CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2014 Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100
- All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
- Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
- Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
** Answer is not given due to change in the present syllabus
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2014 Delhi Set – I
Which incident was related to 9/11? 
9/11 was related to attack on World Trade Centre in New York, United States of America.
Under which plan did USA extend financial support for reviving Europe’s economy after the Second World War? 
US diplomats designed a plan called the ‘Marshall Plan’. Under this European Economic Cooperation was established in 1948 to channel aid to the western European states.
Who is present Secretary-General of United Nations? 
Define Security. 
Security means prevention from threats that could endanger core values which would be beyond repair. It aims at ending of war.
Name the leader who played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states to join the Indian Union. 
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Which political party laid emphasis the idea of “one country, one culture, one nation”. 
Bharatiya Jana Sangha.
In which year was the fifth general election to the Lok Sabha held? 
Fifth general election was held in 1971.
Who represented Congress (O) and Congress (R) after the split of the congress party? 
Congress (R) – Indira Gandhi, Congress (O) – Syndicate.
Which students group led the anti-foreigner movement in Assam? 
All Assam Students Union.
What is meant by the Cold War? 
A period of ideological rivalries between the two power blocs USA and USSR after the end of second world war till the disintegration of USSR is known as cold war. It was a war without weapons.
State any two features of the Soviet System. 
- The Soviet system centered around one party and no other political party of opposition was allowed.
- The system was bureaucratic and authoritarian, the economy was planned and controlled by the state.
Which two differences between India and China led to an army conflict in 1962? 
Military and moral help was given to India by the US in the 1962 war. The aim was to check the spread of communism.
List any four principal organs of the United Nations. 
The four principal organ of United Nations are :
- The Security Council
- The International Court of Justice
- Economic and Social Council
- The Trusteeship Council
Suggest any one effective step which would limit war or violence between countries. 
We can limit war or violence between countries by the following means:
- By destroying harmful weapons such as nuclear bombs.
- By increasing bilateral dialogues between countries.
Differentiate between the main objectives of the First and Second Five Year Plan. 
Objectives of First Five Year Plan were to develop the agrarian sector, include investment in dams and irrigation projects whereas the objective of Second Five Year Plan was to develop industries including technology advancement.
Highlight any two features of the ideology of Bhartiya Jana Sangh. 
Two features of Bhartiya Jafta Sangh are:
- It emphasized the idea of one party, one culture, and one nation.
- It believed that the country could become modern, progressive and strong on the basis of Indian cultural and tradition.
What is meant by Non-Alignment? 
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of newly independent countries of Asia and Africa, who did not want to join any of the two power blocs.
What was the main demand of Chipko Movement? 
The villagers demanded that no forest- exploiting contract should be given to outsiders. They wanted the government to provide low-cost material to small industries and ensure development of the region without disturbing the ecological balance.
Who was the chairperson of the Mandal Commission? State any one recommendation made by him/her. 
B.P. Mandal was the chairperson of Mandal commission. Its main recommendations are
(i) It recommended reservation of 27 percent of seats in educational institutions and government jobs for the OBCs.
Describe any four consequences of Shock Therapy. 
Four consequences of Shock Therapy are:
- In Russia, the large state-controlled industrial complex almost collapsed, as about 90 percent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies.
- All citizens were given vouchers to participate in the sales; most citizens sold their vouchers in the black market because they needed the money.
- The value of the Ruble and the Russian currency declined dramatically. The rate of inflation was too high.
- The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty7.
Study the cartoon given below and answer the questions that follow. 
(a) The mighty solider with weapons represents which country?
(b) Why do names of various countries appear on his uniform?
(c) What important message does the cartoon convey to the world?
(a) The United States of America.
(b) It is referred to the countries who joined the operation on Iraq led by US.
(c) The US had lost over 3,000 military personnel in the war whereas 50,000 Iraqi civilians were killed since the US-led invasion.
What is meant by the ASEAN? Mention any two of its objectives? 
