There were many rallies and sabhas but in response government declared a state of emergency on 25 June, 1975.
Acts of dissent and resistance of the emergency imposed in 1975 :
- Many political workers who were not arrested in the first wave, went underground and organised protests against the government.
- Newspapers like the Indian Express and the Statesman protested against censorship by leaving blank spaces, where news items had been censored. Magazines like the seminar and the mainstream close to close down rather than submit to censorship.
- Kannada writer Shivarama Karanth, awarded with Padma Bhusan and Hindi writer Fanishwarnath Renu awarded with Padma Shri, returned their awards in protest against the suspension of democracy.
Effect of public opinion :
- The emergency made everyone aware of the value of civil liberties. The courts, too, have taken an active role after the emergency to protect the civil liberties of individuals.
- After the declaration of emergency, the urban middle classes were generally happy over the fact that agitations came to an end and discipline was enforced on the government employees.
- The poor and rural people also expected effective implementation of the welfare programmes the government had promised. Thus, different sections of society had different expectations from the emergency and also different viewpoints about it.
The factional rivalry between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi came in the public in 1969. The challenges faced by Indira Gandhi were :
- After the death of Zakir Hussain, for the post of President, Syndicate managed to nominate their long time opponent N. Sanjeeva Reddy as candidate for the presidential election.
- She had a strong opposition for electoral contest (1971) and had already lost the elections of 1967.
- Lok Sabha elections of 1971, were as dramatic as was the decision to hold these elections. The Congress(R)-CPI alliance won more seats.
- Indira Gandhi’s party got more than one fourth of the votes i.e., while congress [O] achieved only 16 seats. Thus Congress (Indira Gandhi’s) Party was declared the real Congress.
- She focussed on the growth of the public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparities in income and opportunity and abolition of Privy Purse.
Describe any three areas of tension which are yet to be solved to retain unity in diversity in India. [3 × 2 = 6]
Describe any three elements of growing consensus among most of the political parties of India after 1989.
India adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity. It allows the political expressions of regional aspirations and does not look upon them as anti-national. But there are problems in the concept of unity in diversity.
- Problems in Kashmir valley have not been resolved until now. Some Kashmiris want to be a part of India and some muslims wanted to be a part of Pakistan.
- In some parts of North-East, there was no consensus about being a part of India.
- Nagaland and the then Mizoram witnessed strong movements demanding separation from India.
In the south, some groups from the Dravid movement briefly toyed with the idea of a separate country.
After 1989 three elements of growing consensus among most of the political parties are :
(i) The defeat of the Congress party marked the end of Congress era and an era of multi-party system had begun so, Alliance Politics was seen. In different elections coalition government was made after 1989. A long phase of coalition politics began.
(ii) The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalit and backward classes. Many of these parties represented powerful regional assertion as well. First coalition government came to power in 1996. BJP did not support it but it was supported by the Congress.
(iii) Many other parties at the national level were formed vi%., Janta party, Bhartiya Kranti Dal and Sanyukta Socialist Party. Some parties had a powerful rural base among sections of OBC. In election it has Become necessary to reserve quota for OBC.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Outside Delhi Set – II
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Assess the impact of Valentine’s Day on Indian culture. 
Valentine’s Day is considered shameful in Indian culture because it negatively affects the mindset of teenagers and kids.
Describe Indo-China relations from 1947 to 1962. 
Nehru’s foreign policy towards neighbours: Due to the foreign policy with neighbouring countries, India-China border problem created a lot of damage. India and China had the same experience with foreign rule for more than two hundred years.
(i) After the Chinese revolution in 1949, India was one of the first countries to recognise the communist government.
(ii) On 29th April 1954, a peaceful co-existence . between Zhou Enlai and Nehru was a step in the direction of stronger relation between the two countries.
(iii) The plateau of the central Asian region called Tibet, is one of the major issues that historically caused tension between India and China. In 1950, China took over the control of large part of Tibet, but the population of Tibet demanded their freedom. Hence, Panchsheel agreement was signed in 1954. In 1958, it was decided Tibet will be given greater autonomy than what they enjoyed. But many refugees came to India and other parts of the country. Dalai Lama also set up his home in Dharamshala. But due to these tensions, China invaded India in 1962, for which India demanded help from other countries. The attack lasted one week and Chinese forces captured some areas in Arunachal Pradesh. But after this, China declared a cease-fire. The current relations between the two countries are better.
What is the full form of WTO? When was it set up? How does it function ? [1 + 1 + 2 = 4]
(i) Full form of WTO is “World Trade Organisation”.
(ii) It is an international organisation that was set up on 1st January, 1995 as the successor to the general agreement on trade and tariffs. The WTO is the only international organisation dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible but the major economic powers such as US, European Union and Japan have managed to use the WTO to frame rules of trade in advance in their own interest.
Explain any four economic consequences of globalisation. 
Economic consequences of globalisation are as follows :
- Globalisation usually involves greater economic flows among the different countries. Some of these are voluntary and some are forced by the international institutes.
