CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2016 Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100
- All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
- Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
- Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2016 Delhi Set – I
Which one of the following statements about the Berlin wall is false ? 
(a) It symbolized the division between the Capitalist and the Communist worlds.
(b) It was built immediately after the Second World War.
(c) It was broken by the people on 9th November, 1989. .
(d) It marked the unification of the two parts of Germany.
(b) It was built immediately after the Second World War.
Why was ASEAN established ? 
ASEAN was established :
- To accelerate the economic growth in member countries.
- For social progress and cultural development.
- To promote regional peace and security.
Which one of the two is more essential construction of mega dams or an environmental movement that opposes it and why ? 
The construction of mega dams is essential for development and progress of country. However relocation and rehabilitation of the affected people should be done but without environmental degradation.
Which two objectives Jawaharlal Nehru wished to achieve through the strategy of Non-alignment ? 
Jawahar lal Nehru wished to achieve these objectives through NAM:
- To preserve the hard earned sovereignty
- To protect territorial integrity
- Peaceful co-existence for securing world peace.
Highlight the most novel aspect of the Chipko Movement. 
The most novel aspect of Chipko Movement was the active participation of women.
Mention any two major military features of the Cold War. 
Following are two military features of Cold war:
- The two superpower and the countries in the rival blocs led by the super powers were expected to behave as rational and responsible actors.
- The two superpowers and their blocs were not to encourage war or use of weapons.
“The leaders of the newly independent India did not see politics as a problem : They saw it as a way of solving the problems.” How far do you agree with the statement? 
The above statement is absolutely true because most of the leaders of national movement joined politics and tried to be in power to solve the problems of the people. They actively engaged themselves in all political activities. Even the opposition was indulged in constructive criticism. They tried to face the challenges alongwith trying to look for their appropriate solution.
Match the following : 
|(i) A politically controversial appointment.||(i) Charu Majumdar|
|(ii) Led the Railway strike in 1972.||(ii) Jayaprakash Narayan|
|(iii) Declined to join Nehru’s Cabinet.||(iii) George Fernandes|
|(iv) Died in police custody.||(iv) Justice A. N. Ray|
|Column ’A’||Column ’B’|
|(i) A politically controversial appointment.||(iv) Justice A. N. Ray|
|(ii) Led the Railway strike in 1972.||(iii) George Fernandes|
|(iii) Declined to join Nehru’s Cabinet.||(ii) Jayaprakash Narayan|
|(iv) Died in police custody.||(i) Charu Majumdar|
While the rest of the country was reorganized on linguistic lines in 1950s, why did Punjab have to wait till 1966 ? 
- In Punjab there were two linguistic t groups, Hindi speaking and Punjabi speaking. Punjabi speaking groups were not getting full support from non-Punjabi groups, hence they wanted a separate ‘ state for themselves.
- Akali Dal was leading the Punjabi Susa movement without getting full support of non-Sikhs and other castes within Sikhs. This movement was not as strong as in other states. So Punjab had to wait.
How was the reorganisation of North-East India completed and by when ? 
Reorganisation of North-East was almost completion 1972. Meghalaya was carved out of Assam in 1972. Manipur and Tripura too emerged as separate states. The states of Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram came into being much later in 1987. Nagaland became an independent state in 1963.
In which four ways did the new economic policy of China benefit its economy ? 
- The state played and continues to play a central role in setting up a market economy.
- Privatisation of agriculture in 1982.
- New trading laws and creation of special economic zones.
- High personal savings in the rural economy led to an exponential growth of rural industry.
What is Amnesty International ? State its main functions. 
It is an international NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights. Its main functions are :
- It prepares and publishes reports on human rights.
- It believes that human rights are indivisible and interdependent.
- It promotes respect for all the Human right in the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”.
What are ‘global commons’? Why is it said that international cooperation over the global commons is not easy ? 
Global commons are the resources which are not owned by any country but rather owned by the international community. For example, Earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica, the ocean floor and the outer space. They are also called, Res Communis humanitatis. It is difficult to achieve consensus on common environmental agenda. There have been significant agreements such as Antarctic treaty (1959), Montreal protocol (1987) and Antarctic Environmental Protocol (1991). History of outer space as a global common shows that the management of these areas is influenced by North-South inequalities. The benefits of exploitative activities in outer space are far from being equal either for the present or the future.
