CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2014 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100
- All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
- Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
- Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2014 Outside Delhi Set – I
Why was the ‘Operation Desert Storm’ fought against Iraq? 
The Gulf war known as a desert storm was fought against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. The result of operation was the overthrow and trial of Saddam Hussain and the seizure and control of Iraq.
What is the full form of SAARC? 
South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation.
State any one important objective of United Nations. 
The main objective of the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security by establishing friendly relation among nations,
What is meant by ‘disarmament’? 
Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons of mass destruction.
Mention the main recommendation of the States Reorganization Commission of 1953. 
The Commission in its report recommended the reorganization of state boundaries.
Who was the founder of Bharatiya Jana Sangh? 
Shyama Prasad Mukharjee.
Which two political parties were the major partners in the rulings alliance after the 1971 General Elections to the Lok Sabha? 
BJP and Congress.
Name the political party which came to power at the Centre in 1977. 
Mention the two main demands of the Bharatiya Kisan Union in the 1980s. 
- Protection of the interests of farmers, and
- Food security.
Name the two alliances/fronts that formed the Government at the Centre in 1989 and 1996 ‘ respectively. 
UPA and NDA.
Name any two foreign leaders, along with the countries they belong to, who are recognized as the founders of the Non-aligned Movement. 
G.A. Naseer – Egypt and J.B. Tito — Yugoslavia.
What is meant by Shock therapy? 
After the disintegration of Soviet Union, the model of transition in Russia, Central Asia and Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the IMF came to be known as the “Shock Therapy”.
Trace the evolution process of European Union. 
European integration after 1945 was aided by the cold war by USA under Marshall plan but the collapse of Soviet bloc put European on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European, Union in 1992.
Mention any two functions of World Bank? 
- It works for human development, agricultural and rural development enforcing infrastructure and governance.
- Provides loan to developing countries.
Highlight any two threats to country’s security as per the traditional notion of security. 
- Terrorism and
Identify any two consequences of the partition of India in 1947. 
Consequences of partition :
(i) The year 1947 witnessed largest and most unplanned tragic transfer of population. In the name of religion people were transferred from each region and there were brutal killings on both sides of the border. People in minority fled their home and secured temporary shelter in refugee camps.
(ii) Apart from political and financial division, assets like—tables, chairs, typewriters, paper-clips, books and musical instruments of police band, also got divided. The government employees and railways also divided.
Differentiate between the capitalist and the socialist models of development. 
Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are controlled by private owners with the goal of making profits. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, and wage labor.
A socialist economic system is based on some form of social ownership of the means of production, which may mean autonomous cooperatives or direct public ownership; wherein production is carried out directly for the people. Profit is not the goal, the ultimate goal is to work for the welfare of the people.
Highlight the contribution made by Jawaharlal Nehru to the foreign policy of India. 
Nehru wanted to pursue a foreign policy which should be based on peace and should aim at establishing friendly relations with other countries of the world which will be beneficial for the country The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to preserve the hard-earned sovereignty, secondly, to protect rapid economic development and to protect territorial integrity. According to Nehru the twin challenge was that India must achieve is welfare and democracy.
What does the special status given to Jammu & Kashmir under Article 370 mean? 
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is a law that grants special autonomous status to Jammu and Kashmir. The article is drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution, which relates to Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions. Under this, the state has its own constitution. All provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to the state. Laws passed by the parliament apply to J&K only if the state agrees.
How does party-based movement differ from non-party movement? 
Party-based movements are not part of elections formally, but they retain connections with political parties to ensure better representation of the diverse sections in party politics eg., Naxalite movement, Trade Union Movement; whereas non-party based movements involve no form of political agenda and solely have social service intentions. These movements are started by voluntary organisations, students or workers.
Why did the superpowers need smaller states as their allies? Explain any four reasons. 
The superpowers made an alliance with weaker states because these states were:
- Vital resources of oil and minerals.
- It gave the superpowers territory to launch their weapons and troops.
