CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Outside Delhi-2013
Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 90
- The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
- Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
- Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
Question.1. What was the main reason to withdraw the Non-cooperation Movement?
Answer. Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-cooperation Movement as the movement had turned violent in many places. The Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 turned into a violent clash and 22 policemen were killed. Gandhiji felt satyagrahis were not ready for mass struggles.
Question.2. In which non-conventional source of energy is India referred to as a super power?
Answer. Wind Power.
Question.3. Which financial agency pressurized the government of Bolivia to give an MNC, control over the water supply arrangements in the city of Cochabamba?
Answer. Bank of Cochabamba.
Question.4. What does Universal Adult Suffrage stand for?
Answer. Universal Adult suffrage stands for the ‘Right to Vote’.
Question.5. Given one point of difference between a pressure group and a political party.
Answer. A pressure group is an organized or unorganized body that seeks to promote its interests while a political party is a body that seeks to attain political power by contesting elections.
Question.6. What is meant by ‘fair globalization’?
Answer. Fair globalization means globalization that would create opportunities for all and ensure that its benefits are shared better.
Question.7. Which body supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans?
Answer. Reserve Bank of India.
Question.8. Hallmark is the certification maintained for standardization of which type of products?
Question.9. Explain any three measures taken by the British administration to repress the movement started against the ‘Rowlatt Act’.
Answer. British officials were alarmed by the popular upsurge:
- The fear that the lines of communication, such as railways and telegraph, might get disrupted, the British Government started even stronger repressive measures.
- Local leaders were picked up. Gandhiji was barred from entering Delhi. On 10th April, 1919 the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession.
- This provoked widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations. Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.
Question.10. Which were the two types of. demands mentioned by Gandhiji in his letter to Viceroy Irwin on 31st January 1930? Why was abolition of ‘salt tax’ most stirring demand? Explain.
Answer. Some of the demands were of general interest; others were specific demands of different classes from industrialists to peasants.
- On 31st January, 1930 Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands, one of which was the demand to abolish Salt Tax.
- Salt was one of the most essential food items consumed by the rich and poor alike and a tax on it was considered an oppression on the people by the British Government.
- Gandhiji’s letter was an ultimatum and if his demands were not fulfilled by March 11, he had threatened to launch a civil disobedience campaign.
Question.11. Why was the decade of 1830s known as great economic hardship in Europe? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. The decade of 1830s was known as great economic hardship in Europe because of the following reasons:
- Europe had come under the grip of large-scale unemployment. In most of the countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
- Cities had become overcrowded and slums had emerged as population from the rural areas migrated to the cities.
- Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England where industrialization was more advanced specially in the field of textile production.
- In those regions of Europe, where aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations. The rise of food prices and bad harvests added to their hardships.
Why was the ‘Tonkin School’ started in Vietnam? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. The main objective of the Tonkin Free School was to provide western style education to Vietnamese.
- This education included classes in Science, Hygiene and French. (These classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately.)
- It was not enough to acquire knowledge in Science and western ideas but was also important to learn to look ‘modem’.
- Tire school encouraged the adoption of western style such as having a short haircut. This was a major break for the Vietnamese identity because they traditionally kept long hair.
- The French tried to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education
and tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of people to accept the superiority of French culture and civilization. . (any three)
Question.12. Why is India not able to perform to her full potential in iron and steel production?
Explain any three reasons.
Answer. Tnspite of being an important producer of iron and steel, India has not been able to exploit her complete potential, because of:
- High cost of production and limited availability of coking coal.
- Lower productivity of labour.
- Irregular supply of energy.
- Poor infrastructure. (any three)
Question.13. Explain any three objectives of the ‘National Jute Policy 2005’.
Answer. In 2005, National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality’, ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per hectare. .
The jute industry faced stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes and competitors like Bangladesh and Brazil.
The growing global concern for environment friendly, biodegradable materials also led to the government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
Question.14. How are means of transport and communication complementary to each other? Explain with three examples.
- Transport and communication establish links between producing centres and consuming centres. Trade or the exchange of such commodities relies on transportation and communication. Transport provides the network of links and carriers through which trade takes place.
- Dense network of roads, railways and airways connect the remote areas of the country hence help in production and distribution of goods and services.
- Advancement in communication system has accelerated trade by carrying information all over the world quickly.
