CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2015 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100
- All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
- Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
- Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2015 Outside Delhi Set – I
How did the U.S. respond to the 9/11 attacks ? 
The U. S. launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ against all those suspected to be behind the attack of 9/11, particularly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
Highlight any one major distinction between the Soviet economy and the Capitalist economy. 
The Soviet economy was planned and controlled by the state only whereas the capitalist economy was enjoyed by the people or group of people as well as by the state.
How far do you agree that the proclamation of emergency weakened the federal distribution of power in India? 
During the emergency, distribution of powers was suspended. All the powers came into the hands of the central government because of the Presidential Rule.
Justify that “Regionalism is not as dangerous as Communalism”. 
Under Regionalism, the set of demands raised by the people are for the development of that particular region within the country which is the key feature of democracy, whereas communalism represents the demands of a particular religious community for a separate independent religion to rule over or for their own vested interests.
Why do some people feel that Article 370 should be revoked ? 
Some people feel that Article 370 should be revoked because they believe that the special status of the state conferred by this article does not allow full integration of the state of Kashmir with India.
Mention any two benefits of globalization. 
Benefits of Globalization :
- There is increase in the volume of trade in goods and services.
- Inflow of private foreign capital gets enhanced.
- New jobs are created by MNCs.
- Improved production efficiency and healthy competition.
Suggest any two measures to have good relations with Pakistan. 
Suggested measures :
- Cultural exchanges by prominent personalities.
- Economic cooperation should be encouraged by both the countries.
- Movement of citizens to interact and understand each other.
- Mutual action against Militants.
Which characteristics made the Congress an ideological coalition during the freedom movement of India ? 
Congress was an ideological coalition because :
- Different groups merged their identity within the Congress. Very often they continued to exist within the Congress as groups and individuals holding different beliefs.
- It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremists and moderates as well as the right, left and all shades of the centre. It was a platform for numerous groups.
Identify the most important outcome of the Rio Summit. 
Outcomes of Rio Summit:
- The Rio Summit produced conventions dealing with climate change, biodiversity, forestry etc.
- It recommended a list of developmental practices called ‘Agenda 21.’
- There was consensus on sustainable development
How was the U.S. benefited by the Soviet disintegration ? 
- Cold War ended and the US became the sole super power.
- The capitalist economy became the most dominant economic system internationally.
- It signifies the collapse of the ideological conflict between the Socialists and the Capitalists.
Describe any four demands made by the Bharatiya Kisan Union after 1980. 
Demands made by the Bharatiya Kisan Union after 1980 :
- Higher official floor prices for sugarcane and wheat.
- Abolition of restrictions on the inter-state movement of farm produce.
- Guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates.
- Waiving off repayments due on loans to farmers.
- The provision of a government pension for farmers.
State any two differences between the First Five Year Plan and the Second Five Year Plan. 
Difference between the First Five Year Plan and the Second Five Year Plan are :
- First Five Year Plan started with a thrust on agriculture development where as the Second Five Year Plan stresses on heavy industries.
- The First Five Year Plan had emphasised on patience and Second Five Year Plan wanted to bring about quick structural transformation.
Explain the circumstances that forced the Tibetans to leave China. Highlight India’s role in helping the Tibetan refugees. 
- China annexed Tibet in 1950 and started the suppression of Tibetans.
- The large section of the Tibetan population opposed this takeover. So, in 1958 there was armed uprising in Tibet against China’s occupation. This was suppressed by the Chinese forces.
Under these circumstances, a large number of Tibetans sought refuge in India along with many other countries of the world.
- Many political leaders and parties in India supported the cause of Tibet’s independence.
- Many places like Delhi and Dharmshala became the largest refugee settlements of Tibetan refugees.
- The Government of India as well as many state governments extended help to reset the Tibetan refugees.
Distinguish between the internal and external notion of traditional security. 
Internal notion of traditional security :
(i) Internal military conflicts: The security challenges faced by newly-independent countries were military conflicts, not only with neighbours, but also from within over border issues, territories or control of people and populations,
(ii) Separatist movements: The new states faced threats from separatist movements, which wanted to form independent countries. Eg, the Khalistan movement, movements in Kashmir, demand for separate states in Tripura, Assam etc.