- Location from where superpowers could spy on each other.
- Economic support, in that many small allies together could help to pay for military expenses.
Study the cartoon given below and answer the following questions: 
(i) The given cartoon is related to which country?
(ii) Which two symbols in the cartoon helped in identifying the country?
(iii) What message does the cartoon convey to the world?
(ii) the Great Wall & Dragon
(iii) The economic rise of China.
Explain the hegemony of United States of America as a structural power. 
(i) Hegemony as a structural power implies that an open world economy requires a hegemon to support its existence, U.S. hegemony in this sense is reflected in its role in providing public goods like SLOCs (Sea Lines of Communication) without which free trade in an open world economy would not be possible and the sea-routes not secure.
(ii) Also, internet relies on a global network of satellites, most of which are owned by the U.S. government.
(iii) The U.S. accounts for 15% of world trade. Most of the multinational companies are owned by Americans.
(iv) An important key to the U.S. hegemony is her increasing domination on the world financial bodies like the World Bank, IMF and WTO.
Explain any four causes of ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. 
After Sri Lanka’s independence, politics was dominated by forces that represented the interest of the majority Sinhala community.
- Sinhala’s were hostile to a large number of Tamilians who had migrated from India to Sri lanka. This migration continued even after independence.
- The Sinhala nationalists thought that Sri Lanka should not give “concessions” to the Tamils.
- The neglect of Tamil concerns led to military Tamil nationalism. From 1983 onwards, the militant organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ecland has been fighting an armed struggle with the army of Sri Lanka.
- Most of the Sinhalas were Buddhists and Tamils either believed in Hinduism of Islam. This caused a major ethnic conflict in Sri lanka.
Explain any four components of India’s security strategy. 
(i) Military capability: The first component was strengthening its military capability. India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.
(ii) To strengthen international norms: For this India must cooperate with international institutions to protect its security interest. India took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory non-proliferation policy. India has also argued for an equitable New International Economic Order.
(iii) Challenges within the country: This component is towards facing the challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as the Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and others have awakened time to time and India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system.
(iv) To develop economy: To develop its economy in a way that a vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist is another factor or f component of India’s Security Strategy.
What is globalisation? Highlight any three causes of globalisation. 
Globalisation means linking the economy of the country with the economics of other countries by means of trade and free mobility of capital labour etc. In the process of Globalisation, countries become interdependent and the distance between people gets shortened.
Causes of globalisation:
(i) The four flow of ideas, capital, commodities and people is caused by technological advances. It has revolutionised communication between different parts of the world.
(ii) With technological advances, it is important for people’ in different parts of the world to ‘recognise these interconnections’ with the rest of the world. For example, the Bird Flu or Tsunami is not confined to any particular national boundary, even economic events impact other nations.
(iii) Interconnection with rest of the world due to availability of improved communication also helped to cause globalisation.
Describe the organization of the Congress Party as a social and ideological coalition. 
The congress party became a social and ideological coalition for it merged different social groups along with their identity, holding different beliefs: ‘
- It accomodated the revolutionary, conservative, pacifist, radical, extremist and moderates, broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions, languages and various interests.
- Congress became the platform for numerous groups and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
- In pre-independence days, many organisations and parties with their own constitutions and organisational structures were allowed to exist within the congress. It was Congress socialist party— despite differences regarding methods, policies etc., the party managed to build a consensus.
- Social policy of congress was officially based on Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya i.e., upliftment of all sections of society. The emphasis was on policies to improve the lives of the underprivileged and the rural population.
Explain India’s nuclear policy. 
The first nuclear explosion done by India was in May 1974. Nehru had always put his faith in science and technology for rapidly building a modern India.
- A significant component of his understanding towards industrialisation plan was the nuclear programme initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha.
- India’s intention for nuclear/atomic energy was for peaceful purposes. Nehru was against nuclear weapons.
- When security council tried to impose NPT of 1968, India refused to sign it because India considered it discriminatory on certain grounds.
