CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science Outside SA2 Outside Delhi-2011
Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 90
- The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
- Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
- Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
Question.1. What was the Rowlatt Act?
Answer. Rowlatt Act gave the government enormous powers to suppress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. In other words, the Act proposed no appeal, no vakil and no daleel.
Question.2. Orissa is the leading producer of which mineral?
Answer. Manganese ore.
Question.3. The Seven Party Alliance (SPA) in Nepal has succeeded in removing monarchy, holding elections and forming a government. Identify the challenge to democracy here.
Answer. Foundational challenge.
Question.4. What are the three main components of a political party?
Answer. (i) The leaders;
(ii) The active members; and
(iii) The followers
Question.5. What are sectional interest groups? Give an example.
Answer. Organizations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections
such as lawyers, teachers, workers, employees are called sectional interest groups.
Question.6. Why is ‘tax’ on imports known as a trade barrier?
Answer. Tax on imports is known as a trade barrier because it increases the price of imported commodities. It is called a barrier because some restriction has been set up.
Question.7. Why do banks ask for collateral while giving credit to a borrower?
Answer. Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns (land, building, vehicle, livestock, land documents, deposits with banks, etc.) which stands as a security against the money borrowed. In case the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset or collateral.
Question.8. A shopkeeper insists that you buy a guide with your NCERT Textbook. Which right of the consumer is being violated here?
Answer. Right to choose.
Question.9. Explain any three effects of the Non-cooperation Movement on the economy of India.
Answer. The economic sphere was affected by the Non-cooperation Movement.
- Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops were picketed and foreign cloth was burnt. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921-1922. Its value dropped from Rs.102 crore to Rs.57 crore.
- Many merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
- People began discarding imported clothes and wearing Indian ones.
- The production of Indian textile mills and hand looms went up. Use of khadi was popularized.
Question.10. How did the rich peasants and women take part in Civil Disobedience Movement?
Answer. Role of rich peasants:
- Being producers of commercial crops, they were hard hit by trade-depression and falling prices.
- As their cash income reduced, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
- These rich peasants became ardent supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- For them fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
Role of women:
- Women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many women went to jail.
- Women who participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement, came from high-caste families in urban areas and rich peasant households in rural areas.
Question.11. Explain any three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Answer. The three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in 18th and 19th centuries in Poland:
- Emphasis on vernacular language. Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. The use of the Folish language came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance. For example, In Poland, following armed rebellion against Russian rule, Polish was used for church gatherings and religious instruction,. As a result, a number of priests and bishops were put in jails or sent to Siberia as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian.
- Emphasis on collection of local folklore. It was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to cany the modern nationalist message to the large audience who were mostly illiterate.
- Use of music to keep the nationalist feeling alive. For example, Karol Kurpinski, celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
Explain any three characteristics of the ‘Tonkin Free School’ in Vietnam.
Answer. The main objective of the Tonkin Free School was to provide western style education. Features:
- This education included classes in Science, Hygiene and French. (These classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately).
- It was not enough to acquire knowledge in Science and western ideas but was also important to learn to look ‘modem’.
- The school encouraged the adoption of western style such as having a short haircut. This was a major break for the Vietnamese identify because they traditionally kept long hair.
- The French tried to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education and tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of people to accept the superiority of French culture and civilization.
Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity, its own culture and customs and traditions. (any three)
Question.12. ‘Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives.’ Support this statement with suitable examples.
- Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to a towering building or a ship, all are made from minerals.
- All means of transport are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth.
- Even the food that we eat contains minerals. Human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decorations, festivities and in all stages of development.
Question.13. Explain any three problems faced by Iron and Steel Industry in India.
Answer. Inspite of being an important producer of iron and steel, India has not been able to exploit her complete potential, because of:
- High cost of production and limited availability of coking coal.
- Lower productivity of labour.
- Irregular supply of energy.
- Poor infrastructure.
Question.14. Make a distinction between hydroelectricity and thermal electricity stating three points all are of distinction.
What values are associated with using hydroelectricity?
- It is eco-friendly as it saves our reserves of fossil fuels but requires submergence of large forest cover or land for damming the river.
- It is an absolutely clean source of energy.
- Hydroelectric power plants do not create any waste by-products in their conversion.
Question.15. Explain the role of democratic governments in reducing economic disparities.
Answer. Over the years, careful evidence has been gathered to see what the relationship of democracy with economic growth and economic inequalities is.
It is seen that on an average dictatorial regimes have had a slightly better record of economic growth, i.e., 4.34%. But when we compare their record only in poor countries (4.28%), there is no difference.
There is enough evidence to show that within democracies there can be very high degree of inequalities. In countries like South Africa and Brazil, the top 20 per cent people take away more than 60 per cent of the national income, leaving Jess than 3 per cent for the bottom 20 per cent population.