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok by the five original member countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.
The aims and purposes of the Association are :
(i) To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavors in the spirit of equality and partnership, in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community7 of Southeast Asian nations.
(ii) To promote regional peace and stability through justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region. Adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
Explain any two points of conflict between India and Bangladesh. 
(i) Illegal migration: Illegal migration is one of the bones of contention between these two countries, since the 1971 war of independence that created the state of Bangladesh, millions of Bangladeshi immigrants (the vast majority of them illegal) have poured into neighbouring India. While the Indian government has tried to deport some of these immigrants as well as the porous border between the two countries, has made such an enterprise impossible.
(ii) Water disputes: Sharing of Ganges water is another one of the sources of conflict between India and Bangladesh. This conflict between two countries arose when India decided to construct Farakka barrage to divert water from Ganges to Hoogly River (in India).
As decided by the member states in 2005, highlight any four steps to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context. 
(i) Security council reform: A very frequent discussion is to change the permanent membership of the UN Security Council, which reflects the power structure of the world as it was in 1945.
(ii) UN secretariat-transparency reform: At another level, calls for reforming the UN demand to make the UN administration more transparent, more accountable, and more efficient, including direct election of the Secretary-General by the people.
(iii) Democracy reform: Another frequent demand is that the UN becomes “more democratic”, and a key institution of the world democracy. This raises fundamental questions about the nature and role of the UN. The UN does not govern the world, it is rather a forum for the world’s sovereign states to debate on issues and determine collective courses of action.
(iv) Human rights reform: The United Nations Commission on Human Rights came under fire during its existence for the high-profile positions. It gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens. Several nations known to have been guilty of gross violations of human rights became members of the organization, such as Libya, Cuba etc.
Mention any four political consequences of globalization. 
(i) One of the major impacts of political globalisation is that it reduces the importance of nation-states. Many states have organized themselves into trade blocs. Emergence of supranational institutions such as the European Union, the WTO, the G-8, and the International Criminal Court etc. replaced or extended the national functions to facilitate international agreement.
(ii) Another major impact of globalisation is the increased influence of Non-Government Organizations in public policy like humanitarian aid, developmental efforts etc. Many organizations have come forward with the mission of uplifting the most unprivileged societies of the world where there is massive funding of millions of dollars.
(iii) United States intervened in many Middle East Asian countries recently. The whole idea was on extracting oil mines for which they took the economic, political, social and cultural control of these oil-rich countries.
(iv) The rise of global civil society is one of the major contributions of globalization. The multivariate groups make up civil society which often protests against capitalism.
List any two merits and two demerits of the Green Revolution. 
Merits of Green Revolution :
- Compared to the traditional seeds, the HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant. As a result, the same piece of land would now produce far larger quantities of food grains than that was possible earlier.
- Increase in agriculture production.
Demerits of Green Revolution :
- Poor farmers could not afford HYV seeds, fertilizers and machinery.
- The Green Revolution was limited to rice and wheat only.
Suppose you are looking after the foreign policy of India. Which four values will you like to integrate into the foreign policy?** 
Explain any two reasons for the popularity of Indira Gandhi during 1971 election. 
In 1971 general elections Indira Gandhi came up with different strategies. She put forward the slogan of Garibi Hatao (remove poverty) for which she focused on the growth of the public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holding and urban property, removal of disparities in income and opportunity, and abolition of princely privileges. She vigorously campaigned for implementing the existing land reform law and undertook further steps land ceiling as one of the major objective of her campaign. The slogan of garibi hatao and the programmes that followed it were part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nation-wide political support base, in contrast to the weak irrelevant strategies of other parties made Indira Gandhi’s government popular.
In the given political map of India four places have been marked as A, B, C, D. Identify them with the help of information given below and write their correct names in the answer book, along with their serial numbers and the alphabets concerned.
(i)The state associated with Narmada Bachao Andolan.
