CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 80
- Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
- Answer to questions no. 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.
- Answer to questions no. 4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words each.
- Answer to questions no. 10 to 12 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words each.
- Questions no. 13 to 15 are source based questions.
- Question no. 16 is a Map question that includes identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer-book.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi Set-I
Part – A
“John Marshall’s stint as Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India marked a major change in Indian Archaeology.” Explain the statement. 
John Marshall, the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, from 1902 – 1928 has marked a major change in Indian Arphaeology as he was the first professional archaeologist to work in India, and brought his experience of working in Greece and Crete to the field. He was very much interested in spectacular finds and equally keen to look for patterns of everyday life. He even announced in 1924 the discovery of a new civilization in the Indus Valley, to the world.
State the role played by women in agrarian society during 16th and 17th centuries. 
Women worked with men shoulder to shoulder in the fields. Men tilled and ploughed, while women sowed, weeded, threshed and winnowed the harvest. Artisanal tasks such as spinning yarn, shifting and kneading clay for pottery, and embroidery were among the many aspects of production dependent on female labour.
Why did Jaipal Singh plead for the protection of tribes in the Constituent Assembly ? Explain any two reasons. 
Explain the ideals expressed in ‘Objectives Resolution’ introduced by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Jaipal Singh plead for the protection of tribes in the Constitutional Assembly because:
(i) Tribes had been dispossessed of the land they had settled, deprived of their forests and pastures, and forced to move in search of new homes.
(ii) Perceiving them as primitive and backward, the rest of society had spurned them.
Through these points Jaipal Singh wanted the society to mix with the tribes and was not asking for separate electorates, but he felt that reservation of seats in the legislature was essential to allow tribals to represent themselves.
On 13th December 1946, Jawaharlal Nehru introduced the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly. It proclaimed India to be an ‘Independent Sovereign Republic’, and guaranteed its citizens justice, equality and freedom, and assured that adequate safeguards shall be provided for minorities, backward and tribal areas, and Depressed and Other Backward Classes.
Part – B
“The most unique feature of the Harappan civilization was the development of domestic architecture.” Substantiate the statement. 
The Lower Town at Mohenjondaro provides examples of residential buildings. Many were centred on a courtyard, with rooms on all sides. The courtyard was probably the centre for activities such as cooking and weaving, particularly during hot and dry weather. There were no windows in the walls along the ground level. Besides, the main entrance did not give a direct view of the interior or the courtyard. Every house had its own bathroom paved with bricks, with drains connected through the wall to the street drains. Some houses still have remains of staircases to reach a second storey or the roof. Many houses had wells, often in a room that could be reached from the outside and perhaps used by passers-by.
Examine any two evidences found by the archaeologist B.B. Lai after excavation at a village named Hastinapur in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh. [2 × 2 = 4]
In 1951-52, the archaeologist B.B. Lai excavated at a village named Hastinapura in Meerut (Uttar Pradesh). While the similarity in names could be coincidental, the location of the sites in the Upper Ganga Doab, where the Kuru kingdom was situated, suggests that it may have been the capital of the Kurus. Lai found evidence of five occupational levels, of which the second and third are of interest to us.
Lal noted about the houses in the second phase that within the limited area excavated, no definite plans of houses were obtained, but walls of mud and mud-bricks were duly encountered. The discovery of mud-plaster with prominent reed-marks suggested that some of the houses had reed walls plastered over the mud. For the third phase, Lai noted that houses of this period were built of mud-bricks as well as burnt bricks. Soaked jars and brick drains were used for draining out refuse water, while terracotta ring-wells may have been used both as wells and drainage pits.
Describe the main teachings of Baba Guru Nanak. 
Teaching of Baba Gurtu Nanak :
Baba Guru Nanak firmly repudiated the external practices of the religions he saw around him. He rejected sacrifices, ritual bath, image worship, austerities and the scriptures of both Hindu and Muslims. He organise his followers into a community. He set up rules for congregational worship (sangat)’ involving collective recitation. For Baba Nanak, the absolute or Rab had no gender form. He proposed a simple way to connect to the Divine by remembering and repeating the Divine’s Name through hymns called shabad.
Analyse the rituals associated with Mahanavami Dibba at the Royal Centre in Vijayanagara. 
Analyse the main features of Amara-Nayaka System which was introduced in Vijanayagara Empire.
Rituals associated with the structure probably coincided with Mahanavami of the ten-day Hindu festival during the autumn season. The Vijayanagara kings displayed their prestige, power and suzerainty on this occasion. The ceremonies performed on the occasion included image worship, worship of the state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
Dances, wrestling matches, and processions of caparisoned horses, elephants and chariots and soldiers, as well as ritual presentations before the king and his guests by the chief nayakas and subordinate kings marked the occasion. These ceremonies were imbued with deep symbolic meanings. On the last day of the festival the king inspected his army and the armies of the nayakas in a grand ceremony in an open field. On this occasion the kings accepted rich gifts from the nayakas.
The Amara-Nayaka System was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire. It is likely that many features of this system were derived from the Iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate. The Amara-Nayakas were military commanders who were given territories to govern by the Raya.
They collected taxes and other dues from peasants, craftspersons and traders in the area. They retained a part of the revenue for personal use and for maintaining a stipulated contingent of horses and elephants. These contingents provided the Vijayanagara kings with an effective fighting force with which they brought the entire southern peninsula under their control. Some of the revenue was also used for the maintenance of temples and irrigation works. They sent tribute to the king annually and personally appeared in the royal court with gifts to express their loyalty.
Why was the Colonial Government keen on carrying out regular surveys and mapping various parts of the country ? Explain. 
Why did Taluqdars and Sepoys of Awadh join )the Revolt of 1857 ? Explain.
Colonial rule was based on the production of enormous amounts of data. The British kept detailed records of their trading activities in order to regulate their commercial affairs. To keep track of life in the growing cities, they carried out regular surveys, gathered statistical data, and published various official reports. From the early years, the colonial government was keen on mapping.
Good maps were necessary to understand the landscape and know the topography. This knowledge would allow better control over the region. When towns began to grow, maps were prepared not only to plan the development of these towns but also to develop commerce and consolidate power. The town maps give information regarding the location of hills, rivers and vegetation, all important for planning structures for defence purposes. They also show the location of the ghats, density and quality of houses and alignment of roads, used to gauge commercial possibilities and plan strategies of taxation.
The annexation by the British not only displaced the Nawab but also dispossessed the taluqdars of Awadh. The countryside of Awadh was dotted with the estates and forts of taluqdars who for many generations had controlled land and power in the countryside. Before the coming of the British, taluqdars maintained armed retainers, built forts, and enjoyed a degree of autonomy, as long as they accepted the suzerainty of the Nawab and paid the revenue of their taluq. Some of the bigger taluqdars had as many as 12,000 foot-soldiers and even the smaller ones had about 200. The British were unwilling to tolerate the power of the taluqdars.
Immediately after the annexation, the taluqdars were disarmed and their forts were destroyed.
The sepoys had complained for decades over low levels of pay and the difficulty of getting a leave. In the 1840s, when the sepoys who had a friendly relationships with the British officers then began to change. The officers developed a sense of superiority and started treating the sepoys as their racial inferiors, riding roughshod over their sensibilities. Abuse and physical violence became common and thus the distance between sepoys and officers grew. Trust was replaced by suspicion. The episode of the greased cartridges was a classic example of this.
“The India in which Gandhiji came back to in 1915 was rather different than the one he had left in 1893.” Substantiate the statement. 
In January 1915, Gandhiji returned to his homeland after two decades of residence abroad. Those years were spent for the most piart in South Africa, where he went as a lawyer, and in time became a leader of the Indian community in that territory. The India that Mahatma Gandhi came back to in 1915 was rather different from the one that he had left in 1893. Although still a colony of the British, it was far more active in a political sense. The Indian National Congress then had branches in most major cities and towns.
Through the Swadeshi movement of 1905-07, it had broadened its appeal among the middle classes. That movement had thrown up some towering leaders — Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra, Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal, and Lala Rajpat Rai of Punjab. The trio was famous as Lai, Bal and Pal. Where these leaders advocated militant opposition to colonial rule, there was a group of ‘Moderates’ who preferred a more gradual and persuasive approach. Among these moderates was Gandhiji’s acknowledged political mentor, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, as well as Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who like Gandhiji, was a lawyer of the Gujarati extraction trained in London.
Part – C
“Buddhism grew rapidly both during the lifetime of the Buddha and after his death.” Justify the statement with suitable arguments. 
“Among the best preserved monuments of the 600 BCE to 600 CE is the Stupa at Sanchi.” Justify the statement with suitable arguments in the context of its sculptural features and conservation policy taken up in the nineteenth century.
Gautam Buddha founded Buddhism in the 6th century BCE. The religion became popular during the lifetime of Buddha and continue to spread beyond India after his death. The reason for the popularity and propagation of Buddhism was its message and its simplicity.