Evaluate the consequences of declaration of emergency in 1975. 
Consequences of the declaration of emergency of 1975 :
- If affected civil liberties of people. It was proved that the government could take away citizens rights to life and liberty by overruling of courts during an emergency.
- The Forty-Second amendment was also passed to bring in a series of changes in the constitution.
- It affected the functioning of mass media also, as press censorship took place, which banned freedom of press and newspapers, which had to take prior approval before publishing any news.
- Despite the filing of many petitions, the government claimed it not to be necessary to be informed of the grounds to arrest a person.
In the given political map of India, four places are marked as A, B, C, D. Identify them with the help of information given below and write their correct names in the answer book along with their serial numbers and the alphabets concerned. 
(i) The state related to Chipko Movement.
(ii) The state where a special opinion poll was held asking people to decide if they wanted to merge with Maharashtra or remain separate.
(iii) The state out of which the states of Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh were created.
(iv) The state related to Narmada Sagar Project.
Examine any six consequences of the disintegration of USSR. 
“Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) has become irrelevant today.” Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three suitable arguments.
The disintegration of the second world of the Soviet Union and the socialist systems in Eastern Europe had unfathomable consequences for world politics. These consequences are :
(i) The disintegration of the Soviet Union meant the end of Cold War confrontations. The ideological controversy over whether the socialist system would drub the capitalist system was not an implication any more. The engagement of army and arms race is ended now.
(ii) The US became the sole superpower. Backed by the power and prestige of the US, the capitalist economy was the dominant economic system now. Organizations like World Bank and IMF became powerful advisors to all these countries, since they gave them loans for their transition to capitalism.
(iii) Disintegration of the Soviet Union led to the foundation for the emergence of many new countries. All these countries had their own independent aspirations and choices. Some of them, especially the Baltic and east European states, wanted to join the European Union and become part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
(iv) Disintegration of the Soviet Union ended the bipolar system and laid the foundation of unipolar system.
(v) Privatization of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. Collective farms were to be replaced by private farming arid capitalism.
(vi) Disintegration of the Soviet Union resulted a breakup of the existing trade alliances among the countries of the Soviet bloc. Each state from this bloc was now linked directly to the West and not to each other in the region. These states were thus to be gradually absorbed into the Western economic system.
Non-alignment, as the name suggests, means a decision of not associating oneself with any of the groups. This policy was of great relevance till the cold war. But then the cold war ended and with the collapse of Soviet Union, the world order started to change. The world since the cold war has had wide-ranging impact on global politics. With the disappearance of Bi-polar system followed by uni¬polarity and now with changing nature of power and power relations, with the rise of India, China and other powers; the world is moving towards multi-polarity. Thus, it has posed a new fundamental question of ‘Non-alignment’ against whom? In the era of liberalization and globalisation, the world has become a unified society, where all nations depend on each other for trade and commerce.
The world has become cosmopolitan and a country cannot survive if it follows the ‘policy of isolation’ or ‘policy of non-interference’. In such a scenario, relevance of NAM is often questioned. Even though the goals of NAM have changed since its formation, it cannot be said to occupy the same position in the international society as it enjoyed earlier. Today it’s more focused on economic issues, issues like terrorism, health. NAM summits are merely a repetition of the resolutions of the UN and its agencies. Thus, the scheduling of regular summit meetings and increasing membership of NAM cannot be considered any evidence of its relevance.
Analyze India s stand on any three environmental issues. 
Assess any three basis on which globalization is being resisted in India.
India has been criticized for its apparent lack of commitment to addressing global climate change. But these aims are not mutually exclusive. National measures can and are benefiting India’s development while helping mitigate climate change. The problem is that India hasn’t marketed these initiatives in the right way.
(i) A defensive stance: India’s’ international negotiating position relies heavily on the principles of historical responsibility, as enshrined in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This acknowledges that developed countries are responsible for most historical and current greenhouse emissions, and emphasizes that “economic and social development are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country parties”,
(ii) India is taking real action : In fact, the Indian government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes. For example, India’s National Auto-fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles. The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency. Similarly, the Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy. Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of Clean Coal technologies shows that India is making real efforts.