(ii) The state which merged with Indian Union in 1975.
(iii) The state related to Operation Blue Star.
(iv) The state whose one of the important leader 
What was Cuban Missile Crisis? Describe its main events. 
Explain any three reasons for the disintegration of the USSR.
The Cuban Missile Crisis known as the October Crisis scare in Cuba was a 13-day confrontation in October 1962 between Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other side. The crisis is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to only turn into a nuclear conflict.
Since Cuba was an ally of Soviet Union and received both diplomatic and financial aid from it, Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of Soviet Union, decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base. In 1962 he placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The installation of these weapons put the US, for the first time, under fire from close range.
Three weeks later, the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear weapons in Cuba, America became aware of it. The US President John F. Kennedy and its advisers were reluctant to do any thing that would lead to a full-scale war but he soon determined to get Khrushchev to remove the missiles from Cuba. Kennedy ordered American warships to intercept any Soviet ships heading to Cuba as a way of warning the USSR of his seriousness. A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as Cuban Missile Crisis.
(i) Stagnating economy: The Soviet Union had grown to a size large enough to have continued state planning. The massive and intricate Soviet economy became too large to manage by state planners, who were unwilling to enable more autonomy at a mid-managerial level to remain responsive down to a localized level. This resulted in failed economic policies (failure to respond timely to continuous changes), while thwarting innovation.
(ii) The soviet union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well. The communist party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people. Ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistakes it had made and the centralisation of authority in a host land and hence people did not identify with the system and its rulers and the govt, increasingly lost popular backing.
(iii) Local Nationalism: With declining public perception of the Soviet government (due to political blunders), nationalism grew within each of the individual republics, creating independence ambitions in republics such as Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Explain the concept of “Common but differentiated responsibilities. How and where was it emphasized upon? 
Explain any three benefits of globalization with examples.
The principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility (CBDR) is one of the cornerstones of Sustainable development. It has emerged as a principle of International Environmental Law and has been explicitly formulated in the context of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. It finds its origin in equity7 considerations and equity principles in international law. It is in congruence with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol.
The CBDR has two matrices. The first is the common responsibility, which arises from the concept of common heritage and common concern of humankind, and reflects the duty of states towards equally sharing the burden of environmental protection for common resources; the second is the differentiated responsibility, which addresses substantive equality unequal material, social and economic situations arise across states different countries make different historical contributions to global environmental problems; and possess financial, technological and structural capacity to tackle those global problems. In this sense, the principle establishes a conceptual framework for an equitable allocation of the costs of global environmental protection.
Globalisation increases economic growth and generates a wider range of products and services. Economies that are developing globally have more economic growth than established economies, demonstrating. globalisation’s benefits for developing regions.
Globalisation can help create capitalistic and democratic political systems. Foreign exchange allows more products and services to be available, simultaneously lowering the costs, because of specialization. In respect to Utilitarianism, or the pursuit of the greatest utility for the largest number of people the tendency for data points is to group together in a meaningful way.
From 1962 to 1989, South Korea’s GDP growth averaged over 8% year-on-year. Exports and international trade grew enormously, along with the purchasing power of South Korean individuals, supporting the argument that international exchange creates opportunities for developing countries. This idea also supports the way South Korea’s economy began specializing in order to grow more competitive in the global world.
What forced the Union Government of India to appoint the States Reorganization Commission in 1953? Mention its two main recommendations. Name any four new states formed after 1956. 
Describe the various steps taken to hold the first general elections in India. How far were these elections successful?
The States Reorganization Commission (SRC) was a body constituted by the Central Government of India in 1953 to recommend the reorganization of state boundaries. In 1955, after nearly 2 years of study, the commission recommended that India’s state boundaries should be reorganized to form 16 states and 3 union territories.
