CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Physical Education 2016 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 70
- The question paper contains 26 questions.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Question no. 1 to 11 carry 1 mark each. Answers to these questions should be in approximately 10-20 words each.
- Questions no. 12 to 19 carry 3 marks each. Answers to these questions should be in approximately 30-50 words each.
- Questions no. 20 to 26 carry 5 marks each. Answers to these questions should be in approximately 75-100 words each.
** Answer is not given due to change in the present syllabus
Write formula for giving Bye. 
Formula for giving Bye = Next power of 2 – No. of Teams
What are Natural Resources in Adventure sports ? 
Natural resources are useful raw materials that we get from the earth. They can be used or utilized by people. Natural Resources in Adventure sports are National parks, Safaris and Wildlife sanctuaries. These are good places for outdoor adventure activities. And so many things like light, air, water, stones, minerals, plants, animals, etc. People need these natural resources to live and stay alive.
What are the Micro Nutrients ? 
Vitamins, minerals are the micro-nutrients. These are required in small proportion in our diet. They are considered as supplement food, they act as defensive food and help the proper functioning of various organs such as vitamins, minerals.
Suggest any two free hand exercises for correcting round shoulder. 
- Chakra Asana, Dhanur Asana, Bhujanga Asana, Ustra Asana, Backward Bending.
- Pull the shoulders backward and see up-ward.
Explain the importance of fluid intake during competition. 
During the activity or competition sports drinks helps extend time to exhaustion and improves performance for the competition lasting longer in extreme heat. Sports drinks provide hydration as well as carbohydrates.
What is Oesteoporosis ? 
Osteoporosis is weakening of bone mass due to deficiency of calcium and vitamin D resulting in poor boneing. This condition declines the performance and leads to bone injuries.
Explain the procedure for Eight Foot Up and Go Test. 
This test is designed to measure speed, agility (coordinative ability) and balance while moving. The equipments required are stop-watch, straight back chair (approximately 45 cm high) cone markers, measuring tape, safe and clear area.
- Place the chair against wall and mark a cone eight feet away in front of chair.
- Clear the path between the chair and the marker.
- The person sits on chair, hands resting on knees and feet flat on chair.
- On the command ‘GO’ timing starts and person is instructed to walk (on running) around the cone as quickly as possible and sit down on the chair.
- Scoring is counted as time taken to perform this. Two trials are conducted and lowest time in seconds is considered for scoring.
What is “Stroke Volume” ? 
Amount of blood pumped by left ventricle in per beat.
At rest period-50 to 70 ml/beat.
During Exercise-110 to 130 ml/beat OR
Amount of blood ejected by heart in one stroke.
What kind of sports injury can be termed as “Abrasion”? 
Abrasion is injury on the surface of the skin. In this injury skin is scrapped or rubbed by friction.
It causes severe pain and sometimes bleeding over affected part. Abrasion are very common sports injuries mainly caused by fall on hard surfaces.
Explain, what is “Dynamic Friction” ? 
Dynamic friction is the force of friction which comes into play when a body moves over the surface of another body
- Sliding Friction
- Rolling Friction.
How participation in physical activities enhances self esteem among children ? **7 
Explain, what is strength and write the methods of improving strength ? 
Muscular strength is the highest amount of effort exerted by the muscles of the body in order to overcome the most resistance in a single effort. Strength refers to a muscle’s ability to generate force against physical objects, Training methods for strength development.
- Isometric Exercises.
- Isotonic Exercises.
- Isokinetic Exercises.
Write about the deformities of spinal curvature. 
There are three types of spinal curvature deformities like kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis.
- Kyphosis ’round shoulders’: It is the postural defect in which shoulders are projected forward (shoulders are bent forward, the chin is down-ward and head is bent forward.)
- Lordosis : Lordosis is the problem of lumbar-spine. Lordosis is an inward curvature of a portion of the vertebral column. Here the vertebral column is curved backward and the individual leans backward while standing.
- Scoliosis : It is the problem of spine in which vertebral column bends to sideward. Scoliosis causes one shoulder down and other is raised up.
What safety measures children should be taught while participating in River Rafting ? 
Safety measures include safe raft swimsuit, life jacket, raft push, knowledge of swimming and life guard instructions, knowledge about river flow and its curves, safe destination point.