(iii) A review of the implementation of the agreements at the earth summit in Rio was undertaken by India. One of the key conclusions was that there had been no meaningful progress with respect to transfer of new and additional financial resources and environmental sound technology on ‘concessional’ terms to developing nations.
Three reasons for resistance to globalisation:
(i) Leftist argue that contemporary globalisation represents a particular phase of global capitalism that expands the breach between the rich and the poor. The state is becoming weak and the capacity of the state to do welfare of poor people is getting reduced. Resistance to globalisation in India has come from different quarters. Trade unions of industrial workforce, as well as those protecting farmer interests have organised protests against the entry of the multinationals.
(ii) Economically, they want a return to self-reliance and protectionism, at least in certain areas of the economy, expecially in export-import and investment. Most anti-globalisation movements are opposed to a specific programme of globalisation which they see as a form of imperialism. In 1999, at the high meeting, there were widespread protests at seated, alleging unfair trade practices by economically powerful states.
(iii) Culturally, critics are worried that traditional culture i.e., music, dress and language etc. will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values and ways. Influence of western culture on food, dress can be an example in support of the same.
Explain any three reasons for the dominance of Congress Party in the first three general elections in India. ‘ 
How did the reorganization of States take place in India after its Independence? Explain.
Any three reasons for the dominance of congress party in the first three elections in India:
(i) The roots of the extraordinary success of the Congress party go back to the legacy of the freedom struggle. Congress was seen as an inheritor of the national movement. Many leaders who were in the forefront of that struggle, were now contesting elections as congress candidates. By the time of independence, the party had an organisational network down to the local level, spread across the whole country.
(ii) The congress party began as a party dominated by the English speaking, urban elite, but with every civil disobedience movement it launched, its social base widened. Peasants, industrialists, urban dwellers, villagers all found space in the Congress. By the time of independence, the Congress had transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition, which gave it unusual strength.
(iii) The congress had the most popular and charismatic leader in Nehruji, who dominated the Indian National Congress and led it to victory in three consecutive elections.
The States Reorganization Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India’s states and territories, organizing them along linguistic lines.
Although additional changes to India’s state boundaries have been made since 1956, the States Reorganization Act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change in state boundaries since the independence of India in 1947.
Between 1947 and about 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organized into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces.
Demand of states on linguistic basis was developed even before the independence of India under British rule. Though that time, Indian administrative regions were identified as different provinces. Odisha was the first Indian state formed on linguistic basis in the year 1936 due to the efforts of Madhusudhan Das and became Orissa Province.. In December 1953, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation’’ Commission to recognize the Indian states known as the Fazal Ali Commission. The Commission created a report on September 30, 1955 recommending the reorganization of India’s states. The parliament debated on the report. Finally, a bill making changes in the constitution and reorganizing states was passed and was implemented from November 1,1956.
Examine any six reasons for the imposition of emergency in India in 1975. 
Examine the major issues which led to the split of Congress Party in 1969.
(i) From the early 1970^ onwards, disappointment and discontent shook India: large sections of the population came out in demonstrations against rising prices, there was a fall in the supply of essential commodities, unemployment, and more importantly, corruption in government administration.
(ii) These protests reached a crescendo in two states— Gujarat and Bihar — in 1974, with students leading the agitations and giving them an organized shape. The Gujarat state government ruled by Indira Gandhi’s Congress Party was forced to resign that year. In fresh elections to the Gujarat legislature in early June, 1975.
(iii) The Congress was trounced and the opposition parties formed the new government in that state. Indira realized that she was losing her grip, and was threatened, by a political crisis.
(iv) The threat became imminent when on June 12,1975, the Allahabad High Court of the state of Uttar Pradesh (from where Indira Gandhi won in the parliamentary election in 1971), declared her election invalid on two corruption charges in the conduct of her poll campaign at that time.