One of the proposals was to reorganize the state on the basis of languages of India. This would make administration easier, and would help replace the caste and religion-based identities with less controversial linguistic identities. Earlier in 1920, the members of the Indian National Congress had agreed on the linguistic reorganisation of the Indian states as one of the party’s political goals. As the memories of partition were fresh it was feared that the division on the basis of language might further lead to division of India.
By 1952, the demand for creation of a Telugu majority state in the parts of the Madras State had become powerful. Potti Sriramulu, one of the activists demanding the formation of a Telugu- majority state, died on 16 December 1952 after undertaking a fast-unto-death. Subsequently, the Telugu-majority Andhra State was formed in 1953. This sparked off agitations all over the country, with linguistic groups demanding separate statehoods.
In order to reorganize the states, the government of India constituted the State Reorganization Commission (SRC) under the chairmanship of Fazal Ali, a former Court judge.
States formed after 1956 are :
(i) Uttarakhand in 2000
(ii) Chhattisgarh in 2000
(iii) Jharkhand in 2000
(iv) Telangana in 2014
The Indian General Election of 1951-52 elected the first Lok Sabha after India gained Independence in August 1947. Until this point, the Indian Constituent Assembly had served as an interim legislature. The Indian National Congress (INC) won a landslide victory. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the country. Organization of the elections was a humongous task. There was a house-to-house survey to register the voters. With over 70 percent of the voters being illiterate, the candidates were to be identified by symbols, assigned to each major party and independent candidates, painted oil the ballot-boxes. Over 2,24,000 polling booths, one for almost every 1000 voters, were constructed and equipped with steel ballot-boxes, one box for every candidate. Nearly 620,000,000 ballot papers were printed. About a million officials supervised the conduct of the polls. Of the many candidates, whoever gained, or the largest number of votes was to be elected. It was necessary for the winning candidate to have a majority.
Nearly 17,500 candidates stood for the seats of the Lok Sabha and the state legislatures in all. The elections were spread out over nearly four months from 25th October 1951 to 21st February 1952 and the first general elections of the largest democracy turned out to be a big success.
Examine the three main reasons responsible for the split of the Congress Party during 1969. 
Evaluate any three consequences of the emergency imposed in 1975.
Three causes of the split in the congress party in 1969:
(i) Differences with the syndicate: After the 1967 elections, PM Indira Gandhi had to deal with the Syndicate, a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the congress, who had played a major role in her election as the leader of the party. These leaders expected her to follow their advice. However, Indira Gandhi gradually attempted to strengthen her position and carefully sidelined the Syndicate. Their rivalry came in the open in 1969 over the presidential elections following President Zakir Hussain’s death and also differences over the reforms introduced by Indira Gandhi.
(ii) Presidential Elections 1969: Following president Zakir Hussain death, the post of the president of India fell vacant in 1969. Respite Mrs. Gandhi’s reservations, the ‘Syndicate’ nominated her long-time opponent, N. Sanjeeva Reddy as the official congress candidate. Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging Vice-President V. V. Giri to file his nomination as an independent candidate. The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy formalized the split in the party into Congress (organisation) and that led by Indira Gandhi as Congress (Requisitionists).
(iii) Reforms by Indira Gandhi: Revolutionary steps taken by Indira Gandhi were not welcomed by the Congress leaders. She had launched a series of initiatives like public distribution of food grains, land reforms, nationalisation of fourteen private banks and abolition of the ‘Privy Purse’ or the special privileges given to former princes. Her policies were opposed by Morarji Desai and older leaders, too, had serious reservations about this left programme.
Any three consequences of the emergency imposed in 1975 :
(a) Effects on civil liberties of citizens: The government made large scale arrests under preventive detention. Arrested people could not challenge the arrest and the government claimed it unnecessary to inform the accused of the ground on which they were detained.
(b) Impact on Relationship with Parliament and Judiciary: The parliament brought in many changes in the constitution declaring that the election of PM, President, and Vice President could not be challenged in court. The 42nd amendment was also passed to bring in a series of changes in the constitution. It was proved that the government could take away citizens right to life and liberty by overruling courts during an emergency.