What distinguished the dominance of the Congress Party in India from other examples of one party dominance in other countries ? Explain. 
The dominance of the Congress Party in India was different because of the following reasons :
- In India, democracy was not compromised by dominance of one party.
- In India, multiparty system prevailed where as in other countries like China and Russia dominance of one party was due to one party system.
- There was no military interference like in Myanmar and Egypt.
- Dominance of Congress party was due to its own popularity.
Critically examine the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy. 
Outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy:
- Much of the agriculture, trade and industry were left in private hands.
- The state controlled key heavy industries, provided industrial infrastructure, regulated trade and some crucial interventions in agriculture.
This led to the growth of both private and public sector which became the basis for future development.
How did Janata Party make the 1977 elections into a referendum on the Emergency imposed in 1975? Explain. 
All the opposition parties joined hands against Congress and gave a choice to the people to choose anyone out of two. Janata Party advocated the cause of democracy and called the period of emergency as the absence of democracy. JP Narayan became the icon of the opposition and provided an alternative against the current government. Janata Party asked the voters to choose between democracy and dictatorship.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions : 
Each of these countries was required to make a total shift to a capitalist economy, which meant rooting out completely any structures evolved during this period. Above all, it meant that private ownership was to be the dominant pattern of ownership of property. Privatisation of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. Collective farms were to be replaced by private farming and capitalism in agriculture. This transition ruled out any alternate or ‘third way’.
(i) Name any two countries which were required to make a total shift.
(ii) Why were the collective farms to be replaced by private farming ?
(iii) Since the ‘third way’ had been ruled out, what were the only two ways of controlling the economy ?
(i) Armenia, Georgia, Uzbekistan or any other country created after disintegration of USSR were required to make a total shift.
(ii) Due to the end of state controlled economy and introduction of privatisation and liberalisation.
(iii) Two ways to control the economy were state controlled economy (socialism) and capitalism.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions : 
At the most simple level, globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity, that is the ability of government to do what they do. All over the world, the old Svelfare state’ is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens. However, it withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well- being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
(i) What do the worlds ‘erosion of state capacity’ imply ? Explain with the help of an example.
(ii) Why is the concept of welfare state giving way to a minimalist state ?
(iii) How has market become the prime determinant of social priorities ?
(i) ‘Erosion of state capacity’ means reduction in the capability or power of the government to fulfill or take up responsibilities. Now-a-days, the governments of various countries are obliged to obey the international norms for preservation and conservation of environment.
(ii) Due to privatisation, most of the economic activities are now under control of the private sector. States do have a role to facilitate the economic development by maintaining law and order and providing security to the citizens. As such, welfare activities are getting reduced.
(iii) Multi-national companies have come into the field of economic growth. They are in search of markets to sell their products. Now markets have become the determinants of social priorities. It had lead to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decision on their own.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions : 
When India conducted its first nuclear test, it was termed as peaceful explosion. India argued that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purposes. The period when the nuclear test was conducted was a difficult period in domestic politics. Following the Arab-Israel War of 1973, the entire world was affected by the Oil Shock due to the massive hike in the oil prices by the Arab nations. It led to economic turmoil in India resulting in high inflation.
(i) When did India conduct its first nuclear test and why ?
(ii) Why was the period, when the nuclear test was conducted in India, considered to be difficult period in domestic politics?
(iii) Which international event of 1970s was responsible for high inflation in India ?
(i) In May 1974 at Pokhran (Rajasthan). To use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
(ii) Prices were rising due to Arab – Israel war. There was a hike in oil prices. So, India was facing difficulties on the economic front.
(iii) The Arab-Israel war of 1973 created the oil shock through out the whole world.
Study the cartoon given below and answer following questions : 
(i) Identify any four national leaders from the above cartoon and mention the serial number of each.
(ii) Which was the most controversial issue of the period related to leader No. 2 as Prime Minister of India ?
(iii) What was the position of the party led by leader No. 1 in the Lok Sabha elections of 1989?
(i) 1. Rajiv Gandhi
2. V. P. Singh
3. L. K. Advani
4. Devi Lai
5. Jyoti Basu
6. Chander Shekhar
7. N. T. Rama Rao
8. P. K. Mahanto
9. K. Karunanidhi
(ii) Implementation of Mandal Commissions recommendations.
(iii) The party lead by leader no. 1 was badly affected in 1989 and could not muster clear majority (reduced from 415 to 189).