External notion of traditional security:
(i) Danger to a country from military threats :
In the external notion of traditional security, the f greatest danger to a country is from military threats from another country, which endagers the lives of citizens and the sovereignty and independence of the country.
(ii) Alliance building: An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack, mostly formalised in written
treaties. Alliances are based on national interests and can change when national interests change.
In what way do the coalition governments prove to be more democratic than the one-party governments ? 
Coalition governments prove to be more v’ democratic from the one-party governments in many ways:
- It eliminates the fear of one-party dictatorship.
- Different groups and regions get due representation in the government. A coalition government would bring in the representation of the smallest of communities/ideologies.
- Due to coalition government many parties come, together on different issues. The amalgamation of different ideologies would fetch all-round results.
- Coalition government keeps in view the regional aspirations and interests.
“Democracy is becoming the first choice of the people of South Asia.” Justify the statement. 
The following points justify the given statement:
- Despite the mixed record of the democratic experience, the people in all the countries of South Asia share the aspiration for democracy.
- Surveys in SAARC countries show that there is widespread support for democracy everywhere.
- Ordinary citizens view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy.
- The people think that democracy is most suited for their country.
- According to some, democracy could flourish and find support only in prosperous countries of the world, however democracy can work in countries with all types of economical status. It works well with developing countries like India.
Read the given passage carefully and answer the following questions : 
Above all, the linguistic states underlined the acceptance of the principle of diversity. When we say that India adopted democracy, it does not ‘ simply mean that India embraced a democratic
constitution, nor does it merely mean that India adopted the format of elections. The choice
was larger than that. It was a choice in favour of recognising and accepting the existence of differences which could at times be oppositional. Democracy, in other words, was associated with plurality of ideas and ways of life.
(i) What is meant by ‘linguistic states’?
(ii) Why were linguistic states formed in India? Explain any two reasons.
(iii) How is democracy in India associated with a plurality of ideas and ways of life?
(i) Linguistic states are organized or created on the basis of its regional language.
(ii) (1) It was felt that if the demands for separate states on linguistic basis are accepted, the threat of division and separation would reduce and establish unity in diversity.
(2) Accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states were seen as more democratic because of language and religious differences.
(iii) India is a country of different religions and ideologies. Still, the people have freedom to express their views and have equal representation in the decision making bodies.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions : 
The Naxalite Movement has used force to snatch land from the rich landowners and give it to the poor and the landless. Its supporters advocated the use of violent means to achieve their political goals. In spite of the use of preventive detention and other strong measures adopted by the West Bengal government…., the N axalite Movement did not come to an end. In later years, it spread to many other parts of the country.
(i) Why did the Naxalites prefer to use violence ?
(ii) Assess the positive role of the Naxalite Movement in spite of using violence.
(iii) Suggest any two measures to contain this movement.
(i) N axalities preferred to use violence because they argued that democracy in India was a sham and the legal process would not help them. So they preferred to take law in their own hands.
(ii) The Naxalite movement has used force to snatch land from the rich land owners and give it to the poor and the landless in order to enable them to meet as well as achieve their political goals.
(iii) (1) Government should provide the basic rights to the people of backward areas and Adivasis.
(2) Forced labour, and exploitation by money lenders must be stopped.
(3) The Government should follow consti-tutional norms while dealing with the Naxalites.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions : 
Non-alignment as a strategy evolved in the Cold War context.
……….. with the disintegration of USSR and the end of Cold War in 1991, non-alignment, both, as an international movement and as the core of India’s foreign policy, lost some of its earlier relevance and effectiveness.
(i) Why did India adopt non-alignment?
(ii) Explain any two reasons for-the loss of its relevance by the Non-Aligned Movement.
(iii) How far do you agree that the Non-Aligned Movement has become an international movement?
(i) India adopted Non-alignment to make international policies and decisions in a free manner and to actively intervene in world affairs to soften Cold War Rivalries.
(ii) With the disintegration of USSR and the end of the Cold War in 1991; non-alignment, both as an international movement and as the core of India’s foreign policy, lost some of its earlier relevance and effectiveness.
(iii) NAM has become an international movement because it is based on a resolve to democratise the international system. It provides an alternative world in order to redress the existing inequalities in various countries, especially the newly independent countries.
Study the cartoon given below and answer following questions : 
(i) Which country does the given cartoon refer to ?