- Good transport helps in quick carrying of raw material from remote areas to the production centre and allows distribution of goods efficiently.
- With expansion of rail, ocean and air transport, better means of refrigeration and preservation, trade has experienced spatial expansion.
Question.15. How do you feel that democracy is better than any other form of government? Explain.
Answer. We feel that democracy is a better form of government than any other form of government because:
- Democracy promotes equality among citizens.
- It enhances dignity of individual. It promotes dignity of women and strengthens the claims of the disadvantaged.
- It improves the quality of decision making. There is transparency in a democracy.
- Democracy provides methods to resolve conflicts.
- Democracy allows room to correct mistakes. (any three)
Question.16. Explain with examples how do some countries face foundational challenge of democracy.
- Foundational challenge relates to making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government. It involves establishing a sovereign and functional state.
- It involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a civilian control over all governmental institutions by holding elections.
- It involves the recognition of people’s choice and opportunity to change rulers, recognize people’s will. In countries like Myanmar political leader Suu Kyi was kept . under house arrest for more than 20 years. Thus, in this case, foundational challenge recognizes the need to release political leaders and recall them from exile and holding of multiparty elections.
Question.17. Analyse three major challenges before countries which do not have democratic form of governments.
Answer. Challenges faced by countries which do not have a democratic form of government:
- These countries face the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government.
- They also face the challenge of bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, and keeping the military away from controlling the government.
- Such countries have to make great efforts to establish a sovereign and functional State.
Question.18. How are local companies benefitted by collaborating with multinational companies?
Explain with examples.
Answer. When local companies enter into a joint venture with MNCs:
- First, the MNCs provide money for additional investments for faster production.
- Second, MNCs bring with them the latest technology for enhancing and improving the production.
- Some Indian companies have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies. Globalization has enabled some companies to emerge as multinationals.
- Parakh Foods was a small company which has been bought over by a large American Company — Cargill Foods. Parakh foods had built a large marketing network in various parts of India as a well-reputed brand. Parakh Foods had four oil refineries whose control has now shifted to Cargill. Cargill is now the largest manufacturer of edible oil in India making five million pouches daily.
Question.19. “Cheap and affordable credit is essential for poor households both in rural and urban areas.” In the light of the above statement explain the social and economic values attached to it.
Answer. Credit means loans. It refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with money, goods or services in return for the promise of future repayment.
- Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s growth and economic development. Credit is in great demand for various kinds of economic activities big or small investments, to set up business, buying cars, houses, etc.
- In rural areas credit helps in the development of agriculture by providing funds to farmers to buy seeds, fertilizers, expensive pesticides.
- Manufacturers need credit for . buying raw material or to meet ongoing expenditure of production. Credit helps in the purchase of plant, machinery, equipment, etc.
- Some people may need to borrow for illness, marriages etc.
Tims, cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s growth and economic development.
Question.20. Explain the ‘Right to seek redressal’ with an example.
Answer. Right to seek redressal:
- The consumers can seek redressal against trade practices of exploitation and have the right to fair settlement of the genuine grievances.
- He has a right to get compensation from a manufacturer/trader if he is harmed. The consumer can seek redressal through Consumer Courts functioning at district, state and national levels.
Example: Mahesh sent a money order to his village for his mother’s medical treatment. The money did not reach his mother at the time when she needed it and reached months later. Mahesh, thus filed a case in the district level consumer court to seek redressal.
Question.21. Describe the role of culture in shaping the feelings of nationalism in Europe from 1830 to the end of 19th Century.
Answer. Culture, music, dance and religion played an important role in the growth of nationalism.
- Culture. Role of culture was important in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, music etc. helped in developing and expressing nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement that led to the development of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science and instead focussed on emotions and intuition.
- Language. Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
- Music and Dance. Romantics such as the German philosopher Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people—das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.
Describe any five features of the ‘Go East Movement’
- In the first decade of the 20th century, a ‘Go East Movement’ became popular. In 1907-08, around 300 students from Vietnam went to Japan to acquire modem education.
- The primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow’1 the puppet emperor and reestablish the Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French. For this, they needed foreign help.
- Japan had modernized itself and had resisted colonization by the West. It had defeated Russia in 1907 and proved its military strength. The Vietnamese nationalists looked for foreign arms and help and appealed to the Japanese as fellow Asians.
- Vietnamese students established a branch of Restoration Society in Tokyo but, in 1908, the Japanese Ministry of Interior clamped down on them. Many, including Phan Boi Chau, were deported and forced to seek exile in China and Thailand.
Question.22. Why did Gandhiji start the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’? Explain any four features of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer. Non-fulfillment of demands made by Gandhiji on behalf of all the members of the Congress led to the launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
Gandhiji’s ‘Dandi March’ marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji started his march with 78 volunteers from his ashram at Sabarmati to the Gujarat coastal town of Dandi. On 6th April, Gandhiji reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
Features of Civil Disobedience Movement:
- People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws.
- Foreign cloth was boycotted and people were asked to picket liquor shops.
- Peasants were asked not to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes.
- Students, lawyers and village officials were asked not to attend English medium schools, colleges, courts and offices.
Question.23. “Advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic prosperity.” Justify the statement with five arguments.
Answer. “Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity”,
- As no country is self-sufficient in all resources, it cannot survive without international trade.
- If the balance of international trade is favourable, a country will be able to earn more foreign exchange.
- International trade encourages a country to develop secondary and tertiary sectors for exporting goods which can fetch more foreign exchange.
- A country’s economic prosperity can be gauged by the health of its international trade.
- A country can earn large amounts of foreign exchange through international trade.
Question.24. Why is it necessary to conserve mineral resources? Suggest any four ways to conserve mineral resources.
Answer. Conservation of minerals is necessary because of the following reasons:
- The formation of minerals takes a long geological period of millions of years.
- They are finite, i.e., limited in nature.
- Many of them are non-renewable and exhaustible.
- The rate of replenishment of minerals is infinitely small in comparison to rate of consumption.
- They have to be preserved for our future generations because they are very important for industrial development of the nation.
Ways to mineral conservation:
- We should use minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.
- Improved technologies need to be evolved to allow use of low grade ores at low cost.
- Recycling of metals should be done.
- Using scrap metals and other substitutes should be promoted.
- Wastages in mining, processing and distribution should be minimized.
- Controlled export of minerals should be undertaken. (any four)
Question.25. “Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.”
Examine the statement with examples.
Answer. Over the years, careful evidence has been gathered to see what the relationship of democracy with economic growth and economic inequalities is.
— It is seen that on an average dictatorial regimes have had a slightly better record of economic growth, i.e., 4.34%. But when we compare their record only in poor countries (4.28%), there is no difference.
— There is enough evidence to show that within democracies there can be very high degree of inequalities. In countries like South Africa and Brazil, the top 20 per cent people take away more than 60 per cent of the national income, leaving less than 3 per cent for the bottom 20 per cent population.
Perhaps more than development, it is reasonable to expect democracies to reduce economic disparities. Democracies are based on political equality, but despite equality in the political arena there are growing economic inequalities. The poor constitute a large proportion of our voters and no party would like to. lose its votes. Yet democratically elected governments do not appear to be keen to tackle *:he problem of poverty. Democracies are expected to produce good government, but there is no guarantee that they would also produce development. As evidence shows, the economic development depends on several factors, such as country’s size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country etc.
Question.26. “No party system is ideal for all countries and in all situations.” Justify the statement with five arguments.
Answer. Parties are a necessary condition for a democracy. The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. Party system is not something any
country can choose. It evolves depending on the nature of society, its social and regional divisions, its history of politics and system of elections.
Each country develops a party system that is conditioned by its special circumstances.
For example, India has evolved a multi-party system, because of its social and geographical diversity which cannot be easily absorbed by two or three parties.
Political parties make policies to promote collective good and there can be different views on what is good for all. Therefore no system is ideal for all countries and situations.
Question.27. How has improvement in technology stimulated the globalization process? Explain with five examples.
Answer. Improvements in technology have helped in globalization in the follozving ways:
- Rapid improvement in technology has contributed greatly towards globalization. Advanced technology in transport systems has helped in the delivery of goods faster across long distances at lower costs.
- Development in information and communication technology has also helped a great deal. Telecommunication facilities—telegraph, telephone (including mobile phones), fax are now used to contact one another quickly around the world, access information instantly and communicate from remote areas. Teleconferences help in saving frequent long trips across the globe.
- Information technology has also played an important role in spreading out production of services across countries. Orders are placed through internet, designing is done on computers, even payment for designing and printing can be arranged through internet. Internet also allows us to send instant electronic mail (e-mail) and talk (face-to-face) across the world at negligible lost.
- The cost of air transport has fallen which has enabled much greater volumes of goods being transported by airlines.
- Technology has made e-banking, e-commerce, e-learning, e-mail and e-govemance a reality.
Question.28. What are the two categories of sources of credit? Mention four features of each.
Answer. The two sources of credit are formal sources and informal sources:
Formal sources of credit:
- Banks and cooperative societies fall under the formal sector. One can obtain loans from banks or cooperative societies.
- The Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans.
- Bank loans require documentation and collateral (collateral is an asset such as land, building, vehicle, livestock, deposits with the bank, etc.). This is used as a guarantee to the lender until the loan is paid back.
- Formal sources cannot charge any rate of interest from the borrowers according to their whims.
Informal sources of credit:
- In the informal sector money can be borrowed from a person, friend, relative, moneylender, traders, employers, etc.
- There is no organization that checks or supervises the activities of lenders in the informal sector.
- Loans from informal sources do not require any such collateral.
- They charge a very high rate of interest on loans as they do not require any collateral.
Question.29. Identify and label the following on the map of India:
(a) The place, where the Indian National Congress Session was held in 1927.
(b) The place, where the Non-cooperation Movement was called off.
(c) The place where the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place.
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(1) Name the place where Indian National Congress Session was held in 1927.
(2) Which is the place where Non-cooperation Movement was called off?
(3) Name the place where the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place.
Answer. (1) Madras
(2) Chauri Chaura
Question.30. On the given political outline map of India:
A. Nuclear Power Plant : B. Iron and Steel Centre
(b) Locate and label
(i) Kandla—Major Sea Port
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 30.
(1) Name the Nuclear Plant located in Tamil Nadu.
(2) Name the Iron and Steel Plant located in Odisha (Orissa).
(3) Name the Southernmost Major Sea Port located on the Western coast of India.
Answer. (1) Kalpakkam (2) Rourkela (3) Kochchi
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I.
Question.9. Explain any three reasons for the slowdown of ‘Non-cooperation Movement’ in cities.
- Khadi cloth was often more expensive than the cloth produced in mills. Poor people could not afford to buy Khadi cloth.
- Boycott of British institutions also posed a problem as there were no alternative Indian Institutions. So students and teachers began trickling back to the government schools.
- Even lawyers joined back work in government courts.
Question.14. “The distribution pattern of Indian Railway network is influenced by the physiographic factors”. Examine the statement.
Answer. The Northern plains with vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provide most favourable conditions for railway network. The nature of terrain and the number of rivers running through the region determine the density of railway network in that region. Mountains, marshy, sandy and forested areas have sparse network whereas plain areas have dense network of the railways. It was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plains of Western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat and forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh.
Question.15. Explain with examples, how movements are different from interest groups.
- Movements have a loose organization.
- Movements are issue specific and long-term involving more than one issue.
- Their decision-making is more informal and flexible.
- They depend much on spontaneous mass participation.
Example: Narmada Bachao Andolan under Medha Patkar.
- Interest groups form organizations and undertake activities to promote their interests.
- Interests groups are both sectional and public. Sectional interest groups promote interest of particular section of society and promotional or public interest groups aim to help groups other than their own members.
- They promote collective good and are concerned with welfare of the society and not just their own members.
Example: BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employee Federation).
Question.24. Why is there a pressing need to use renewable energy resources in India? Explain any five reasons.
- The growing consumption of energy has resulted in India becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas which are found in limited quantity on the earth. So there is an urgent need to use sustainable energy resources like solar, water, wind etc.
- Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy’ supply in future, which in turn has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy.
- Increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental degradation like air pollution, water pollution etc.
- Renewable sources of energy are pollution free and do not cause harm to ozone, therefore they are eco-friendly.
- They are a cheaper source and are freely and abundantly available in nature.
Question.25. “Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens.” Support the
statement with suitable examples.
Answer. No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can certainly learn to respect these differences and evolve a mechanism to negotiate the differences. Belgium is an example of how successfully differences were negotiated among ethnic groups. Therefore, democracy is best suited to accommodate various social divisions as it usually develops a procedure to conduct their competition. But the example of Sri Lanka shows how distrust between two communities turned into widespread conflict, and thus a democracy must fulfil the following two conditions in order to achieve a harmonious social life:
- Majority and minority opinions are not permanent. Democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority needs to work with minority so that government may function to represent the general view.
- Rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic groups, etc. Democracy remains democracy so long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time. No individual should be debarred from participating in a democracy on the basis of religion, caste, community, creed and other such factors.
Question.27. How has globalization benefitted India? Explain with five examples.
Answer. Globalization has had both a positive as well as a negative effect:
- People with education, skill and wealth have benefitted by globalization.
(i) Greater competition among producers (both local and foreign) has been advantageous to consumers, particularly the well-off section. Rich people enjoy improved quality at lower prices for several products and enjoy a higher standard of living.
(ii) MNCs have increased their investments in India over the past 20 years in industries
such as cell phones, automobiles, electronics, soft drinks, fast food and services such as banking.
(iii) New jobs have been created in all these industries and services.
(iv) Top Indian companies have benefitted from the increased competition. They have invested in newer technology and production methods.
(v) Some Indian companies have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies. Globalization has enabled some companies to emerge as multinationals.
- However, globalization has not been uniform among producers and workers.
(i) Globalization has posed a major challenge for a large number of small producers and workers. Small manufacturers have been hit hard due to competition causing many industrial units to shut down, rendering many workers jobless in small industries. (The small industries in India employ 20 million workers.)
(ii) Due to the pressure of competition, most employers do not employ workers on a permanent basis; to avoid paying for the whole year.
(iii) Workers’ jobs are not secure any more, wages are low and they are forced to work overtime to earn adequate money.
(iv) In order to cut costs of products for the benefit of MNCs, employers in industries such as garment exports, pay very low wages to workers.
Hence, there is a need for ‘fair globalization’ which will ensure that the benefits of globalization are shared better in a more equitable manner.
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I andSet-II.
Question.9. Explain the effects of ‘worldwide economic depression’ on India, towards late 1920s.
Answer. In 19th century, colonial India had become an exporter of agricultural goods and an importer of manufactures.
The worldwide economic depression immediately affected Indian trade. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Peasants producing for the world market were worst hit. Though agricultural prices fell, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants indebtedness increased. For example. Jute producers of Bengal.
In these depression years, India became an exporter of precious metals, notably gold.
Question.14. Why is air travel preferred in the North-Eastern states of India? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. The North-Eastern part of the country is marked with:
(i) Dissected relief, (ii) Dense forests, (iii) Frequent floods and (iv) Big rivers.
Under these difficult conditions, the road and rail transport is not well developed. Journey through land transport is very tiresome and time-consuming. So, for all these reasons, air travel is preferred in this part of the country, where special provisions are made to extend the services to common people at cheaper rates.
Question.24. How is energy a basic requirement for the economic development of the country?
Explain with examples.
- Energy is the basic requirement for economic development.
- Every sector of national economy—agriculture, industry, transport and commerce needs greater inputs of energy.
- In the domestic sector also, energy demands, in the form of electricity, are growing because of increasing use of electric gadgets and appliances.
- The economic development plans implemented since independence necessarily required increasing amounts of energy.
- Because of all these, per capita consumption of energy is continuously increasing. Q.25. “Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity
and freedom of the individual.” Support the statement with suitable examples. 5*1=5 Ans. The passion of
respect and freedom are the basis of democracy:
- Economic disparity in society has been minimized to a great extent in democracies.
- In many democracies women were deprived of their right to vote for a long period of time. After long struggle they achieved their right, respect and equal treatment.
- Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and opportunities, e.g., SCs and STs.
- In democracy all adult citizens (of 18 years and above) have the right to vote.
- Democracy evolves a mechanism that takes into account the differences and intrinsic attributes of various ethnic groups. In a democracy majority always needs to work taking into account the interest of the minority so that the minority do not feel alienated.
Question.27. How is the Government of India trying to attract more foreign investment? Explain with examples.
Answer. In order to attract foreign investment, the Government has taken the following steps:
- All the barriers and restrictions on foreign trade and investment have been removed to a large extent.
- Liberalization of investment policies has allowed Indian producers to compete with the producers around the globe.
- Allowing privatization of many public sector industries by the government.
- Allowing businesses to make decisions freely about what they wish to import or export.
- The government has allowed flexibility in labour laws to attract foreign investment
for the benefit of companies.