In the given political outline map of South Asia, five countries have been marked as A, B, C, D and E. Identify them on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer book along with their respective serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabet as per the following format: 
|Sr. no. of the Information used||Alphabet concerned||Name of the State|
(i) An important but it is not considered to be a part of South Asia.
(ii) The country has a successful Democratic System.
(iii) This country has had both Civilian and Military rulers.
(iv) This country had Constitutional Monarchy.
(v) An Island nation which was a Sultanate till 1968.
|Sr. no. of the Information used||Alphabet concerned||Name of the State|
Highlight any three positive and three negative features each of the Soviet system in the soviet Union. 
How far is it correct to say the international alliances during the Cold War era were determined by the requirements of the superpower and the calculations of the smaller states? Explain.
Positive features :
- Soviet system was more developed than rest of the world except USA.
- Minimum standard of living was ensured for all the citizens.
- The Govt, subsidized the basic needs including health, education, child care & other welfare schemes.
- There was no unemployment.
Negative features :
- System was very bureaucratic and authoritarian.
- There was lack of democracy and mainly absence of freedom of speech.
- There was only one party system (Communist party of Soviet Union).
- The party did not recognize the aspirations and feelings of people.
Superpowers used their military power to bring countries into their fold.
- Soviet Union used its influence in Eastern Europe backed by the large armies of countries of its alliance. .
- On the other hand, the United States built alliance called SEATO and CENTO on the question of North Vietnam, North Korea and Iraq, Russia and China came closer.
- Eastern alliance known as Warsaw Pact was led by USSR, came into existence in 1995. Alliances were made for the requirement of vital national resources.
- Superpowers needed territories to launch their weapons and troops. In return they helped them in many ways.
- Smaller states wanted financial, territorial and political security and that was why, they joined the power blocs. This guaranteed them a safe and secure future.
Analyse the three different views within India about the type of relationship India should have with the United States of America. 
Evaluate any three major factors responsible for making the European Union a political force being an economic force. 
- Both India and US can prove beneficial for each other in terms of economy and politics.
- India should take advantage of US hegemony ‘ and national understandings to establish best possible options for itself.
- India should take the lead in establishing a coalition of countries from developing world.
- Both US and India should established stronger trade relationships between themselves.
- However one view says that India should maintain its aloofness from the US, and should focus upon inceasing its own comprehensive national power.
- The Council of Europe established in 1949 was a step forward in political cooperation.
- European Economic Community in 1957 acquired a political discussion leading to creation of European Parliament.
- Disintegration of Soviet Union put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European Union in 1992.
- It has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency.
- EU being the world’s biggest economy has its own political influence also.
Describe any three international challenging issues that can only be dealt with when all the countries work together. 
What is meant by traditional notion of external security ? Describe any two components of this type of security.
The three international challenging issues :
(i) Terrorism refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of more than one country. Terrorist groups seek to change a political context or condition that they do not like by force or threat of force. Civilian targets are usually chosen to terrorise the public and to use the unhappiness of the public as a weapon against national governments or other parties in conflict.
(ii) Human rights have come to be classified into three types. The first type is political rights such as freedom of speech and assembly. The second type is economic and social rights. The third type is the rights of colonised people of ethnic and indigenous minorities. Another threat is the violation of human rights. Since the 1990s, developments such as Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, the genocide in Rwanda, and the Indonesian military’s killing of people in East Timor have led to a debate on whether or not the UN should intervene to stop human rights abuses.
(iii) Global poverty is another source of insecurity. World population—now at 650 crore—will reach 700 to 800 crore within 25 years and may eventually level out at 900 to 1000 crore. Poverty in the South has also led to large-scale migration to seek a better life, especially better economic opportunities, in the North. This has created international political frictions.
Traditional conception of external security is mainly when military actions from other countries threaten the peace and security of a country’. Basic values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity is questioned in such cases. Not only soldiers but ordinary citizens are also at risk.
- When war breaks out, Government has a choice to defend itself, by surrendering when actually confronted by war. This prevents the war and is known as the policy of deterrence.
- Governments can also choose to avoid the war completely, by refusing to fight, rather by negotiation,
- Governments may choose to form alliances with powerful neighbouring countries to ensure peace and balance of power. Negotiation etc, is involved and military, economic and technological power are maintained and enhanced.
“The accommodation of regional-demands and the formation of linguistic states were also seen as more democratic.” Justify the statement with three suitable arguments. 