(c) Functioning of mass media: It affected the functioning of mass media also, as well since press censorship took place, Freedom of press and newspapers was taken away, they had to take prior approval before publishing any news.
Read the passage carefully given below and answer the questions that follow :
The Assam movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such movements against Outsiders. The Assamese suspected that there were huge numbers of illegal Bengali Muslim Settlers from Bangladesh. They felt that unless these foreign nationalists are detected and deported, they would reduce the indigenous Assamese into a minority. There were other economic issues too. There was widespread poverty and unemployment in Assam despite the existence of natural resources like oil, tea and coal. It was felt that these were drained out of the state without any commensurate benefit to the people.
(i) Name the group that led the movement against outsiders in 1979.
(ii) Why did the Assamese seek the detection and deportation of the outsiders?
(iii) What were the economic issues taken up as part of the movement? 
This new challenge came to the force in the 1980s, as the Janata experiment came to an end and there was some political stability at the centre. This decade will be remembered for some major conflicts and accords in the various regions of the country, especially in the Assam, the Punjab, Mizoram and the development in Jammu and Kashmir.
(i) Explain the meaning of the phrase “Janata experiment came to an end”.
(ii) “There was some stability at the centre”, what does it imply?
(iii) Highlight any two developments in Punjab in the 1980s.
(i) All Assam Students’ Union.
(ii) The Assamese suspected that there are huge number of illegal Bengali Muslim setders from Bangladesh. They felt that unless these foreign nationalists are detected and deported, they would reduce the indigenous assamese into a minority.
(iii) There was widespread poverty and un-employment in Assam. The indigenous people were unable to secure jobs and earn their livelihoods. The nationalists only brought more problems.
(i) It refers to the Janata party government rule which ended before 1980s elections.
(ii) India was witnessing major conflicts internal and political instability before this period. This instability finally came to an end.
(iii) Agricultural and technological development.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2014 Delhi Set – II
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in the previous sets.
Name any two member states of the European Union who are permanent members of the UN Security Council. 
In the UN Security Council, the two members are China, Russia.
Name the leader of the freedom movement of India who was popularly known as Frontier Gandhi. 
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
Who was the official Congress candidate for the post of President of India in 1969? 
Sri Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy.
List any four member countries of NATO. 
U.S., Canada, Denmark, Iceland.
State any two features of the European Union that make it an influential organization. 
- Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
- Its share of world trade is 3 times larger than that of US.
Explain the major differences of ideology between that of Congress and the Jana Sangh. 
The Jana Sangh was different from the Congress party in terms of ideology and programmes. It emphasized the idea of one country, one culture and one nation and believed that country could become modern, strong and progressive on the basis of Indian culture and traditions. The Congress party emphasized on the idea that development of agriculture and industry can make India developed.
Highlight any two main demands of the anti¬arrack movement. 
- The anti-arrack movement aimed at prohibition on the sale of arrack and forced the closure of the liquor shop.
- Its demand touched upon larger section of social, economic and political issues, which had established a close nexus between crime and politics.
Explain any two strategies to overcome hegemony 
- Instead of engaging in activities opposed to the power, it is advisable hegemonic to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic system. This is called the ‘Bond Wagon’ strategy.
- Another strategy is to ‘hide’. This implies staying as far removed from the dominant power as possible.
Explain any two economic consequences of globalization. 
The economic consequences of globalisation are :
- Greater economic flows among the different countries of the work commodities, capital, people and ideas.
- Reduction in restrictions on imports and exports. Developed countries are more benefitted than the developing countries.
Explain the reasons for the students’ movement of 1974 in Bihar and role played by Jaya Prakash Narain in this movement. 
(i) In March 1974 students came together in Bihar to protest against rising prices, food scarcity, unemployment and corruption. They invited Jaya Prakash Narayan (JP), who had given up active politics and was involved in social work, to lead the student movement. Thus the students’ movement assumed a political character and had national appeal. People from all walks of life now entered the movement.