Draw a fixture of 11 Football teams participating in a Tournament on the basis of knock out. 
Total number of teams = 11
How various committies are formed for Tournaments ? Write briefly. 
Arrangement committee, Technical committee, Discipline committee, Reception-committee, Boarding and Lodging committee, Ceremonial committee, Press and Media committee, Certificate Writing committee, Medical committee, Announcement committee, Recorders and Bulletin board committee.
Sports are good for all age groups. Competitive sport is a showcase of power at the international arena. Supremacy over the other country is indirectly shown by standing at the top of medal tally. To achieve their target few countries are imparting very strict training to growing children. Over the years many organisations have raised their voice against the intensity with which training is scheduled for making an international athletes. [1 + 2 = 3]
(i) Elaborate any two physiological benefits of exercise in children.
(ii) What are the disadvantages of giving high intensity training to the growing children?
(i) Improves cardiovascular system and health.
(ii) Disadvantages of giving high intensity training to the growing children are :
- Stress or fatigue.
- Chances of overload.
- Early maturity.
- Can reach too early top form.
- Less flexibility.
- Chances of injury.
Briefly explain different types of co-ordinative abilities. 
- Adaptation ability : According to predictable changes in circumstances, it is the capability of a sports person to result in an effectual alteration in the movement.
- Balance ability : It is the capability of a sports person to sustain balance of the body together in static and dynamic conditions.
- Reaction ability : It is the ability to react quickly and effectively to a signal. To a great extent it depends on sense organs, coordinative processes of CNS, decision making, concentration and anticipation.
Write briefly about protein as an essential component of diet. 
Protein is needed for growth and development of body. It helps to repair or replace the worn out tissues, it does not provide energy in normal routine whereas it acts as energy source only under extreme starvation (hunger). There are two types of proteins.
- Essential protein.
- Non-essential protein.
Write in detail about the physical and physiological advantages of physical exercises during the childhood stage. 
(i) Exercise helps in healthy growth and development : Exercise is an important part of keeping children healthy. Encouraging healthy lifestyles in children and adolescents is important when they grow older. Participating in organized sports and games is not only of great fun but is very essential for healthy growth and development.
(ii) Exercise improves self-esteem : Exercise is necessary for your physical and mental health. Self-esteem can play a great role in how children feel about themselves and also how much they enjoy things or worry about things. Exercise reduces depressive symptoms and improves self-esteem in children.
(iii) Exercise makes healtheir weight range :
These days a lot of children not only in India but also throughout the world are getting over weight which is the root cause of various physiological problems. Regular exercise is important to control weight as it helps in burning extra calories and lowers the weight.
(iv) Exercise makes stronger bones, muscles and joints : Exercise is vital for strong muscles, bones and joints. Exercise may help children lower their risk of chronic pain related to muscles, bones and joints in the future. Exercise increases bone density which helps to make bones stronger. Exercise is beneficial in building strong and health muscles. Joints require motion to stay healthy.
(v) Exercise strengthens the heart : Exercise helps to improve heart health, and can even reverse some heart disease risk factors. The resting heart rate of those who exercise is also slower, because less effort is needed to pump blood. A child who exercises often has the lowest risk for heart disease, but any amount of exercise is beneficial.
How the Cardiovascular Fitness is measured with the help of “Harvard Step Test” ? Write in detail about its administrative procedure. 
This test was developed in 1943 by Brouha to measure the cardiovascular fitness of the individual.
After above calculation fitness rating will be measured.
Requirements of test :
- Gym Bench (45cm high)
- Assistant or Helper.
In this test, the student step-up and step-down on the gym bench for 5 minutes or until exhaustion at a rate of 30 steps per minute.
- Firstly, the student performs warm-up and comes near the gym bench.
- At the command of ‘GO’ the student starts to step-up and step-down on the gym bench whereas assistant starts the stop watch at same time.
- This goes on for five minutes.
- The assistant measures the heart rate (beats per minute) after one minute of test finish
- The assistant measures the heart rate (beats per minute) after two minutes of test finish as pulse 2.
- The assistant again measures the heart rate (bpm) after three minutes of test finish as pulse 3.
RESULT = 30000/(pulse 1 + pulse 2 +pulse 3)
Keeping in view of the Indian Ideology, critically analyse the sociological aspect of Women Athletes in sports participation.** 
Participation in physical activity for a longer duration maintains functional fitness among aged population. Justify. 
On the ageing process, physical activity can play very effective role, however, it should be implemented in a suitable manner. It is a well known fact that regular physical activity is the supplement to delay the ageing process. It can in some cases, overturn the most common signs of ageing viz., loss of muscles and bones, increased body fats, decline of memory, decreased metabolism, flexibility and blood flow etc. Participation in physical activity for a longer duration maintains functional fitness among aged population in following manner :
(i) Reduces loss of muscles mass : With advancing age the muscle mass decreases. The accumulation of fats reduces due to regular exercise. Ageing has a depressing consequence on metabolism. Regular physical activity results in dropping the metabolic rate and decreases the loss of lean body mass.
(ii) Maintains bone density : With advancement of age, bone density decreases as well generally leading to the rupture or osteoporosis. Physical activity assists in maintaining bone mass and prevent osteoporosis. Bone growth gets stimulated with resistance exercises.
(iii) Improves lungs capacity : Oxygen uptake and exchange increases and enhances the lungs capacity due to regular exercise. In maintenance of strong lungs, it plays prominent role and reduces the loss of elasticity of the lungs and chest wall.
(iv) Lessens stress and tension : Regular physical activity has a distinctive capability to slow down the depression process by reducing stress and tension. Actually, regular physical activity lessens the levels of body’s stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol. The body’s natural pain killers and mood elevators like the endorphins are produced due to regular physical activity.
Differentiate between Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation. Explain in detail Goal setting and Reinforcement as technique of motivation. 
Goal setting : Achieving performance goals is a symbol of competency that affects motivation positively, hence it is essential to set realistic goals based on individual’s own abilities. The level of the motivation gets adversely affected when goals are set up too high or too low. The goal should be realistic, precise and within reach but should at the same time be a difficult one. Goal settings have been acknowledged as an influential motivational technique as it mobilizes an athlete’s hard work and extends his determination.
Reinforcement: Reinforcement is a vital motivation means. It refers to some kind of occurrence that increases or decreases the possibility of a similar reaction taking place in the future. Positive reinforcements enlighten the athlete at what time he is doing something accurate and support the continuance of the activity in the precise direction. Negative reinforcement is in general, of slight importance since it simply indicates that the actions are inaccurate devoid of providing information with respect to the accurate reaction or behaviour. It has been established that positive reinforcement has to a large extent, more motivational value than negative reinforcement.
Write in detail about the Dislocation and Fractures among the bones and joint injuries.  Answer:
Dislocation : It is an injury of joint in which the adjoining bones are displaced from their original position. Dislocations mainly occurs in contact sports, such as football, hockey, and in sports that may involve falls, such as downhill skiing, gymnastics, volleyball and also during a motor vehicle accidents.
Dislocation takes place in different location of the joints like :
- Dislocation of shoulder joint.
- Dislocation of lower jaw.
- Dislocation of hip joint.
Fracture : Bone injuries occur in the bone due to some impact or minimal trauma injury as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bone. There are many types of bone injuries which are as follows :
- Simple fracture
- Compound fracture
- Greenstick fracture
- Comminuted fracture
- Transverse fracture
- Oblique fracture
- Spiral fracture
- Pathologic fracture
- Impacted fracture
- Stress fracture.
Differentiate mechanically between walking and running. Explain in detail mechanical analysis of walking. 
Walking : Walking is rolling down from heel to toe action. The first phase is heel strikes the ground followed by the transfer of weight and balance making. Afterwards the heel is rolled forward and push is given by toe and swing comes after. During walking the head should be straight without tension in shoulder. In the torso region the abdomen muscles should be slightly tightened, loose abdomen muscles cause back pain. The arm swing helps to gain speed in walking.
Running : Running is a toe action movement. For running, the focus is on the three major producing action-push off, knee-drive and paw- back. These three phases are done in a sequential maimer to provide efficient running action, push off is the primary toe action movement needed to supply the driving force in forward direction. The force comes from the powerful contraction of calf muscles by extension of ankle joint. The slight flexion of knee joint provides horizontal force instead of vertical force. Body is also bent forward.