Examine the different areas of agreement and disagreement with respect to the model of economic development to be adopted in India after independence.
Arguments to justify the statement:
- It is almost 60 years that the formation of linguistic states have changed the nature of democratic politics in a positive and constructive way.
- Formation on the basis of language became a uniform basis for drawing the state boundaries.
- It has united the country rather than causing it to disintegration.
- Regional aspirations when fulfilled, give strength to the people and make democracy a success. Many regional aspirations are being accommodated to strengthen the democracy.
Areas of Agreement:
- Development of India should mean both economic growth and social and economic justice.
- The matter of development cannot be left to businessmen, industrialists and farmers only but the government should play key role.
- The task of poverty alleviation and social and economic redistribution was seen as the primary responsibility of government.
Areas of disagreement:
- Disagreement on the kind of role to be played by the government.
- Disagreement over the importance attached to the needs of justice if it differed from the economic growth.
- Disagreement on the issue of giving priority to industries v/ s agriculture and private v/ s public sector.
Analyse the circumstances that favoured Indira Gandhi to become Prime Minister after the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri. Mention any four achievements of Indira Gandhi that made her popular as a Prime Minister. 
Analyse the circumstances responsible for the declaration of a state of emergency in India on 25 th June, 1975.
- Indira Gandhi was the daughter of popular ex-Prime Minister J.L. Nehru.
- She became Congress President in 1958.
- She had been Union Minister for information in Shastri’s cabinet from 1964-66. Her personality was powerful and she was a very capable leader people saw her as a successful politician who could handle.
- She had given a famous positive slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’.
- She focused on growth of public sector.
- She had imposed the ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property to remove disparities in income and opportunity.
- She had abolished the princely privileges to prevail the principles of equality and social and economic justice.
- Decisive victory in the 1971 ’s India-Pakistan war soared Indira Gandhi’s popularity.
- First nuclear explosion in 1974 also increased her popularity.
Circumstances that led to imposition of emergency :
- Clash between the executive (Government) and judiciary.
- The government diverted all energies for the maintenance of law and order, as a result development was not taking place.
- Students’ movements in Bihar and Gujarat against price rise and corruption.
- Railway strike led by George Fernandes.
- A big rally at Ram Lila Maidan was organised and call to the employees including police/army not to obey the undemocratic orders.
- Judgments of Allahabad High Court setting aside the election of Indira Gandhi.
All these led to the atmosphere of distrust against Indira Gandhi who hurriedly tried to save her position by imposing emergency.
Describe any six factors which made the farmers movement run by Bharatiya Kisan Union as the most successful popular movement. 
Which three lessons do we learn from regional aspirations and their accommodation as an integral part of democratic politics? Describe. 
- Kisan Andolan led by BKU was one of the most disciplined agitation.
- BKU used traditional caste panchayats to bring them together on economic issues.
- BKU used clan networks for generating funds and resources. ‘
- The demands raised by BKU were very clear to farmers and were readily accepted by the farmers.
- BKU kept itself a political and worked as a pressure group.
- BKU used the pressure tactics and showed the strength and power of the farmers.
- Regional aspirations are a very important part of democratic politics and expression of regional issues is a normal phenomenon.
- Democratic negotiations are the best way to resolve the regional issues.
- Regional matters can be resolved by power sharing within constitutional framework.
- Regional balance and economic development decrease the feeling of regional discrimination. Therefore the problem of backwardness of regions should be addressed at a priority.
- Constitutional provisions already incorporated resolving of regional issues. The sixth schedule of the Constitution allows different tribes complete autonomy of preserving their practices and customary laws.
- Federation should be given respect in true sense.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2016 Delhi Set – II
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
What is meant by Cuban Missile Crisis ? 
The Cuban missile crisis was a 13 day confrontation between the U.S.A. and Soviet Union, initiated by American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey, with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
This confrontation is often considered, the closest the cold war came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. The two world leaders who played a crucial role in this crisis were President Khrushchev of USSR and John F. Kennedy of U.S.A.
Mention any four significant changes in Indo-China relations that have taken place after the Cold War. 
- Their relations now have a strategic as well as an economic dimension.
- Both view themselves as rising powers in global politics.
- Both would now like to play a major role in Asian economy and politics.
- Bilateral trade between India and China has increased from $ 338 million in 1992 to more than $ 18 billion in 2006.