(ii) Jaya Prakash Narayan demanded the dismissal of the Congress government in Bihar and gave a call for total revolution in the- social, economic and political spheres in order to establish what he considered to be true democracy.
(iii) A series of bandhs, gheraos and strikes were organized in protest against the Bihar government.
Explain any three challenges faced by India at the time of its independence. [3 × 2 = 6]
“For a long time, Congress Party had been a social and ideological coalition.” Justify the statement.
Broadly, Independent India faced three kinds of challenges. The first and immediate challenge was to shape a nation that was united, yet accommodative of the diversity in our society. India was a land of continental size and diversify. Its people spoke different languages and followed different cultures and religions. At that time, it was widely believed that a country full of such kinds of diversity could not remain together for long. The partition of the country appeared to prove everyone’s worst fears. There were serious questions about the future of India: Would India survive as a united country? Would it do so by emphasizing national unity at the cost of every other objective? Would it mean rejecting all regional and sub-national identities? And there was an urgent question How was integration of the territory of India to be achieved?
The second challenge was to establish democracy. The Constitution granted fundamental rights and extended the right to vote to every citizen. India adopted representative democracy based on the Parliamentary form of government. These features ensure that the political competition would take place in a democratic framework. A democratic constitution is necessary but not sufficient for establishing a democracy. The challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution.
The third challenge was to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society without any prejudices. Here again the Constitution clearly laid down the principle of equality and special protection to socially disadvantaged groups and religious and cultural communities. The Constitution also set out in the Directive Principles of State Policy—the welfare goals that democratic politics must achieve. The real challenge was now to evolve effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty.
The Congress Party evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professional and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle-class and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience movement it launched, its social base widened. It brought together diverse groups, whose interests were often contradictory. Peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, workers and owners, middle, lower and upper classes and castes, all found space in the Congress. Gradually, its leadership also expanded beyond the upper caste and upper class professionals to agriculture based leaders with a rural orientation.
By the time of Independence, the Congress was transformed into a rainbow like social coalition broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. In this sense, the Congress was an ideological coalition as well. It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the right, left and all shades of the centre. The Congress was a ‘platform’ for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2014 Delhi Set – III
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in the previous set.
Name any 2 founder member State of ASEAN. 
Indonesia and Malaysia
Mention any two agencies of the United Nations.
- International Labour Organisation.
- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
- ICAO—The International Civil Aviation Organisation. (Any two)
Which political party of India had leaders like A.K. Gopalan, E.M.S. Namboodripad and S.A. Dange? 
Communist Party of India.
State any two reasons for the instability of democracy in Pakistan. 
- The social dominance of the military, clergy and landowning aristocracy has led to the frequent overthrow of elected governments and the establishment of the military government.
- The lack of genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan has further encouraged the military to continue its dominance which contributed to instability of democracy.
What is meant by the two-nation theory? 
According to the ‘two-nation theory’ advanced by the Muslim League, India consisted of two ‘factions’, Hindus and Muslims. That is why it demanded Pakistan; a separate country for the Muslims. Thus it was decided that what was till then known as ‘India’ would be divided into two countries, ‘India’ and ‘Pakistan’.
Mention any two demands of Bhartiya Kisan Union. 
- The BKU demanded higher government floor prices for sugarcane and wheat.
- The BKU also demanded the abolition of restrictions on the interstate movement of farm produces.
Explain any two reasons for the popular struggle in East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) against West Pakistan during 1971. 
- Soon after the partition, people of East- Pakistan began protests against the unfair treatment meted out to the Bengali culture and language. They also demanded fair representation in administration and a fair share in political power. They demanded autonomy for the eastern region.
- Under the military rule of General Yahya Khan, the Pakistani army tried to suppress the mass movement of the Bengali people. Thousands were ’killed by the Pakistan army.