- It has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe, the restrictions imposed by different countries on allowing the imports of other countries have been reduced.
- Movement of capital across the countries have also been reduced in operational terms. It means that investors in the rich countries Can invest their money in countries other than their own.
- It has also led to flow of ideas across national boundaries which helps developed economies more and developing economies have to suffer.
“Resistance is the only option available to overcome the U.S. hegemony.” Justify the . statement by Comparing it to other antihegemony strategies.
“Nepal and India enjoy a very special relationship that has very few parallels in the world.” Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments. [3 × 2 = 6]
The definition of ‘Hegemony’ is leadership or dominance, especially by one state or group over others either in physical power or economic power. The US hegemony began in 1991 after sudden collapse of USSR and disappearance of Soviet Union from the international scene.
Some people believe that resistance to American hegemony will be a better way to handle the situation. Resistance to hegemony:
- The challenge to American hegemony will emerge in the economic and cultural realms, and will come from combination of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), social movements and public opinion.
- It may come from sections of media and intellectuals, artist and writers. However, resisting against it shall not be helpful, rather than that, working with it might help to reap extra efforts.
- These prominent public figures may well form link across national boundaries, including Americans, to criticise and resist US policies. Normal way of
(i) Bandwagon strategy: It emphasises on not to oppose hegemonic power, but to take opportunities to extract benefit by operating within hegemonic system.
(ii) Hide strategy: It implies to stay as far as possible from the dominant power. This strategy is applicable to small states but states may not be able to hide for substantial length of time.
India and Nepal have a very special relationship that has few parallels in the world.
- A treaty between the two countries allows the citizens of the two countries to travel and work in each other’s countries without Visas and Passports.
- Despite various differences about trade, common natural resources, electricity generation and water management grids together, these countries continue to share friendly relations, the two countries had trade dispute in the past. Nevertheless, Indo-Nepalese relationship is fairly stable and peaceful.
- There is a hope that the consolidation of democracy in Nepal will lead to improvements in the ties between the two countries.
Trace the evolution of the United Nations since its establishment in 1945. How does it function with the help of its various structures and agencies? [4 + 2 = 6]
What is meant by global poverty ? Suggest any two ways to reduce disparity between the poor and the rich at the global level. [2 + 4 = 6]
The UN was founded as a successor to the League of Nations. It was established in 1945 immediately after the second World War. The UN organisation was set up by signing of the United Nations Charter by 51 states. The UN’s objective is to prevent international conflict and to facilitate cooperation among the states. It was founded with the hope that it would help to stop the conflicts between states escalating into war and if war broke out, to limit the extent of hostilities.
We sum up the UN as “The United Nations was not created to take humanity to heaven, but to save it from hell”.
The UN functions through its various organs and subsidiaries arms :
- Economic and Social Council: Looks into the economic and social welfare of member countries.
- International Court of Justice : Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
- International Atomic Energy Agency : Safety and Peaceful use of nuclear technology.
- Security Council: Preservation of international peace and security.
- UN High Commission for Refugees : Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
- World Trade Organisatioh: Facilitates free trade among member countries.
- International Monetary Fund : Overseas and Global financial system.
- General Assembly : Debates and discusses global issues.
- World Health Organisation : Providing good health for all.
- Secretariat: Administration and Co-ordination of UN affairs.
Global poverty: It refers to miserable overpopulated countries suffering from low incomps and less economic growth.
Ways to reduce the disparity between the poor and rich at the global level:
(i) Economic inequality can give wealthier people an unacceptable degree of control over the lives of others.
If wealth is very unevenly distributed in a society, wealthy people often end up in control of many aspects of the lives of poorer citizens: over where and how they can work, what they can buy, and in general what their lives will be like. As an example, ownership of a public media outlet, such as a newspaper or a television channel, can give control over how others in the society view therhselves and their lives, and how they understand their society. Therefore government should try reduce this economic gap.
(ii) Improving public schools
There’s no surer ticket out of poverty than a solid education. But that education has to be affordable and it has to be equally distributed.
(iii) Raising the minimum wage
It’s impossible to live on today’s minimum wage, which is substantially lower, when adjusted for inflation, Throughout the world, it is convenient for employers to argue they can’t pay higher wages. Their profits indicate otherwise as the industry owners are becoming rich every year. The American dream is to work hard and get ahead. That is not a reality today, even for people who are working full-time.
(iv) Reduction in the “gap” between inequalities The report published by social sciences highlights the need for more cooperation across disciplines, borders and inequality specialisations to help governments to develop more effective polices to create more inclusive societies, everywhere in the world.
International networks, open data sources, open access to publishing and software are vital to achieve this. (Any two)
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Outside Delhi Set – III
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Why does mineral industry invite criticism and resistance in various parts of the globe ? Give any one major reason. [4 × 1/2 = 2]
The mineral industry’s extraction of earth, its use of chemicals, its pollution of waterways and land, its displacement of communities invites criticism and resistance in various parts of globe.