(v) She was accused of violating the Indian law by first, using an officer of her government to make campaign arrangements, and secondly, by using other state officers to put up speaker’s stands in her constituency and supply electricity to her amplifying equipment.
(vi) This political instability was responsible for the emergency.
Three causes of the split in the congress party in 1969 :
(i) Differences with the syndicate: After the 1967 elections, PM Indira Gandhi had to deal with the syndicate, a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the congress, who had played a major role in her election as the leader of the party. These leaders expected her to follow their advice. However, Indira Gandhi gradual attempted to strengthen her position and carefully sidelined the Syndicate. Their rivalry came in the open in 1969 over the presidential elections following President Zakir Hussain’s death and also differences over the reforms introduced by Indira Gandhi.
(ii) Presidential Elections 1969: Following President Zakir Hussain’s death, the post of the President of India fell vacant in 1969. Despite Mrs. Gandhi’s reservations, the ‘Syndicate’ nominated her long time opponent, N. Sanjeeva Reddy as the official congress candidate. Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging Vice-president V. V. Giri to file his nomination as an independent candiate. The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy formalised the split in the party into congress (organisation) and that led by Indira Gandhi as congress (Requisitionists).
(iii) Reforms by Indira Gandhi : Revolutionary steps taken by Indira Gandhi were not welcomed by the Congress leaders. She had launched a series of initiatives like public distribution of food grains, land reforms, nationalisation of fourteen private banks a abolition of the ‘privy purse’ or the special privileges given to former princess. Her policies were opposed by Morarji Desai and older leaders, too, had serious reservations about this left programme.
Study the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Sardar Sarovar Project is a multipurpose mega-scale dam. It required relocation of around two and half lakh people from the villages. Issues of the relocation and proper rehabilitation of the project-affected people were first raised by the local activist groups. It was around 1988-89 that the issues crystallized under the banner of the NBA—a loose collective of local voluntary organizations. 
(i) Why is the Sardar Sarovar Project mentioned as multipurpose mega-scale dam?
(ii) Why was it opposed by the villagers?
(iii) Name the organizations which led the movement against this project.
(iv) What was the main demand of the local activist group?
India adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity. Democracy allows the political expression of regional aspirations and does not look upon them as anti-national. Besides, democratic politics allows parties and groups to address the people on the basis of their regional identity aspirations and their regional / problems. 
(i) Which type of diversity exists in India?
(ii) Name any two political parties that represent regional identity.
(iii) Mention any one movement that expressed regional aspirations.
(iv) How does democracy treat the regional issues and problems.
(i) The Sardar Sarovar Dam is a great dam on the Narmada River near Navagam, Gujarat in India. It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project, a large hydraulic engineering project involving the construction of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi-purpose dams on the Narmada River. So it is called a mega-scale dam.
(ii) It was opposed by the villagers since it would cause the relocation of villagers. The construction of the dam would result in submerging of 245 villages and this made them to oppose the project.
(iii) Green Organization in US.
(iv) The main demand of the local activist group was just rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the project.
(i) Divetsity in cultures, religions, communities and language
(ii) Congress and BJP.
(iii) Narmada Bachao Andolan
(iv) It allows everyone to express their ideas and treats regional issues with utmost interest.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2014 Outside Delhi Set – II
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in the previous set.
Who controls the north-eastern part of Sri Lanka? 
The Tamil administration controls the north- eastern part of Sri Lanka.
Mention any two Human Rights in the political field. 
- Freedom of speech and
- Freedom of assembly
During the first three general elections, Congress won more seats than any other party. Which party stood at number two during these elections? 
Why was the Congress Party defeated during the elections of 1977? 
Congress lacked a strong representative for their party and all opposition parties came together at one platform to defeat Indira Gandhi.
Which organization came into existence on April 1949? 
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
What was ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’? 
On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers hailing from Arab countries took control of four American Commercial aircraft and flew them into important buildings in U.S. President George W. Bush launched, operation enduring freedom, against Afghanistan to curb terrorism and crush the terrorist organizations.
In spite of token representation in Indian legislature during the fifties, what role did opposition parties play? 
All the opposition parties during the fifties succeeded in gaining only token representation in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies during this period. Yet their presence played a crucial role in maintaining the democratic character of the system. These parties offered a sustained and often principled criticism of the policies and practices of the Congress Party. This kept the ruling party under check and often changed the balance of power within the Congress.
Highlight any two characteristics of the Dravidian Movement. 
- This movement originated in the form of the ‘self respect movement’ to raise the non-Brahmins from their unworthy conditions.
- Demanding the establishment of an independent state called ‘Dravidasthan’ a movement had started.
Explain the hegemony of the United States as a hard power. 
The most important factor for the overwhelming superiority of US power is the superiority of its military power. American military dominance is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, in real time, while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the dangers of war.
Explain the meaning of ‘Global Commons’ and give any four examples of ‘Global Commons’. 
Global Commons are’areas of regions of the world which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state and therefore require common governance by the international community. They include earth’s atmosphere Antarctica, the ocean floor and outer space.
- Cooperation over global commons.
- Common but differentiated responsibility.
Highlight any six consequences of the emergency of 1975. 
Analyze any three factors which enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi in the early 1970s.
- Emergency brought the agitation to an abrupt stop; strikes were banned, many opposition leaders were put in jail; the political situation becomes very quiet though tense.
- Government used its special powers under emergency provisions and suspended the freedom of the press. Newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published.
- Apprehending social and communal disharmony, the government banned Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and jamaat-e-Islami. Protests and strikes and public agitations were also disallowed.
- Most importantly, the various Fundamental Rights of citizens stood suspended, including the right of citizens to move the Court for restoring their Fundamental Rights.
- The government made extensive use of preventive detention. Under this provision, people are arrested and detained not because they have committed any offense, but on the apprehension that they may commit an offense.
- The government made large scale arrests during the Emergency. Arrested political workers could not challenge their arrest through habeas corpus petitions. Many cases were filed in the High Courts and the Supreme Court by and on behalf of arrested persons, but the government claimed that it was not even necessary to inform the arrested persons of the reasons and grounds of their arrest.
Any three factors which enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi in the early 1970s :
(i) Everyone believed that the real organisational strength of the congress party was under the command of congress (O). All the opponents of Indira Gandhi formed a Grand Alliance, yet congress (R) led by her, had an agenda, which the alliance lacked. They had only one comon aim—Indira Hatao. In contrast, she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan—Garibi Hatao.
(ii) Indira Gandhi focused on the growth of the public sector, removal of disparities in income and opportunity and the abolition of princely priviliges. Thus, the slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’ and the reforms that followed, made her very popular and she won 352 seats in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971.
(iii) The 1971 elections were followed by a major political and military crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war, leading to victory for India and the establishment of Bangladesh. These events added to the popularity of Indira Gandhi and even the opposition admired her statesmanship.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2014 Outside Delhi Set – III
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in the previous set.
Name the group that led the non-violent movement for democracy in Nepal. 
The non-violent movement was led by the Seven Party Alliance (SPA), the Maoists and social activists.
Define Cooperative security. 
Cooperative security can be described as a strategic principle that seeks to accomplish its purpose through institutional consent rather than through military participation.
What inspired the formation of communist groups in the 1920s in different .parts of India? 
In the early 1920s, communist groups emerged in different parts of India taking inspiration from the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and advocating socialism as the solution to problems affecting the country.
Why did mid-term elections take place in 1980? 
Janata party assumed office in March 1977. The party was expected to solve almost all the problems that the Congress rule created or could not solve. But Janata party failed to solve the political, social and economic problems of the people. The Janata Party government could do nothing for the common man. Within 28 months in office, the Janata Party government could give no practicable scheme for bringing an end to unemployment.
What is meant by ‘Arenas of Cold War’? 
‘Arenas of Cold War’ refer to areas where crisis had occured or threatened to occur between the alliance system but did not cross limits. For example, lost their lives in some of these areas like a large. number of people Korea, Vietnam and Afganistan.
What was Band wagon strategy? 
Some people think that it is strategically more prudent to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the hegemony. For instance, raising economic growth rates require increased trade, technological transfers, and investment, which are best acquired by working with rather than against the hegemony. Thus instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power, it may be advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic power. This is called band wagon strategy.
What is meant by decentralized planning? 
Decentralization planning means transfer of power and responsibilities, considering implementation and formulation of development programmes, from the highest institutions at national level of medium-level state institutions to the sub-state level institutions like Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), Zila Parishads, etc.
Highlight any two effects of the elections in 1989 on the politics of India. 
- The defeat of Congress party in 1989 marked the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system. However, it did not mean the emergence of any other single party to fill in its place.
- It began an era of multi-party system. To be sure, a large number of political parties always contested elections in our country. This is how alliance politics came into existence in India.
Explain the Hegemony of the United States as a Soft power. 
This notion of hegemony suggests that a dominant power deploys not only military power, but also ideological resources to shape the behaviour of competition with lesser powers.
The predominance of the US in the world today is based not only on its military and economic powers but also on its cultural presence. All ideas of the good life and personal success, most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in 20th century America. America is the most appealing and in this sense possesses most powerful culture on earth. This attribute is called ‘Soft Power’, that is, the ability to persuade rather than force.
Explain any two positive and any two negative effects of globalization. 
- Countries which have had faster economic growth have been able to improve living standards ’and reduce poverty. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the past two decades as a consequence of globalisation.
- Improved wealth through the economic gains of globalisation has led to improved access to health care and clean water which has increased life expectancy.
- Some countries have been unable to take advantage of Globalisation and their standards of living are dropping further behind the richest countries.
- Increased trade and travel have facilitated the spread of human, animal and plant diseases like HIV/AIDS, SARCs and bird flu, across borders.
Assess any three challenges that the Congress Party had to face during the period from 1964 to 1971. 
Assess any three happenings which were responsible for the downfall of the Congress Party in the 1977 elections.
(i) PM Jawaharlal Nehru passed away in May 1964. India faced two big challenges during Shastriji’s reign like ‘Economic Crisis’ due to Indo-China war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965, failed monsoons, droughts, and food crisis, ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’, was devised to encourage the people to come together and help in solving these issues.
(ii) The Congress party faced the challenge of political succession for the second time after the death of Shastriji with intense competition between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi, which resulted in the victory of Indira Gandhi. However, when her government devalued the rupee to check the economic crisis of 1967, it led to price rise and widespread protests. This gave birth to brought in the concept of coalitions.
(iii) The formal split in congress came into the open in 1969 on the nominations for presidential elections. Indira Gandhi’s candidate V.V. Giri won over Syndicate’s N. Sanjeeva Reddy and the Congress split into Congress (O) led by Syndicate and Congress (R) led by Indira Gandhi.
(i) The election came after the end of the Emergency that Prime Minister Gandhi had imposed in 1975; it effectively suspended democracy, suppressed the opposition, and took control of the media with authoritarian measures. The opposition called for a restoration of democracy and Indians saw the election results as a repudiation of the emergency.
(ii) Indira Gandhi had become extremely unpopular for her decision and paid for it during the next elections. Mrs. Gandhi, on 23 January, called for fresh elections and released all political prisoners.
(iii) Four Opposition parties, the Congress (Organization), the Jan Sangh, the Bharatiya Lok Dal, and the Socialist Party, decided to fight the elections under a single banner called the Janata alliance. The alliance used the symbol allocated to Bharatiya Lok Dal as their symbol on the ballot papers. The Janata alliance reminded voters of the excesses and human rights violations during the Emergency, like compulsory sterilization and imprisonment of political leaders.