What is the full form of WTO? When was it set up? How does it function ? 
Full form of WTO is “World Trade Organisation”. Its an international organisation set up on 1st January, 1995 as the successor to the general agreement on trade and tariffs. In brief, the WTO is the only international organisation dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. But the major economic powers such as US, European Union and Japan have managed to use the WTO to frame rules of trade in advance in their own interest.
“The Indian Government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes related to environmental issues.” Give any four examples to support the statement. 
- India’s National Auto Fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for automobiles.
- The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency.
- The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.
- Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show that India has been making real efforts to address environmental issues.
Highlight the circumstances that compelled the socialists to form a separate Socialist Party in 1948. Mention any two grounds on which they criticized the Congress Party. 
The Congress Socialist Party was formed within the Congress in 1934. In 1948, the Congress amended its constitution to prevent its members from having a dual party membership. This forced the Socialists to form a separate Socialist Party in 1948.
They criticized the Congress for favouring capitalists and landlords and for ignoring the workers and the peasants.
Describe the two basic reforms of the U.N. on which almost everyone agrees that they are necessary after the Cold War. 
Explain balance of Power as component of traditional security policy. How could a state achieve this balance ?
Two basic reforms:
(i) Reform of the organisation’s structures and processes- On this, the biggest discussion has been on the functioning of the Security Council. Demand for increase in Council’s permanent and non-permanent membership. US and other western countries want improvements in the UN’s budgetary procedures and it.s administration.
(ii) Review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the UN. Some countries want the organization to play greater or more effective role in peace and security missions while others want its role to be confined to development and humanitarian work.
Balance of Power: When countries find bigger and stronger countries around them, they to who might t be a threat in the future. For instance, a neighbouring country may not say it is preparing for an attack, but the fact that this country is very powerful is a sign, that at some point in the future it may choose to be aggressive. Governments are therefore, sensitive to the balance of power between their country and other countries power with other countries,
They work hard to maintain a favourable balance of power with other countries, especially those close by, those with whom they have differences, or with those they have had conflict in the past. A good part of maintaining a balance of power is to build up one’s military power, although economic and technological power are also important.
Describe the issues associated with the Anti-arrack Movements in Andhra Pradesh which drew the attention of the entire country. 
Describe the advantages of democratic approach to the question of diversity in uniting a large country like India.
A women’s protest against the sale of alcohol was organized in Andhra Pradesh. It demanded prohibition on sale of arrack. This demand was linked to social, economic and political issues of the region which affected women’s lives. Groups of local women tried to address the issue of nexus between crime and politics. They also dealt with the issue of domestic violence emerged due to consumption of alcohol, or the destruction of rural economy which happened because of their habit of drinking. It became a part of a women’s movement.
This movement was a spontaneous mobilisation of women demanding a ban on sale of alcohol in neighbouring places. The movement emerged because of the adult literacy drive which encouraged the women enrolled to fight against the injustice meted out to them, along with the gender discrimination they were facing.
The movement demanded equal representation of women in politics.
India adopted a democratic approach to support its diverse population. Democracy allows the political expressions of regional aspirations and does not look upon them as anti-national. There is one basic principle of the Indian regional and linguistic groups to retain their own culture. With a democratic approach, we live a united social life without losing the diversity of the numerous cultures that constitute it. Indian nationalism sought to balance the principles of unity and diversity. Regional issues and problems receives adequate attention and accomodation in the policy making process.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2016 Delhi Set – III
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Which two ideologies were involved in a conflict during the Cold War era and why ? 
An ideological conflict was between the communist Soviet Union and the capitalist liberal democratic United States. The Soviet tlnion was a communist country, which was ruled by a dictator, whereas U.S.A. was a capitalist democracy, which valued freedom and feared corhmunism.
While the Chinese economy has improved dramatically, why has every Chinese not received the benefits of the reforms ? Give any four reasons. 
Reasons are :
- Unemployment has risen.
- Work conditions were not good.
- Environmental degradation increased.
- Corruption has also increased. .
Why do some countries question tne issue of India’s inclusion as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council? Explain. 
- Strained relations with Pakistan.
- Some countries are concerned about India’s nuclear capabilities.
- China is also not in favor of India due to strategic reasons.
- If India is accommodated, other developing countries will also ask for permanent membership.
- Some others feel that Africa and South America must be represented before India receives representation.