Describe any four long-term implications of the conflict of 1962 between India and China. [4 × 1 = 4]
After 1957, various contentious issues arose in Indo-China relations :
(i) In 1962, military conflict over a border dispute over the MacMohan line resulted an unwarranted claim by China which lies now in Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin regions of Ladakh.
(ii) Differences arose from Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1950 which was protested by India against China.
(iii) The aftermath of the war saw sweeping changes in the Indian military to prepare it for similar conflicts in the future and to strengthen its own defences. A shift from Nehru’s failed policy of brotherhood with China ended soon after the end of the war. The Indian government passed the ‘Defence of India’ Act in December 1962, permitting the detention in custody of any person suspected of being of hostile origin. Finally, India doubled its military manpower and worked very hard to become the second largest army in the world.
(iv) Series of talks, initiated in 1981 to resolve border issues was also one implication China’s policy became more pragmatic.
What is Amnesty International ? State its main functions. [1 + 3 = 4]
Amnesty International is an N.G.O. that campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world.
- It promotes respect for all the human rights in the universal declaration of “Human Rights”.
- It believes that human rights are interdependent and indivisible.
- It prepares and publishes reports from various countries on human rights.
Explain any four cultural consequences of globalisation with examples. 
Four cultural consequences of globalisation are :
- It leads to the rise of a uniform culture or what is called cultural homogenization. What we have in the name of a global culture is the imposition of western culture on the rest of world.
- Western culture affects the rest of the world. The popularity of a burger or blue jeans in other countries has a lot to do with the powerful influence of the American way of life.
- The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprints on a less powerful society.
- With the rise of “McDonaldization” of the world, with cultures seeking to buy into the dominant American dream.
Examine the sequence of events related to the formation of governments in Bangladesh from 1971 to 1990. 
Evaluate the American hegemony as a hard power.
Sequence of events related to the formation of government of Bangladesh are :
- War between India and Pakistan broke out in 1971 which ended with the surrender of Pakistani forces in east Pakistan and formation of Bangladesh as an independent country.
- Formation of various government between 1971 to 1990:
- In 1971, Sheikh Mujib-Ur-Rahman was elected as head of first government. However, in 1975 Mujibur-Rahman amended the constitution to shift from Parliamentary system to Presidential form of government.
- Sheikh Mujib was assassinated in a military • uprising in August 1975.
- The new Military Ruler, Ziaur-Rahman ruled from April 1977 to May 1981 who again was assassinated.
- People rose in support of democracy. Lt. Gen. H. M. Ershad, another military ruler became president from December 1983 to December 1990. Between these periods, few leaders ruled but not for long duration.
Three factors responsible for the US hegemony in the world politics are :
(i) The US power lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military power. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US today has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time, thereby crippling the adversary while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the dangers of war.
(ii) The military power of America, its forces are sheltered from dangers of war, thus making it a bigger power.
(iii) The US invasion of Iraq shows that the American capacity to conquer is formidable. More than forty-countries joined in the US led “Coalition Of the Willing” after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion. Thus, no country can deny the US superiority in the world politics.
Mention any six Post-Cold War changes that have necessitated reforms to make the United Nations work better. 
What is meant by cooperative security ? How can this be made more effective ? 
Presently, United Nation has 193 member states. The UN’s most visible public figure, and the representative is the General Secretary Antonio Guterres who is the ex Prime Minister of Portugal. Reforms and improvements are fundamental to any organisation to serve the needs of a changing environment and post cold war changes has necessitated the reforms.
The UN was established in 1945 immediately after the Second World War. The way it was organised and the way it functioned reflected the realties of world politics after the Second World War. After the cold war, those realities are different. Here are some of the changes that have occurred :
- The Soviet Union has collapsed.
- The US became the strongest power.
- The relationship between Russia, and the US has become much more cordial.
- China is fast emerging as a great power, and India is also growing rapidly.
- Many new countries have joined the UN (as they gained independence from the Soviet Union or former communist states in Eastern Europe).
- A whole new set of challenges confronts the world (Genocide, civil war, ethnic conflict, terrorism, nuclear proliferation, climate change, environmental degradation, epidemics).
Cooperative security is the involvement of international cooperation depending on the nature of the threat and the willingness and ability of countries to respond.
Military forces may have a role to play in combating terrorism or in enforcing human rights. But it is difficult to see what force would do to help alleviate poverty, manage migration, refugee movements and control epidemics. Here, in most cases, the use of military force would only make matters worse.
It is better to devise strategies that involve international cooperation. Cooperative security’ may also involve a variety of other players, both national and international — international organisations such as UN, World Health Organisation, World Bank, IMF etc., Non-governmental organisations like Amnesty International, the Red Cross, private foundations and charities, churches, religious organisations, trade unions, associations businesses and corporations etc. Cooperative security may involve the use of force as last resort. It is to agree that the use of violence (by force) is acceptable against international terrorists and those who harbour them.
Non-traditional security is much better when the use of force is sanctioned and applied collectively by the international community rather than when an individual country decides to use force on its own.