People did not find its teachings difficult to understand. Local language was used by the Sangh to spread it. In fact, Gautam Buddha used to speak in the Prakrit language rather than in Sanskrit. Buddha was against any rituals so he did away with them. People found it easy to follow this philosophy. Asoka and later on other kings accepted Buddhism as their religion, because it was a powerful creed at that time.
Buddha did not believe in caste system and treated everyone equally which meant the people of the lower caste were happy. Buddhism attached importance to conduct and values rather than claims of superiority based on birth. They emphasised on ‘meta’ (fellow felling) and ‘karuna’ (compassion) ‘ especially for those who were youger and weaker than oneself. These ideas drew men and women to the fold of Buddhism. A body of followers of Buddha was founded in an organization known as ‘Sangha.’ Followers came from many social groups which included kings, wealthy men gahapatis and humbler folk.
The teachings of Buddha were written in Tripitakas, or the Three Baskets. Buddhist Sangha was quick to spread the message of Buddha to different parts of India and abroad. Buddhism was opposed to customs and rituals as was done in Brahmanism.
Stupas were sacred places where the relics of the Buddha such as his bodily remains or objects used by him were buried.
According to a Buddhist text known as the Ashokavadana. Ashoka distributed portions of the Buddha’s relics to every important town and ordered the construction of stupas over them. By the second century BCE a number of Stupas, like Sanchi and others had been built.
Art historians have carefully studied the sculpture at Sanchi and identified it as a scene from the Vessantara Jataka.
The empty seat was meant to indicate the meditation of the Buddha, and the stupa was meant to represent the Mahaparinirbana. Another frequently used symbol was the wheel. This stood for the first sermon of the Buddha, delivered at Sarnath. The tree symbolises an event in the life of the Buddha. According to popular belief, Shalabhanjika was a woman whose touch caused trees to flower and bear fruit. It is likely that this was regarded as an auspicious symbol and integrated into the decoration of the stupa. Animals were after used as symbols of human attributes. Elephants (signify strength and wisdom), horses, monkeys and battle scenes are also, engraved at the stupa.
While some historians identify the figure as Maya, the mother of the Buddha, others identify her with a
popular goddess, Gajalakshmi—literally, the goddess of good fortune—who is associated with elephants. Serpent found on several pillars seems to be derived
from other popular traditions.
Conservation policy taken up in the nineteenth century:
The rulers of Bhopal in the 19th century, Shahjehan Begum and her successor Sultan Jehan Begum, provided money for the preservation of the ancient site. John Marshall dedicated his important volumes on Sanchi to Sultan Jehan. She funded the museum and publication of the volumes on Sanchi written by John Marshall.
French sought ruler Shahjehan Begum’s permission to take away the eastern gateway of Sanchi Stupa but both French and the English were satisfied with carefully prepared plaster cast copies and the original remained at the site.
Describe Bernier’s description of land ownership in India and also describe its influence on Western theorists from 18th century onwards. 
Describe the experiences of Al-Biruni in the Indian Subcontinent.
According to Bernier, there was no private property during Mughal India. He was a firm believer in the virtues of private property, and saw crown ownership of land as being harmful for both the state and its people. He thought that in the Mughal Empire, the emperor owned all the land and distributed it among his nobles, and that this had disastrous consequences for the economy and society. Owing to crown ownership the land holders could not pass the property to their children. They were averse to long term investment in the sustenance and expansion of production. This had led to uniform ruination of agriculture.
Bernier’s descriptions influenced Western theorists from the 18th century onwards. The French philosopher Montesquieu, for instance, used this account to develop the idea of oriental despotism, according to which rulers in Asia (the Orient or the East) enjoyed absolute authority over their subjects, who were kept in conditions of subjugation and poverty, arguing that all land belonged to the king and that private property was non-existent.
According to the above view, everybody, except the emperor and his nobles, barely managed to survive. This idea was further developed as the concept of Asiatic Mode of Production by Karl Marx in the 19 century. He argued that in India and other Asian countries before colonialism surplus was appropriated by the state. As in the case of the question of landownership, Bernier was drawing an oversimplified picture. There were all kinds of towns : manufacturing towns, trading towns, port towns, sacred centres, pilgrimage towns, etc.
Al-Biruni spent years in the company of Brahmana priests and scholars, learning Sanskrit, and studying religious and philosophical texts. While his itinerary is not clear, it is likely that he travelled widely in Punjab and parts of Northern India.
He also discussed several ‘barriers’ that he felt obstructed understanding. The first amongst these was language, Sanskrit was different from Arabic and Persia. Ideas and concepts could not be translated from one language into another.
The second barrier he identified was the difference in religious beliefs and practices. The self-absorption and consequent insularity of the local population according to him, constituted the third barrier.
He tried to explain the caste system by looking for parallels in other societies for example in Ancient Persia. He attempted to suggest that social divisions were not unique to India. He noted that in ancient Persia four social categories were recognized. He remarked that everything which falls into a state a impurity strives and succeeds in regaining original condition of purity. The sun cleanses the air, and the salt in the sea prevents the water from becoming polluted. Al-Biruni’s description of the caste-system was deeply influence by the Brahamanical point of view, which in real life was not quite as rigid. He wrote about the system of Varna.
According to him there were four castes. The highest caste was Bahamanas who according to the books of Hindus were created from the head of Brahma and the Brahman is the only another name for the force called nature. The next caste was Kshatriyas who were created from the shoulders and hands of Brahma. The third caste was Vaishya, who were created from the thigh of Brahma. The fourth caste was Shudra, were created from the feet of Brahma.
Explain the events that led to the communal politics and Partition of India. 
Explain the strengths and limitations of oral testimonies in the understanding of Partition of India.
The differences between the communal political parties were creating a divide that later on became difficult to bridge. Not only this, the British government began playing one party against the other to weaken the national movement and prolong their stay in India.
(i) Right from the beginning, the British followed the policy of divide and rule. Before the coming of the British, the Hindus and the Muslims lived happily in India. There was unity, mutual cooperation and brotherhood among them.
(ii) To weaken the National Movement, the government actively encouraged the Muslim League to follow their communal demands. In fact, they got some Muslim leaders to form the League in 1905, after the Partition of Bengal. Also the League’s proposal for a coalition government in the united provinces was rejected by the Congress after the provincial election of 1937.
(iii) The role of the political leaders was also responsible for the partition of India. Prominent among them was Jinnah, who lead the Muslim League and passed the Lahore Resolution Remanding a measure of autonomy for the Muslim majority areas that gave birth to a new nation called Pakistan.
(iv) During the 1920s and early 1930s tension grew around a number of issues. Muslims were angered by ‘music-before-mosque’, by the cow protection movement formation of the Hindu Mahasabha in 1915 and by the efforts of the Arya Samaj to bring back to the Hindu fold (shuddhi) those who had recently converted to Islam.
(v) Hindus were angered by the rapid spread of tabfigh (propaganda) and tanzim (organisation) after 1923.
(vi) Post War Developments : During 1945 the British agreed to create an entirely Indian Central Executive Council except for the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, as a preliminary step towards full independence. Discussions about the transfer of power broke down due to Jinnah’s unrelenting demand that the League had an absolute right to choose all the Muslim members of the Executive Council and that there should be a kind of communal veto in the Council.
(vii) Failure of the Cabinet : Mission (March 1946) was short lived as the Muslim League wanted the grouping to be compulsory, with sections B and C developing into strong entities with the right to secede from the Union in the future.
(viii) Direct Action Day : After withdrawing its support to the Cabinet Mission plan, the Muslim League decided on ‘Direct Action’ for winning its demand for Pakistan. It announced on 16 August 1946 as Direct Action Day. On this day, riots broke out in Calcutta, lasting several days and leaving several thousand people dead. By March 1947 violence spread to many parts of Northern India.
(ix) Withdrawal of law and order from 1946 to 1947: There was a complete breakdown of authority in the city of Amritsar. British officials did not know how to handle this situation : they were unwilling to take decisions, and hesitant to intervene. When panic-stricken people appealed for help, British Officials asked them to contact Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabh Bhai Patel or M. A. Jinnah. Nobody knew who could exercise authority and power. The top leadership of the Indian parties, barring Mahatma Gandhi, were involved in negotiations regarding independence while many Indian civil servants in the affected provinces feared for the own lives and property. The British were busy preparing to quit India.
(x) Compounded Problems : Problems compounded because Indian soldiers and policemen came to act as Hindus, Muslims or Sihks. As communal tension mounted, the professional commitment of those in uniform could not be relied upon. In many places not only did policemen help their co-religionists but they also attacked members of other communities.
The strengths of oral testimonies in the understanding of Partition of India :
- Oral history helps us grasp experiences and memories in detail.
- It enables historians to write richly textured, vivid accounts of what happened to people during events such as Partition which would be impossible to extract this kind of information from government documents.
- It also allows historians to broaden the boundaries of their discipline about the lived experiences of the poor and the powerless. For example, about Latif’s father, the women of Thoa Khala.
- Moving beyond the actions of the well-off and the well-known, the oral history of Partition has succeeded in exploring the experiences of those men and women that were ignored, taken for granted, or mentioned only in passing in mainstream history.
- Oral narratives memoirs, diaries, family histories first hand written accounts help to understand the trials and tribulation of ordinary people during the paritition of the country. Memories and experiences shape the reality of an event.
Oral testimonies tell us about the day to day experiences of those affected by the government decision to divide the country.
The limitations of oral testimonies is the understanding of Partition of India :
- Many historians believed that oral data seem to lack concreteness and the chronology they yield may have be imprecise. Historians argue that the uniqueness of personal experience makes generalisation difficult: a large picture cannot be built from such micro-evidence, and one witness is no witness.
- They also think that oral accounts are concerned with tangential issues, and that the small individual experiences which remain in memory are irrelevant to the unfolding of larger processes of history.
- If history has to accord presence to the ordinary and powerless, then the oral history of Partition is not concerned with tangential matters.
- The experiences it relates are central to the story, so much so that oral sources should be used to check other sources and vice versa.
Part – D
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
Prabhavati Gupta and the village of Danguna
This is what Prabhavati Gupta states in her inscription:
Prabhavati Gupta …. commands the gramakutumbinas (householders/peasants living in the village),
Brahmanas and others living in the village of Danguna…
“Be it known to you that on the twelfth (lunar day) of the bright (fortnight) of Karttika, we have, in y order to increase our religious merit donated this village with the pouring out of water, to the Acharya
[ (teacher) Chanalasvamin…. You should obey all (his) commands ….
We confer on (him) the following exemptions typical r of an agrahara…. (this village is) not to be entered
by soldiers and policeman; (it is) exempt from (the obligation to provide) grass, (animal) hides as seats, and charcoal (to touring royal officers); exempt from (the royal prerogative of) purchasing fermenting liquor and digging (salt); exempt from (the right to) mines and khadira trees; exempt from (the obligation to supply) flowers and milk; (it is donated) together with (the right to) hidden treasures and deposits (and) together with major and minor taxes ”
This charger has been written in the thirteenth (regnal) year. (It has been) engraved by Chakradasa.
(13.1) How did Prabhavati Gupta show her authority through the inscription ? 
(13.2) How did the inscription give us an idea about the rural population ? 
(13.3) Examine the importance of the charter issued by Prabhavati Gupta. 
(13.1) Her authority is reflected in the language used in the inscription.
(13.2) The inscription gives us information about the rural.population as the inscription addresses the ‘householders/peasants living in the village, the Brahmanas and others living in the village of Danguna.’
(13.3) Charter was a command or order for all living in village and they had to obey the commands. It provides insight into the relationship between cultivators and the state. It also gives an idea about rural population who were expected to provide a range of produce to the king and his representatives.
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Nobles at Court
The Jesuit Priest Father Antonio Monserrate, resident at the court of Akbar, noticed :
In order to prevent the great nobles becoming insolent through the unchallenged enjoyment of power, the King summons them to court and gives them imperious commands, as though they were his slaves. The obedience to these commands ill suits their exalted rank and dignity.
(14.1) Examine the relationship between Akbar and his nobles. 
(14.2) How do you think that the nobility was an important pillar of the Mughal State ? 
(14.3) Explain the observation of the Jesuit Priest Father Antonio Monserrate regarding this relationship. 
(14.1) The king would summon the nobles to the court and give them imperial commands as though they were his slaves. This was to prevent the great nobles from becoming insolent through unchallenged enjoyment of power. The king granted titles to men of merit; awards were also given.
(14.2) The nobility was an important pillar of the Mughal state as they were recruited from diverse ethnic and religious groups to aid in effective administration. The nobles participated in military campaigns with their armies and also served as officers of the empire in the provinces.
(14.3) The Jesuit Priest Father Antonio Monserrate observe that the members of the Jesuit mission interpreted the emperor’s open interest in the doctrines of Christianity as a sign of his acceptance of their faith. This could be understood in relation to the intolerant religious atmosphere that existed in Europe at the time. High respect shown by Akbar towards the members of the Jesuit mission impresed them deeply.
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
Buchanan on the Santhals
Buchanan wrote :
They are very clever in clearing new lands, but live meanly. Their huts have no fence, and the walls are made of small sticks placed upright, close together and plastered within with clay. They are small and slovenly, and too flat-roofed, with very little arch.
(15.1) Examine the role of Buchanan as an agent of the East India Company ? 
(15.2) Analyse the economic activities of Santhals. 
(15.3) How did Buchanan describe the living conditions of Santhals ? 
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
How debts mounted
In a petition to the Deccan Riots Commission a ryot explained how the system of loans worked :
A sowkar lends his debtor ₹ 100 on bond at ₹ 3-2 annas per cent per mensem. The latter agrees to pay the amount within eight days from the passing of the bond. Three years after the stipulated time for repaying the amount, the sowkar takes from his debtor another bond for the principal and interest together at the same rate of interest, and allows him 125 days’ time to liquidate the debt. After the lapse of 3 years and 15 days a third bond is passed by the debtor …. (this process is repeated) at end of 12 years …. his interest on ₹ 1,000 amounts to ₹ 2,028-10 annas-3 paise.
(15.1) For what purpose did ryots get loans from money lenders ? 
(15.2) How did the ryot explain the system of loans ? 
(15.3) How do you think that the way of borrowing money by the ryots brought misery to them ? 
Buchanan on that Santhals :
(15.1) Buchanan was employed by the East India Company. He marched everywhere with a large army of people—draughtsmen, surveyors, palanquin bearers, coolies, etc. As an agent of the East India
Company, Buchanan had to report on the activity of the Santhals.
(15.2) (i) The Santhals cultivated a range of commercial crops for the market.
(ii) The dealt with traders and moneylenders as well.
(15.3) According to Buchanan, the Santhals had very little needs. They lived in simple huts made-up of small sticks and plastered with mud. The design of the huts was simple with flat roofs and no arches. The huts were built small and dishevelled. They had no fence.
How debts mounted
(15.1) They needed loans even to buy their everyday needs and meet their production expenditure. Cultivators required loans for extending their average, moving into new areas, and transforming pasture land into cultivated fields. But to expand cultivation peasants needed more ploughts and cattle. They needed money to buy seeds and land. For this they had to turn to the moneylenders for loans.
(15.2) The sowkar (sahukar) lends his debtor Rs. 100 on bond at Rs. 3-2 annas per cent per mensem. The latter agrees to pay the amount within eight days from the passing of the bond. Three years after the stipulated time for repaying the amount, the sowkar takes from his debtor another bond for the principal and interest together at the same rate of interest, and allows him a period of 125 days to liquidate the debt. After the lapse of 3 years and 15 days, a third bond is passed by the debtor. This process is repeated at the end of 12 years and his interest on Rs. 1000 amounts to Rs. 2028—10 annas-3 paise.
(15.3) Over time, the ryots and peasants came to associate the misery of their lives with the new regime of bonds and deeds. They were made to sign and put thumb impressions on documents, but they did not know what they were actually signing. They had no idea of the clauses that moneylenders inserted in the bonds. They feared the written word. But they had no choice because to survive they needed loans, and moneylenders were unwilling to give loans without legal bonds.
Part – E
(16.1) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following appropriately : [1 × 2 = 2]
(a) Dandi—a centre of national movement.
Masulipatnam-a city under British control in 1857.
(b) Panipat-a territory under Mughals.
(16.2) On the same political outline map of India, three places have been marked as A, B and C which are related to matured Harappan. [1 × 3 = 3]
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi Set-II
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Part – A
“Over the decades, new issues have assumed importance in the archaeology of Harappa.” Give two evidences to justify the statement. 
Over the decades, new issues haye assumed importance in the archaeology of Hajrappa. Where some archaeologists are often,keen to obtain a cultural sequence, others try to understand the logic underlying the location of specific sites. They also grapple with the wealth of artefacts, trying to figure out the functions these may have served. Specialists are using modern scientific techniques including surface exploration to recover traces of the civilization as well to minutely analyse every scrap of available evidence.
State any two features of Akbar Nama. 
(i) The author of Akbar Nama(the chronicle of a King), Abu’l Fazl who was a court historian in the reign of Akbar. The Mughal chronicle is based on a range of sources including actual records of events, official documents and oral testimonies of knowledgeable person.
(ii) The Akbar Nama is divided into three books of which the first two are chronicles and the third book is the Ain-i-Akbari. The Akbar Nama provides a detailed description of Akbar’s reign in the traditional diachronic sense of recording politically significant events as well as synchronic picture of all aspects of Akbar’s empire-geographic social administrative and cultural without reference to chronology.
Part – B
“Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are made on assumptions and archaeological interpretation.” Substantiate the statement. 
(i) Early archaeologists thought that certain objects which seemed unusual or unfamiliar may have had a religious significance. These included terracotta figurines of women, heavily jewelled some with elaborate head-dresses, regarded as mother goddesses.
(ii) Rare stone statutory of men in an almost standardised posture, seated with one hand on the knee such as ‘priest king’ was also similarly classified.
(iii) Same structures have been assigned of ritual significance which include great bath and fire altars found at Kalibangan and Lothal.
(iv) Attempts have also been made to reconstruct religious beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of which seem to depict ritual scenes. Others, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate nature worship. Some animals — such as the one-horned animal, often called the ‘unicorn — depicted on seals seem to be mythical, composite creatures. In some seals, a figure shown seated cross-legged in a yogic posture, sometimes surrounded by animals, has been regarded as a depiction of ‘proto-Shiva’, that is, an early form of one of the major deities of HinduisnvBesides, conical stone objects have been ‘ classified as lingas.
Describe the beliefs of Virashaiva tradition in Karnataka. 
The Virashaivas or Lingayats worship Shiva in his manifestation as a linga, and men usually wear a small linga in a silver case on a loop strung over the left shoulder. Those who are revered include the jangama or wandering monks. Lingayats believe that on death the devotee will be united with Shiva and will not return to this world.
Therefore, they do not practise funerary rites such as cremation, prescribed in the Dharamashastras. Instead, they ceremonially bury their dead. They challenged the idea of caste and the “pollution” attributed to certain groups by the Brahamanas. They questioned the theory of rebirth. These won them followers amongst those who were marginalised by the Brahamanical social order. The Lingayats also encouraged certain practices that were disapproved in the Dharmshastras, such as post-puberty marriage and the remarriage of widows. The understanding of Virashaiva tradition is derived from Vachanas (oral sayings) composed in Kannada by women and men who joined the movement.
“The initiatives in Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.” Substantiate the statement. 
Gandhiji in the last month of the year 1916 was presented with an opportunity to put his precepts into practice. At the annual Congress held in Lucknow, Gandhiji was approached by a peasant from Champaran in Bhar, who told about the harsh treatment by the British indigo planters.
After this information, Mahatma Gandhi had to spend much of 1917 in Champatan, seeking to obtain freedom for the peasants, security of tenure as well as the freedom to cultivate the crops of their choice. The following year, 1918, Gandhiji was involved in two campaigns in his home state of Gujarat. First, he intervened better working conditions for the textile mill workers in Ahmedabad. Then he joined the peasants in Kheda, in asking the state for the remission of taxes following the failure of their harvest. These initiatives in Champarari, Ahmedbad and Kheda marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.
Part – C
Describe the perspective of Ibn Battuta and Francois Bernier on the condition of women in the Indian subcontinent. 
Describe Bernier’s views on the land-ownership of Mughals.
Ibn Battuta’s account, Rihla, states that female slaves were in the service of the Sultan who were experts in music and dance.
Ibn Battuta himself enjoyed their performances at the wedding of the Sultan’s sister. Female slaves were also employed by the Sultan to keep a watch on his nobles.
They entered the house unannounced. They communicate all the information to the Sultan. They were captured in raids and expedition. They were openly sold in markets, like any other commodity and were also given as gifts.
Beriner highlighted the ill treatment of women in India.
He described the practice of Sati. He chose his practice as a crucial marker of difference between Western and Eastern societies.
Bernier’s description of land ownership of Mughals:
- Berniers said that there was no private property during Mughal India.
- He believed in virtues of private property.
- He saw crown ownership as harmful for both state and the people.
- He thought Mughal emperors owned the entire land.
- This “had disastrous consequences for the state, and society.
- Owing to crown ownership the land holders could not pass the property to their children.
- They were averse to long term investment in the sustenance and expansion of production.
- This had led to uniform ruination of agriculture.
- The French philosopher Montesquieu used this account to develop the idea of oriental despotism according to which rulers in Asia (the Orient or the East) enjoyed absolute authority over their subjects who were kept in conditions of subjugation and poverty arguing that all land belonged to the king and the private property was nonexistent.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi Set-III
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set
Part – A
State the role of Jati Panchayats in the Mughal agrarian society. 
Panchayats had a very important role [ during the Mughal agrarian society. In addition to the village panchayat, each caste or jati in the village had its own Jati Panchayat. These panchayats wielded I’ considerable power in rural society. They mediated in contested claims on lands, decided whether marriages were performed according to the norms laid down by a particular caste group, determined who had rituals precedence in village functions, and so on.
The state respected the decisions of Jati Panchayats in most of the cases.
Part – B
“One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system.” Substantiate the statement. 
One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. At the Lower Town, the roads and streets were laid out along an approximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles. It seems that streets with drains were laid out first and then houses were built along them. If domestic waste water had to flow into the street drains, every house needed to have at least one wall along the street. It is certainly the most complete ancient system as yet discovered.
Describe the distinctive aspects of Sufi-Silsila. 
By the eleventh century Sufism evolved into a well-developed movement with a body of literature on Quranic studies and Sufi practices. Sufi Silsilas began to crystallise in different parts of the Islamic world around the twelfth century. The word silsila literally means a chain, signifying a continuous link between master and discipline, stretching as unbroken spiritual genealogy to” the Prophet Muhammad. It was important as it was through this channel that spiritual power and blessing were transmitted to devotees. Special ritual of invitation were developed in which initiates took an oath of allegiance, wore a patched garment, and shaved their hair. Dargah (tomb-shrine) became centre of devotion fopr shaikhs followers. The most famous Sufi Silsila was “Chisti Silsila”.
“It was the Rowlatt Satyagraha that made Gandhiji a truly national leader.” Substantiate the statement. 
In 1919, Gandhiji gave a call Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act, passed by the British. The Act restricted the freedom of expression and strengthened police powers. It was the Rowlatt Satyagraha that made Gandhiji a true national leader. Encouraged by its success, Gandhiji called for a campaign of Non-Cooperation with British rule. Indians who wished colonialism to end were asked to stop attending schools, colleges and law courts, and not pay taxes. In sum, they were asked to adhere to a ‘renunciation of (all) voluntary association with the (British) Government’. Gandhiji said that if non-cooperation was effectively carried out, India would win swaraj within a year. To further broaden the struggle, he had joined hands with Khilafat Movement.
Part – C
Describe Ibn Battuta’s account of Indian cities. 
Describe the detailed observations and critical insights given in the Bernier’s “Travels in the Mughal Empire”.
As a traveller, Ibn Battuta found cities in the subcontinent full of exciting opportunities. He arrived in Delhi in the fourteenth century when it was a part of global network. They were densely populated and prosperous, except for the occasional disruptions caused by wars and invasions. From Ibn Battuta’s account it appears that most cities had crowded streets and bright and colourful markets that were stacked with a wide variety of goods. He describes Delhi as a vast city, with a great population, the largest in India. Daulatabad was equal in size of Delhi. The bazaars were not only places of economic transactions, but the hub of social and cultural activities. Most bazaars had a mosque and a temple and spaces were marked for public performances by dancers, musicians and singers. He found Indian agriculture very productive because of the fertility of soil.
Bernier’s ‘The Travels in the Mughal Empire’ is marked by detailed observations, critical insights and reflection.
(i) According to Bernier, there was no private property during Mughal India. He was a firm believer in the virtues of private property, and saw crown ownership of land as being harmful for both the state and its people. He thought that the emperor owned all the land and distributed it among his nobles, and this had disastrous consequences for the economy and society.
(ii) Owing to crown ownership of land, landholders could not pass on their land to their children. So they were obverse to any long-term investment in the sustenance and expansion of production. It had led to the uniform ruination of agriculture, excessive oppression of the peasantry and a continuous decline in the living standards of all sections of society, except the ruling aristocracy.
(iii) Bernier’s descriptions influenced Western theorists from the eighteenth century onwards. The French philosopher Montesquieu, for instance, used this account to develop the idea of oriental despotism, according to which rulers in Asia (the Orient or the East) enjoyed absolute authority over their subjects, who were kept in conditions of subjugation and poverty, arguing that all land belonged to the king and that private property was non-existent.
(iv) According to this view, everybody, except the emperor and his nobles, barely managed to survive. This idea was further developed as the concept of the Asiatic mode of production by Karl Marx in the nineteenth century. He argued that in India (and other Asian countries), before colonialism, surplus was appropriated by the state. This led to the emergence of a society that was composed of a large number of autonomous and (internally) egalitarian village communities.
(v) The imperial court presided over these village communities, respecting their autonomy as long as the flow of surplus was unimpeded. This was regarded as a stagnant system.
(vi) Contemporary European travellers and writers ‘ often highlighted the treatment of women as a crucial marker of difference between Western and Eastern societies. Not surprisingly, Bernier chose the practice of Sari for detailed description. He noted that while women seemed to embrace death cheerfully, others were forced to die.