(ii) Identify the two symbols in this cartoon which have given you the clue about the related country.
(iii) Where does the cartoon place the related country in the international power politics ?
(i) China, (ii) The Great wall of China and Dragon (iii) The cartoon depicts China’s economic rise which made it a big power. It is projected to overtake the US as the world’s largest economy bv 2040. ‘ ‘
In the given political outline map of India, five States are marked A, B, C, D and E. Identify them on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer- book with their respective serial numbers and the alphabets concerned : 
(i) The State which was carved out of Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) The State which opposed its merger with India after independence.
(iii) The first State of free India having a Communist government.
(iv) The State adjoining Pakistan territory up to 1971.
(v) The State which became agriculturally prosperous due to Greett Revolution.
Describe any three steps taken by the Indian Government to check the environmental degradation. 
Describe any three effects of globalisation on the culture of a country.
Steps taken by the Indian government to check the Environmental Degradation :
(i) National Automobile-fuel policy—Indian National Automobile Fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles.
(ii) Energy conservation act: The Energy Conservation Act passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.
(iii) National mission on biodiesel: The Indian Government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel, using about 11 million hectares of land to produce biodiesel, and India has one of the largest renewable energy programmes in the world.
Cultural effects of globalization may be positive as well as negative :
(i) External influences simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the tradition. For example, the burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and, therefore, does not pose any real challenge. In the same way blue jeans can go well with a homespun Khadi Kurta.
(ii) Globalisation broadened our cultural outlook and promotes Cultural Homogenisation. While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation, the above process also generates precisely the opposite effect. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. This process is called Cultural Heterogenisation.
(iii) The culture of a developed society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society and the world begins to look more like a dominant power which it wishes to be.
(iv) This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity, for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
Which three major developments took place in Indian politics during the last decade of the 20th century ? Describe. 
Briefly describe the story of Sikkim from the time of India’s independence to its merger with India.
Major developments in Indian politics during the last decade of the 20th century are :
(i) Decline of congress: The most crucial development of this year was the defeat of the congress party in the elections held in 1989. It could win only 197 seats in Lok Sabha. The congress improved its performance and came back to power soon after the mid-term elections held in 1991, but the elections of 1989 marked the end of the Congress dominance over the Indian party system and brought in an era of coalitions.
(ii) Rise of mandal issue: The Mandal issue started with the National Front Government’s decision to implement the recommendations of Mandal Commission, that members of OBC be granted reservations to 27% of jobs under the government and public sector undertaking thus making the total reservations for SC, ST, OBC to 49%. This led to widespread and violent anti-mandal protests in different part of the country, claiming lives of many students and protestors.
(v) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi: The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi occurred as a result of suicide homing in Sriperumbudur, Chennai in May 1991 by Dhanu, a member of the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam). His assassin and 14 others were killed too. In the 1991 elections, Congress emerged as the single largest party. P.V. Narsimha Rao was elected as the Prime Minister of India.
At the time of independence, Sikkim was not a part of India. It was a Protectorate of India. Its defence and toreign relations were looked after by India but not administrated by India. Monarchy system of Chogyal was unable to deal with the democratic aspirations of the people of Sikkim. Majority of Sikkim’s population was Nepalis and Lepcha-Bhutia community was in minority. The anti-Chogyal leaders of both the communities got support from the government of India. The first democratic elections were held in 1974. The Assembly first sought the status of an associate state and then in April, 1975 passed a resolution asking for full integration with India. The Indian parliament accepted this request immediately and Sikkim became the 22nd State of Indian Union.
Explain any three causes of the split in the Congress Party in 1969. 
Explain the circumstances that led to the mid¬term elections in 1980. ‘
Three causes of the split in the congress party in 1969 :
(i) Differences with the syndicate : After the 1967 elections, PM Indira Gandhi had to deal with the syndicate, a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the congress, who had played major role in her election as the leader of the party. These leaders expected her to follow their advice. However, Indira Gandhi gradually attempted to strengthen her position and carefully sidelined the Syndicate. Their rivalry came in the open in 1969 over the president elections following President Zakir Hussain’s death and also differences over the reforms introduced by Indira Gandhi.