Explain the role of environmental Movements to meet the challenge of Environmental Degradation. 
(i) Some of the environmental movements work at the international level whereas most of them work at the local level. They are amongst the most vibrant, diverse and powerful social movements across the globe. It is within social movements that new forms of political action are created or reinvented.
(ii) These movements raise new ideas and long term visions of what one should do and what one should not do in our individual their lives.
(iii) Some examples are the forest movements of the south, in Mexico, Chile, Brazil, Malasiya and India against forest cleaning which is rising at an alarming rate. Minerals industry movements regarding use of chemicals, pollution of waterways, displacement of communities are making news in this category.
(iv) Another group of movements are those involved in struggles against mega-dams. Anti-dam movements are pro-river movements for more sustainable and equitable management of river systems and valleys.
How did the coalition like character of the Congress Party give it an unusual strength ? 
- A coalition accommodates all those who join it and helps in striking a balance on almost all issues.
- There is a greater tolerance of internal differences and ambitions of various groups and leaders are accommodated.
- This character of Congress helped it to retain a party inside it even if a group was not happy.
- Internal factionalism became a strength of the Congress Party, which is usually a weakness.
State any six post Cold War changes that have necessitated reforms to make the U.N. work better. 
What is meant by traditional notions of internal and external security ? 
Presently, United Nation has 193 member states. The UN’s most visible public figure, and the representative had, is the General secretary Antonio Guterres who is the ex Prime Minister of Portugal. Reform and improvements are fundamental to any organisation to serve the needs of a changing environment and post cold war changes has necessitated the reforms.
The UN was established in 1945 immediately after the Second World War. The way it was organised and the way it functioned reflected the realties of world politics after the Second World War. After the cold war, those realities are different. Here are some of the changes that have occurred :
- The Soviet Union has collapsed.
- The US is the strongest power.
- The relationship between, Russia, and the US is much more cordial.
- China is fast emerging as a great power, and India also is growing rapidly.
- The economies of Asia are growing really fact.
The Traditional notion of Security’ covers both the external and internal threats of a country’s security. Internal threats include maintenance of internal peace and security and order, to recognise cooperative security to limit violence, internal military actions and separatist movements. External security includes danger from outside military threats, deterrence, defence and balance of power and alliance building.
Traditional notion of Internal security:
Traditional security must also concern itself with internal security. After the Second World war, for the most powerful countries on earth, internal security’ was more or less assured. After 1945, the US and the Soviet Union appeared to be united and could expect peace within their borders. In Europe, most of the powerful countries faced no threat from groups or communities living within their borders. However, . newly independent countries of Asia and Africa faced problems of Civil war.
Traditional notion of external security:
The period after the Second World war was the Cold war period in which the US-led western alliance faced the Soviet- led Communist aAiahce. The two alliances feared a military attack from each other. Some European powers, in addition, continued to worry about violence in their colonies, from colonized people who wanted Independence.
What is Sardar Sarovar Project ? Which benefits are expected to be if the project becomes successful ? Also state the issues of rehabilitation and relocation associated with it. 
While trying to forge and retain unity in diversity in India, there are many difficult issues which are yet to be tackled. Describe any three such areas of tension.
Sardar Sarovar Project is an ambitious developmental project launched in the Narmada Valley. It’s a mega dam project consisting of 30 big dams, 135 medium dams and around 3000 small dam to be constructed in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
(i) Water for irrigation: About 75% of the command area in Gujarat is drought prone, while entire command in Rajasthan is drought prone. Assured water supply will soon make this area drought free.
(ii) Generation of electricity.
(iii) Flood control: In addition to helping farmers, dams help in prevention of life and property caused by flooding. Flood control dams impound floodwaters and then either release them under control to the river below the dam or store or divert the water for other uses. For centuries, people have built dams to help control devastating floods.
Issues : About 245 villages have been affected and people belonging to these villages have to be relocated and rehabilitated. Resettlement sites lack basic facilities. Compensation to the displaced people, often comes in the form of land unsuitable for farming or living.
(i) Areas of tension in the way of retaining unity in diversity’: The issue of Jammu and Kashmir. Some issues of North-East about which there was no consensus regarding them being a part of India or not. Strong movements in Nagaland and Mizoram demanding separation from India.
(ii) Mass agitations in many parts for the formation of new state on the basis of language.
(iii) First phase of nation building was not enough. New challenges came up in Punjab, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttrakhand.