CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2013 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100
- All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
- Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
- Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2013 Outside Delhi Set – I
What is the main reason for beginning of the US hegemony in 1991? 
US hegemony began in 1991 after Soviet power disappeared from the international scene. US exhibited its hegemony in Gulf War when it interrupted and used its military power to influence the participant countries.
Define the word ‘Band wagon Strategy’ 
Bandwagoning in international relations occurs when a state aligns with a stronger state to take advantage of the opportunity that its hegemony creates such as raising economic growth, increasing trade and investment.
Correct the following sentence and rewrite in your answer book. 
The International Monetary Fund has five members countries and they enjoy equal status.
The International Monetary Fund has 189 member countries and they do not enjoy equal status.
Mention any two new threats to the security of a state. 
- Terrorism and
Who was popularly known as ‘The Milkman of India?’ 
Dr. Verghese Kurien.
What was the Bombay Plan? 
The Bombay Plan is the name commonly given to a World War II-era set of proposals for the development of the post-independence economy of India. The plan, published in 1944/1945 by eight leading Indian industrialists, proposed state intervention in the economic development of the nation after independence from the United Kingdom.
Name the two main contenders who contested the elections for the post of President of India in 1969. 
- V.V. Giri and
- N. Sanjeeva Reddy.
Who led the Railway Strike in 1974? What was its main demand? 
1974 Railway Strike in India was the strike by workers of Indian’ Railways in 1974. The strike was held to demand a raise in pay scale, which had remained stagnant over many years. The President of the All India Railwaymen’s Federation. George Fernandes led the strike.
Which organization of Assam led the movement against foreign nationals in 1979? 
All India Assam Students’ Union.
Shetkari Sanghatana and Rayat Sangha belonged to which two respective states? 
- Maharashtra and
Which were the two important features of the Soviet system? 
- The Soviet system centered around one party and no other political party of opposition was allowed.
- The system was bureaucratic and authoritarian, the economy was planned and controlled by the state.
State any two consequences of the “largest garage sale” in the history. 
- It meant the end of cold war confrontations. The ideological dispute over whether the socialist system would beat the capitalist system was not an issue any more.
- Power relations in world politics changed and, therefore, the relative influence of ideas and institutions also changed.
What is meant by hegemony? 
Hegemony is an international system with only one centre of power. Countries and groups of countries are engaged constantly try to gain and – retain power. This power is in the form of military domination, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
Name any four main organs of the United Nations. 
- General Assembly
- Security Council
- Economic and Social Council
- International Court of Justice.
What is meant by the non-traditional notion of security? 
Non-traditional notion of securin go beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence. They begin by questioning the traditional referent of security. In doing so, they also question the other three elements of security—what is being secured, from what kind of threats and the approach to security.
Mention any two merits of Green Revolution.
Two merits of Green Revolution are :
- Production increased due to intensive use of scientific methods in agriculture. It helped in increasing the production of rice remarkably.
- Financial condition of farmers were improved because of surplus production. Even small and marginal scale farmers got benefit from this.
Mention any two important features of Bharatiya Jana Sangh’s ideology. 
Two important features of Bharatiya Jana Sangh’s ideology:
- It emphasized the idea of one country, one culture and one nation.
- It was opposed to the granting of concession to religious and cultural minorities.
What were the two main consequences of Indo- Pakistan conflict of 1971? 
Two main consequences of Indo-Pakistan conflict of 1971 :
- The first and most lasting consequence of the war was ‘the partition of Pakistan’. The East Pakistan was converted to a free nation ‘Bangladesh’.
- Recognition of India as a major power in South east Asia and surrender of the Pakistan army along with signing a surrender document.
Highlight any two issues that dominate the politics of North-East India. 
(i) Issues of governance: The Indian government’s past and ongoing processes of national integration, state building and democratic consolidation have further aggravated the conflict scenario in the region.
(ii) Demand for autonomy: Leaders of the major tribal communities wanted to separate from Assam. They formed the Eastern India Tribal Union which later transformed into a more comprehensive All Party Hill Leaders Conference in 1960.
What does a coalition of government mean? Mention any one example of such a government. 
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate, to form majority in Lok sabha and government at the centre. At the national level India’s first ever coalition government was formed under the Prime Ministership of Morarji Desai which existed from 24th March, 1977 to 15th July, 1979 headed by the Janata Party. The first successful coalition government in India which completed the whole 5-year term was the Bharatiya Janata Party-led National Democratic Alliance with Atal Bihari Bajpayee as Prime Minister from 1999-2004. (Anyone example)
Why is the policy of non-alignment of India criticized? Explain any two reasons. 
India has played a significant role in shaping the Non-aligned movement which began as a collective and constructive response of the newly liberated masses of Asia, Africa, Caribbean and Latin America. The movement is responsible for inculcating self-esteem to these newly liberated countries and to a great extent is responsible for the creation of more just and equitable world order. NAM has failed to help promote peace and many of its members have been involved in internal and external violence (for example NAM could not stop or prevent the civil war in Cambodia, or the war between Iran and Iraq). NAM has also been unable to bear on lingering disputes such as the conflict and the problems in Kashmir, causing tensions between Pakistan and India or in Cyprus which is resulting in tensions between Turkey and Greece.
Explain any four factors which make the European Union a highly influential organization. 
Any four factors which make the European Union a highly influential organization:
- Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the U.S.
- Its military power is the second largest in the world. It is the world’s second most important source of space and communication technology.
- Its currency Euro poses a threat to the dominance of the U.S. dollar.
- Before 2019, 2 members of Eu-Britain and France were permanent members of UN Security Council. At present, France continues to single-handedly held the steering wheel of power and influence.
Explain the hegemony of United States as a hard power.
The bedrock of contemporary US power ‘ lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military power. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US today has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, in real time, thereby crippling the adversary while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the dangers of war. The military dominance of the US is not just based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap, a technological chasm that no other power can at present conceivably span. There are five commands of US military and these are not limited to the area of the United States only. In fact, it extends to include the whole world. This clearly shows the US Hegemony as a Hard Power.
Describe India’s relation with China from Independence to 1962. 
India began its relations with China on a friendly note and signed the Panchsheel treaty based on five principles of peaceful co-existence in 1954. The China invasion of India in 1962 strained the relations, dented India’s image and also that of Nehru and the congress. The war alerted the Indian leadership about the development of isolated regions of North East India. The growing rift between China and Soviet Union resulted in the split of the Communist Party of India and marked the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
State any four criteria that have been proposed in recent years for new permanent and non-permanent members of the U.N. Security Council. 
Reforms of the U.N. Security Council encompassed some key issues like categories of membership, veto power, regional representation etc. Some of the criteria proposed for new permanent and non-permanent members of the security council are: A new member should be :
- A major economic and military power.
- A substantial contributor to the U.N. budget.
- A big notion in terms of population.
- A nation that represents democracy and human rights.
Explain any four factors responsible for the development of globalization. 
(i) Information technology: The Internet has transformed commerce by creating new ways for retailers and their customers to complete transactions. Internet-based communication system made things easier.
(ii) World Trade organization: The World Trade Organization plays a vital role in reducing barriers to trade in services and goods. Globalisation has encouraged countries to negotiate trade agreements but this has been possible only because of the role by World Trade organisation Trade agreements and trade blocs among countries. Countries engaging in trade agreements increase access to foreign markets of their products.
(iii) Human migration: Human migration involves physical movement of humans from one area to another. Since World War I, the cost of migration has continued to decline which has made it easier for individuals to travel to other nations. Reasons that people choose to move their families to another country include wars, political conflicts or seeking better employment opportunities. Globalisation as a process is boosted because of this migration.
(iv) Transportation: Transportation is necessary to connect international trade with domestic consumption and production. Improvements in transportation have made it possible to deliver fresh items quickly to other countries, which has made globalisation possible.
Who founded the Swatantra Party in 1959? Describe any three policies and programmers of this party. 
The Swatantra Party was an Indian conservative political party that existed from 1959 to 1974. It was founded by C. Rajagopalachari, the party stood out from other parties in terms of its position on economic issue.
(i) The party wanted the government to be less involved in controlling the economy. It believed that prosperity could only be achieved through individual freedom.
(ii) The Party clearly and openly declared its opposition to “Socialism”: which it described as “State Capitalism”, and its mission was to “Save Freedom”, “Preserve Family Economy”, “Restore Fundamental Rights” and to provide the country “A Democratic Alternative”. “For Farm, Family” and Freedom” became the signature slogan of the Swatantra Party.
(iii) It was critical of the development strategy of the state intervention in the economy, centralized planning, nationalization and the public sector. Instead it favoured expansion of private sector.
Explain India’s nuclear policy. 
India always considered the NPT as discriminatory and refused to sign it. When India conducted its first nuclear test, it was termed as a peaceful explosion. India argued that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purpose. Nehru had always put his faith in science and technology for rapidly building a modern India. A significant component of his industrialisation plans was the nuclear programme initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Nehru was against nuclear weapons. So he pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament.
What reasons, do you think, were responsible for the declaration of emergency in 1975? Examine any two reasons. 
Two reasons responsible for the declaration of emergency:
(i) During the period of 1973-75, political unrest against the Indira-led government was at its peak. The Supreme Court found many initiatives of the government unconstitutional. The opposition parties led by Jay Prakash Narayan announced a nationwide Satyagraha for Indira’s resignation on grounds that she had used the services of government servants in her election campaign. This threatened to bring the government activities to a standstill.
(ii) The government cited threats to national security, as a war with Pakistan had recently been concluded and the strikes and protests had hurt the economy of the country. Due to internal threats and disturbances, the government decided to declare an emergency.
In the given political outline map of India, four states have been marked A, B, C, D. Identify them with the help of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer book with their respective serial numbers and the alphabets concerned : 
(i) State from where Chipko Movement began
(ii) State related to Operation Blue Star
(iii) State which was liberated from the control of Portugal in December 1961.
(iv) State which has given a special status under Article 370.
|(iv)||B||Jammu and Kashmir|
Study the passage given below carefully and answer the questions follow:
The collapse of communism was followed in most of these countries by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. Privatization of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. 
(i) Why was the process of transition been described as painful?
(ii) Which political system existed before the transition and which system replaced it, if any?
(iii) What does privatization imply?
Study the passage given below carefully and answer the questions follow :
The two superpowers were keen on expanding their spheres of influence in different parts of
the world. In a world sharply divided between the two alliance systems, a state was supposed to remain tied to its protective super-power to limit the influence of the other superpower and its allies. Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US and those of Eastern Europe joined the Soviet camp.
(i) Name the two Superpowers.
(ii) Why did the allies want to remain tied with one of the superpowers?
(iii) Why did the superpowers want to bring other countries into their camps?
(i) Because democratic system has emerged due to failure of authoritarian social system.
(ii) Before the transition, the authoritarian socialist system existed and it was replaced by the Democratic Capitalist system.
(iii) The transfer of ownership of property or business from a government to a privately owned
entity represents transparency, it involves working of the economy without interference of the government.
(i) USA and USSR A
(ii) To stand out in world economy, as the superpowers provides them with both military assistance and financial aid.
(iii) They wanted other countries to be in their camp because they were vital sources of oil and minerals. It gave the superpowers their territory to launch their weapons and troops and a location from where superpowers could spy on each other.
Explain any three environmental concerns in global politics. 
Explain the concept of globalisation and any two reasons for resistance to it.
The growing focus on environmental issues within the arena of global politics was firmly consolidated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992. This was also called the Earth Summit. Major three environmental concerns in global politics are :
(i) Throughout the world, cultivable area is barely expanding any more, and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility. Grasslands have been over-grazed and fisheries over-harvested. Water bodies have suffered extensive depletion and pollution, severely restricting food production.
(ii) Natural forests which help stabilize the climate, moderate water supplies, and harbour a majority of the planet’s biodiversity on land are being cut down and people are being displaced. The loss of biodiversity continues due to the destruction of habitat in areas which are rich in species.
(iii) A steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the Earth’s stratosphere (commonly referred to as the ozone hole) poses a real danger to ecosystems and human health. Certain gases like Carbon dioxide, Methane, Hydro-fluoro carbons etc. are considered at least partly responsible for global warming — the rise in global temperature which may have catastrophic consequences for life on Earth.
Resistance to globalisation:
The worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communicational integration is Globalisation. In fact it is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of life. It is not always positive; it can have negative consequences for the people. Globalization need not be only about the economic issues, nor is the direction of influence always from the rich to the poor countries.
All over the world, the old ‘welfare state’ is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens. However, it withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
Economic globalisation usually involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions andpowerfulcountri.es. This flow or exchange can take various forms: commodities, capital, people and ideas. Globalization has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe.
(i) Those on the left argue that contemporary globalisation represents a particular phase of global capitalism that makes the rich richer and the poor poorer. Weakening of the state leads to a reduction in the capacity of the state to protect the interest of the poor, and thus is why globalisation should be resisted.
(ii) Critics of globalisation from the political weight express anxiety over political, economic and cultural effects. Politically, they fear the weakening of the state; economically, they want to return to self-reliance and protectionism, at least in certain areas of economy culturally, they are worried that t traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values and ways.
“Congress had remained a social and ideological, coalition for a long period.” Justify the statement. 
Access the outcome of early phase of planned development in India.
The Congress Party evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professional and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle-class and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement, it launched, its social base widened. Peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, workers and owners, middle, lower and upper classes and castes, all found space in the Congress. Gradually, its leadership also expanded beyond the upper caste and upper class professionals to agriculture based leaders with a rural orientation.
By the time of Independence, the Congress was transformed into a rainbow like social coalition broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. In this sense the Congress was an ideological coalition as well. It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the right, left and all shades of the centre. The Congress was a ‘platform’ for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
The major outcomes of the three objectives that were identified in Independent India, the third objective proved most difficult to realize. Execution of land reforms did not take place effectively in most parts of the country; political power remained in the hands of the landowning classes; and big, industrialists continued to benefit and thrive while poverty did not reduce much. The early initiatives r for planned development were at best realizing the goals of economic development of the country and well-being of all its citizens. The inability to take ‘ significant steps in this direction in the very first stage was to become a political problem. Those who benefited from unequal development soon became politically powerful and made it even more difficult to move in the desired direction.
In this period the foundations of India’s future economic growth were laid. Some of the largest developmental projects in India’s history were undertaken during this period. These included mega-dams like Bhakhra-Nangal and Hirakud for irrigation and power generation. Some of the heavy industries in the public sector—steel plants, oil refineries, manufacturing units, defense production etc. were started during this period. Infrastructure for transport and communication was improved substantially.
Mention any six steps taken for the restoration of dominance of the Congress Party after 1971 elections. 
Mention any six factors responsible for defeat of the Congress Party in 1977 elections.
In the early 1970s the government of Indira Gandhi gained popularity due to various factors such as :
(i) During this period the government made conscious attempts to project socialist credentials. In contrast to the one programme of the opposition of ‘Indira Hatao’, she put forward positive programme captured in the famous slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’.
(ii) Indira Gandhi vigourously campaigned for implementing the existing reform laws and undertook further land ceiling legislation.
(iii) Not only this, in order to end her dependence on the other political parties and to strengthen her party’s position in the Parliament and seek a popular mandate in her programmes, Indira Gandhi’s government recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December 1970.
(iv) The crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh added one more feather to the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
(v) In this way, Indira Gandhi and her government was seen not only as protector of the poor and the underprivileged but also as a strong government.
(vi) Indira Gandhi through her positive programme—Garibi Hatao, focused on the growth of the public sector, removal of disparities in income and opportunities and the abolition of princely privileges.
(i) The elections came after the end of the Emergency that Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had imposed in 1975; it effectively suspended democracy, suppressed the opposition, and took control of the media with authoritarian measures. The opposition called for a restoration of democracy and Indians saw the election results as a repudiation of the Emergency.
(ii) Gandhi had become extremely unpopular for her decision and paid for it during the elections. On 23 January, she called for fresh elections and released all political prisoners.
(iii) Four Opposition parties, the Congress (Organization), the Jan Sangh, the Bharatiya Lok Dal and the Socialist Party, decided to fight the elections under a single banner called the Janata alliance. The alliance used the symbol allocated to Bharatiya Lok Dal as their symbol on the ballot papers.
(iv) The Janata alliance reminded voters of the excesses and human rights violations during the Emergency, like compulsory sterilization and imprisonment of political leaders.
(v) The structural factors allowed voters to express their grievances, notably their resentment of the emergency and its authoritarian and repressive policies.
(vi) One grievance often mentioned was the forced ‘Nasbandi’ (vasectomy) campaign in rural areas. The middle class also emphasized on the curbing of freedom of speech throughout the country.
What are popular movements? Describe any four benefits of popular movement. 
Highlight any three issues on which a broad agreement has emerged among most of the political parties in India.
A popular movement is a sustained collective action over time. Such action is aimed against the state and takes shape into demand for a change in state policy or practice. Any such collective action is marked by some degree of organizations. Any popular movement must have a social orientation. Thus, it can be said briefly that popular movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue.
- It helps us to understand better the nature of democratic politics.
- These movements came up to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and as integral part of our democratic politics.
- They represented new social groups where economic and social grievances were not redressed in the realm of electoral politics. Popular movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands.
- Popular Movements suggests new forms of active participation and thus broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy.
In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties:
- Agreement or new economic policies. Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
- Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward classes/castes. As a result, all political parties now support the reservation of seats for the ‘Backward classes” in education and employment.
- Acceptance of the role of state-level parties in the governance of the country. The distinction between state level and national level parties has reduced considerably.
- Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances. Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to “Power sharing arrangement”.