(ii) Presidential Elections 1969: Following President Zakir Hussain’s death, the post of the president of India fell vacant in 1969. Despite Mrs. Gandhi’s reservations, the ‘Syndicate’ nominated her long time opponent, N. Sanjeeva Reddy as the official Congress candidate. Gandhi’Retaliated by encouraging Vice-president V. V. Gifi to file his nomination as an independent candidate. The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy formalised the split in the party into Congress (organisation) and that led by Indira Gandhi as congress (Requisitionists).
(iii) Reforms by Indira Gandhi: Revolutionary steps taken by Indira Gandhi were not welcomed by the Congress leaders. She had launched a series of initiatives like public distribution of food grains, land reforms, nationalisation of fourteen private banks abolition of the ‘privy purse’ or the special privileges given to former princess. Her policies were opposed by Morarji Desai and older leaders, too, had serious reservations about this left programme.
Circumstances that led to the mid-term elections in 1980 :
(i) The Janata party was not cohesive. There were internal conflicts in the party and a power struggle within. Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram, who had quit the congress, both were member of the Janata Alliance, but were at loggerheads with Prime Minister Morarji Desai.
(ii) The Janata Party lacked direction, leadership and a common programme. This government could not bring about a fundamental change in policies, pursued by the congress earlier. Their slogan was ‘Indira Hatao’, whereas that of Indira Gandhi was ‘Garibi Hatao’. Moreover, the committees formed to investigate human rights abuse during the emergency appeared vindictive against Indira Gandhi.
(iii) Internal fund between Janata Party leaders and the political instability in the country worked in favour of Indira Gandhi and reminded the voters of her strong government. Another government headed by Charan Singh, was formed on the assurance of support by the congress, but which later withdrew its support, with the result that Charan Singh government resigned just after four months. As a result, fresh Lok Sabha elections were held in January 1980.
Suppose there had been no Cold War, how would that situation have affected India’s foreign policy? 
If the Soviet Union had not disintegrated and the world had remained bipolar, how would that situation have affected the world politics?
If the Cold war had not taken place, it would have affected Indian foreign policy in the following ways :
(i) India would have vigorously pursued independent foreign policy, instead of remaining non-aligned. India then would have joined hands with many like minded powers for mutual benefit in many fields.
(ii) Since the rivalry between many major powers would have increased hatred and enmity. India would hgve been compelled to join the arms race to become a strong nation to defend its independence and sovereignty, since it would still face hostile enemies in China and Pakistan.
(iii) India would have become a super power in Asia because of her large territory, human resource and strategic location. Since it relations with other democratic nations have significantly improved they would have significandy helped her reach the pinnacle.
(i) Cold War confrontations would not have ended and the United States of America would not have become the only super power of the World. This would have resulted in major changes in terms of bloc-alliances and politics. The world would have been divided into 2 blocs.
(ii) Most of the countries which were part of erstwhile USSR would have never got independence. Colonisation would have had continued and the people belonging to these countries would have been deprived of basic human rights.
(iii) Accumulation of nuclear weapons would have continued endlessly.
Give any three suitable arguements to support India’s candidature for the permanent member-ship of the U.N. Security Council. 
How are the threats faced by the people in the Third World different from those faced by the people living in the First World ? Support your answer with examples.
- India is second most populous country in the , world comprising almost one-fifth of the world’s Population.
- India is also the world’s largest democracy and has virtually participated in all of the initiatives of the U.N.
- Its role in the UN’s peace keeping efforts has been a long and substantial one.
- India’s economic emergence on the world stage, due to its policies of liberalization and globalization, has enhanced its stake for membership.
- India has also made regular financial contribution to the UN and never faltered on its payments.
The differences in the threats that people ki the Third World faced and those living in the First World were totally different:
(i) The third world countries face the threats not only from outside their borders, but also from within. On the other hand, most of the First World countries face threats only from outside their borders.
(ii) Third world faces threats from separatist movements. There was no such threat to the First World Countries.-
(iii) For the newly independent third world Countries, external and internal wars posed a serious challenge to their security than the first world countries faced.
Analyse the political impact of hegemony of the U.S. on the world. 
Analyse any three factors responsible for the European Union to be a highly influential regional organisation.
Political impact of hegemony of the U.S. on the world:
(i) The first notion of U.S. hegemony lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military dominance. The U.S. today spends more on its military capability than next 12 powers combined.
(ii) The U.S. hegemony is also reflected in the role played by the U.S. in providing public goods. In the context of world economy, the best examples of public goods are SLOCs (Sea-lanes of Communication), sea-routes used by merchant ships, which enable free trade in an open world economy.
(iii) It is the naval power of the hegemony that underwrites the law of the sea and ensures freedom of navigation in international waters. Since the decline of British naval power after the Second World War SLOCs is under the control of the multi- oceanic U.S. navy.
(iv) The U.S. also accounts for 15 percent of world trade. There is not single sector of the world economy in which an American product does not feature in the “top three” list. The U.S. share of the world economy remains an enormous 28%, as it is present in all sectors the world economy and in all areas of technology.
(v) The Bretton Woods system set up by the U.S. after the Second World War, still constitutes the basic structure of the world economy. Thus, we can regard the World Bank, IMF and WTO as products of U.S. hegemony.
Factors responsible for the European Union to be a highly influential regional organization :
(i) Influence of EU in economic fields: The EU is the world’s biggest economy. Its currency the Euro can pose threat to the dominance of the US dollar also. Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa. Its share of world trade is 3 times larger that of the US.
(ii) Influence of EU in political fields: Its two members hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council. It also includes several non- permanent members of the UNSC. The EU has influenced some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme.
(iii) Influence of EU in military fields: The EU’s combined Armed Forces are the second largest in the world. Its total spending on defence is second after the US. Its members have nuclear 550 nuclear war heads. .
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2015 Outside Delhi Set – II
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Highlight any one consequence of ‘Shock Therapy’. 
Consequence of ‘Shock Therapy’:
- In Russia, the large state-controlled industrial complex almost collapsed, as about 90 per cent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies at throw-away prices called as “the largest garage sale in history”.
- The value of ruble declined dramatically and the inflation rate was so high that people lost their savings.
- The Russian old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed and the withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty. ‘
- Post-Soviet states, especially Russia, were divided between rich and poor regions resulting into great economic inequality.
Explain hegemony as a soft power. 
Hegemony as a soft power implies class ascendency in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres. It arises via the dominant class by persuading them to view the world in a favourable manner.
Evaluate the causes for the strained relations between India and China. 
Causes for the strained relations between India and China:
- Military conflict over a border dispute between the two countries marred the hope of the two countries coming together to shape the future of the developing world and of Asia particularly.
- Soon after independence, both states were involved in differences arising from the Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1950 and the final settlement of the Sino-Indian border.
- China and India were involved in a border conflict in 1962 over competing territorial claims principally in Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.
- The conflict of 1962 in which India suffered military reverses, had long term implications for India-China relations.
- India giving political asylum to the Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama in 1959 also strained the relations further.
Describe the strategy adopted by the Government of India to promote the Green Revolution. 
The strategy adopted by the Government of India to promote the Green Revolution :
- The Government of India offered High Yielding Variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides at highly subsidized prices.
- The government provided better irrigation facilities.
- The government also gave a guarantee to buy ‘ the produce of the farmers at a given price.
- The government decided to put more resources into those areas which already had irrigation and those farmers who were already well off.
State any two main demands of the Narmada Bachao Aandolan. 
Main demands of the Narmada Bachao Aandolan :
- The Movement demanded proper and just rehabilitation of all those who are directly or indirectly affected by the project.
- The NBA insisted that local communities must have a say in such decisions and they should also have effective control over natural resources like water, land and forests.
- It demanded that, in a democracy, some people should not be made to sacrifice for benefitting others.
- It demanded to stop the construction of the dams.
Explain the importance of cooperation in the field of Traditional Security. 
The importance of cooperation in the field of “Traditional Security” is in the sector disarmament, arms control, and confidence building disarmament requires all states to give up certain kinds of weapons. For example, the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned the production and possession of these weapons. It is only through cooperation that disarmament can be achieved.
Arms control regulates the acquisition or development of weapons. The Anti- Ballistic Missile(ABM) Treaty 1972 tried to stop the United States and the Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles as a defensive shield to launch a nuclear attack. Confidence Building is accepted as a means of avoiding violence. It is a process in which countries share ideas and information with their rivals. For confidence building as well, cooperation amongst coutries is a must.
Describe any three environmental concerns that have become issues of global politics. 
Describe any three effects of globalisation on the economy of a country.
Any three environmental concerns that have become issues of global politics :
(i) Throughout the world, cultivable area is barely expanding any more and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility. Grasslands have been overgrazed and fisheries over harvested. Water bodies have suffered extensive depletion and pollution, severely restricting food production.
(ii) According to the Human Report 2006 of the United Nations Development Programme, 1.2 billion people in developing count have no access to safe water and 2.6 billion have po access to sanitation, resulting in the death of more than three million children every year.
(iii) Natural forests, which help stabilise the climate, moderate water supplies and harbour a majority of the planet’s biodiversity on land are being cut down rapidly. The loss of biodiversity continues and destruction of forests adversely affects the climate.
Any three effects of globalisation on the economy of a country:
(i) Globalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe. The restrictions imposed by different countries on allowing imports from other countries have been reduced. Similarly, the restrictions on movement of capital across countries have also been reduced. This means that investors can invest their money in other countries, including developing countries where they might get better returns.
(ii) Globalisation has led to similar economic policies adopted by governments in different parts of the world, that has generated vastly different outcomes in different parts of the world. Economic globalisation has created an intense divided of opinion all over the world, since the same set of policies do not lead to the same result everywhere.
(iii) Globalisation generates greater economic growth and well being for larger sections of the population, when there is de-regulation. Greater trade among countries allows each economy to do its best which would benefit the whole world. Globalisation has increased inter-dependence and integration between government businesses and ordinary people in different parts of the world.
Describe any three obstacles that delayed the merger of Jammu and Kashmir with India. 
Describe any three points of consensus that emerged among most political parties in India in spite of sever competition and conflicts.
Any 3 obstacles that delayed the merger of Jammu & Kashmir with India:
(i) Root of the problem : Before 1947, Jammu & Kashmir was a princely state. Its Hindu ruler Hari Singh, did not want to merge with India and tried to get an independent status for his state. On the other hand, the Pakistani leaders thought the Kashmir record belonged to Pakistan, since majority population of the state was Muslim. Pakistan sent tribal infiltrations to capture Kashmir, which forced the Maharaja to ask India for military help. India extended help only after the Maharaja signed the ‘Instrument of Accession’ with the Indian government. As a result of this invasion, a part of the state came under Pakistani control.
(ii) External and internal disputes: Ever since 1947, Kashmir has remained a major issue of conflict between India and Pakistan. Internally, there is a dispute about the status of Kashmir with the Indian union. The state enjoys greater autonomy under Article 370 and has its own constitution. All provisions of the India constitution are not applicable to the state.
(iii) Separation: Separatist policies which surfaced in Kashmir from 1989, have taken different forms and are made up of various strands, one strand of separatists want a separate Kashmiri nation, while the second wants Kashmir to merge with Pakistan. The third strand wants greater autonomy for the people of the state within the Indian Union. The centre has started negotiations with various separatist groups urge for peace.
The consensus that emerged among most political parties in India in spite of severe competition and conflicts :
(i) First agreement of new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most political parties are in support of these. Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
(ii) Second, acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes: Political parties have recognized that the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support reservation of seats for the backward classes in the education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
(iii) Third, acceptance of the role of state level parties in governance of the country: The distinction between state level and national level parties is becoming less important each day. State level parties share power at the national level and have played a central role in the country’s politics of last twenty years or so. Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without political agreement. Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power-sharing arrangements.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2015 Outside Delhi Set – III
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
What is the full form of ‘SEATO’? 
Southeast Asian Treaty Organisation.
Highlight any one main feature of the U.S. economy. 
The basic feature of the USf economy is that it is an open world economy which requires a dominant power to support. The hegemony must possess both the ability and the desire to establish certain norms and order, to sustain the global structure.
Explain the role played by India in maintaining Afro- Asian unity. 
Role played by India in maintaining Afro- Asian unity:
- Under the leadership of Nehru, India convened the Asian Relation Conference in March 1947.
- India was a staunch supporter of the decolonization process and firmly opposed racism especially apartheid in South Africa.
- India made earnest efforts for the early realization of an international conference in 1949 to support its freedom struggle.
- The Afro-Asian conference held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955, commonly known as Bandung Conference, marked the zenith of India’s engagement with newly independent Asian and African nations.
The Bandung Conference later led to the establishment of the NAM.
Describe any four consequences of the Green Revolution. 
- The rich peasants and the large landholders were the major beneficiaries of the process.
- In many parts, the stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords produced conditions favorable for left-wing organizations to organize the poor peasants.
- The Green Revolution also resulted in the rise of middle peasant sections.
- The Green Revolution delivered only a moderate agricultural growth and raised the availability of food in the country, but increased polarization between classes and regions.
Describe any two issues which made the Anti-Arrack Movement as a women’s movement. 
- The Anti – Arrack movement had touched upon larger social, economic and political issues of the region that affected women’s life.
- A close nexus between crime and politics was established around the business of arrack.
- Groups of local women tried to address these complex issues in their agitation against arrack. Their movement for the first time provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence.
- They ran a campaign against the system of dowry and demanded personal and property laws based on the norms of gender equality.
Explain the concept of ‘Human Security’. 
Human Security means the protection of the people more than the protection of states. The proponents of human security argue that the primary aim of the state is the protection of its individuals. According to them, the concept of human security should include security against hunger, diseases and natural disasters as they kill even more people than war. Thus, human security should protect people from these threats as well as from violence and war. In its broadest formulation, the human security agenda also encompasses economic security and ‘threats to human dignity’.
Who are indigenous people? Describe any four problems of the indigenous people. 
Describe any three factors which are responsible for globalisation.
Indigenous people are the descendants of people who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and overcame them. These are treated as Scheduled Tribes in the constitution of India.
The problems of the indigenous people are :
- Issues related to the rights of the indigenous communities have been neglected in domestic and international politics for very long.
- The loss of land, which also means the loss of an economic resource base, is the most obvious threat to the survival of indigenous people.
- Although, they enjoy a Constitutional protection in political representation, they have not got much of the benefits of development in the country.
- They pay a huge cost for development since they are the single largest’group among the people displaced by various developmental projects since ‘ independence.
The factors responsible for globalisation:
(i) Technology is a significant element of globalisation. All round revolution and communication technology has drastically changed the whole scenario.
(ii) The technological advances and innovations have facilitated the ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people move easily from one corner of the world to another. The pace of these flows may vary. For instance, the movement of capital and commodities will most likely be quicker and wider than the movement of people across different parts of the world.
(iii) The process of globalisation does not take place only because of the access to improved communications. The main element is to recognize the interconnections with the rest of the world.
Describe the role of E.V. Ramasami ‘Periyar* in the Dravid Movement and the formation of ‘ Dravida Kazhagam (DK). Why did the DK get split and enter into politics as DMK? 
Describe the process of Goa’s Liberation and ‘ becoming a State of the Indian Union.
The Dravidian movement led to the formation of Dravida Kazhagam (DK) under the leadership of Tamil social reformer E. V Ramasami ‘Periyar’. The organization strongly opposed r the Brahmins’ dominance and affirmed regional pride against the political, economic and cultural domination of the north. Initially, the Dravidian
Movement spoke in terms of the whole of south India.
The DK split and the political legacy of the movement was transferred to Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) due to the following :
(i) It demanded the restoration of the original name of Kallakudi railway station which have been renamed Dalmiapuram after an industrial house from the north.
(ii) Secondly, agitation was for giving Tamil cultural history greater importance in school curriculum.
(iii) The third agitation was against the craft education scheme of the state government, which it alleged was linked to the Brahmanical social outlook.
Goa was under colonial rule since the 16th century. During their rule, the Portuguese suppressed the people of Goa, denied them civil rights and carried out forced religious conversions. After achieving independence, the government of India tried its best to persuade the Portuguese to withdraw from Goa. In Goa also, there was strong movement for freedom, which was strengthened by satyagrahis from Maharashtra. Finally, in 1961 the government of India sent its army which liberated Goa, Daman and Daiu and it was made a Union Territory.
One section of the people of Goa desired that Goa, as a Marathi speaking area should merge with Maharashtra but many Goans were keen to retain a separate identity and culture particularly the Konkani language. Thus in a referendum-like opinion poll procedure held by Central Government, majority voted in favour of remaining outside Maharashtra. As such it continued as a Union territory which finally became a state in 1987.