Perhaps more than development, it is reasonable to expect democracies to reduce economic disparities. Democracies are based on political equality, but despite equality in the political arena there are growing economic inequalities. The poor constitute a large proportion of our voters and no party would like to lose its votes. Yet democratically elected governments do not appear to be keen to tackle the problem of poverty’. Democracies are expected to produce good government, but there is no guarantee that they would also produce development. As evidence shows, tire economic development depends on several factors, such as country’s size, global situation, co-operation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country etc.
Question.16. Explain how the relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms?
Answer. The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms, some direct and others very’ indirect.
In some instances the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organizations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party.
Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, the Assam Movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to social reform movement during the 1930s and 1940s.
When the relationship between parties and interest groups is not so direct they often take positions opposed to each other. Yet they are in dialogue and negotiation. New issues raised by movements have been taken up by political parties.
Question.17. Explain the ‘foundational challenge’ of democracy by stating three points.
- Foundational challenge relates to making the transition to democracy and then
instituting democratic government. It involves establishing a sovereign and functional state.
- It involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away. from controlling government and establishing a civilian control over all governmental institutions by holding elections.
- It involves the recognition of people’s choice and opportunity to change rulers, recognise people’s will. In countries like Myanmar political leader Suu Kyi has been kept under house arrest for more than 20 years. Thus, in this case, foundational challenge recognizes the need to release political leaders and recall them from exile and holding of multiparty elections.
Question.18. Explain any three advantages of globalization.
Answer. Globalization means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy.
- Under this process, goods and sendees along with capital, resources and technology can move freely from one nation to another.
- It has increased the movement of people between countries. People usually move from one country’ to another in search of better income, better jobs ‘or better education. Earlier the movement of people between countries was less due to various restrictions.
- Rapid improvement in technology has been one major factor that has stimulated the globalization process.‘For instance, advancement in transportation technology has made much faster delivery of goods across long distances possible at lower costs. Container services have led to huge reduction in port handling costs. The cost of air transport has fallen which has enabled much greater volumes of goods being transported by airlines.
- Developments in information and communication technology (IT in short) has brought a revolution in telecommunications. It has made e-banking, e-commerce, e- leaming, e-mail and e-govemance a reality.
- Globalization has resulted in greater competition among producers and has been of advantage to consumers, particularly the well-off section. Rich people now enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products. (any three)
Question.19. Explain any three actors which gave birth to the Consumer Movement in India.
Answer. The Consumer Movement as a ‘social force’ originated with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices of the producers and sellers.
- Rampant food shortages, hoarding, black marketing and adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to the Consumer Movement in an organized form in the 1960s.
- In the early phase, consumer organizations were mainly engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions. They formed groups to look into malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in road passenger transport.
- Because of all these efforts, the movements succeeded in putting pressure on business firms and the government to change their unfair ways.
As a result of all this, a major step was taken by the Indian Government in 1986. It enacted the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, which popularly came to be known as COPRA.
Question.20. What is a trade barrier? Why did the Indian Government put up trade barriers after Independence? Explain.
Answer. The restrictions set by the Government to regulate foreign trade are called trade barriers. Tax on imports is an example of a trade barrier.
The Indian Government had put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment after independence to protect the domestic producers from foreign competition. Imports at that stage would not have allowed local industries to come up. India allowed imports of only essential items such as machinery, fertilizers, petroleum, etc.
Question.21. What did Liberal Nationalism stand for? Explain any four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere.
Answer. Liberalism or Liberal Nationalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
Four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere are:
- Liberalism stood for freedom of markets and abolition of state imposed restriction. For example, Napoleon’s administration was a confederation of 29 states, each of these possessed its own currencies, weight and measures. Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange.
- Liberal Nationalists argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
- In 1834, a customs union or “zollverein” was formed. The anion abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from 30 to 2.
- The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interest to national unification.
Explain any five ways in which teachers and students organized resistance against the French in Vietnam.
Answer. Five ways in which teachers and students organized resistance against the French in Vietnam were:
- Teachers and students did not blindly follow the French curriculum. While teaching, the Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticized the text.
- The Saigon Native Girls School incident led to a major protest against the French by
Vietnamese students. The students who were expelled by the school authorities for protesting, were taken back because of the pressure of the open protest by students in Vietnam. .
- Students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white collar jobs. By 1920s students started forming various political parties and publishing nationalist journals.
- Vietnamese intellectuals including students and teachers started fighting against the French education system as it tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of people, to make them believe in the superiority of the French Civilization and the inferiority of the Vietnamese.
- By the 1920s, students formed various political parties, such as the party of ‘Young Annan’ and published nationalist journals such as the ‘Annanese Student’.
Question.22. Explain five points about Gandhiji’s idea of ‘satyagraha’.
Answer. Five points about Gandhiji’s idea of ‘satyagraha’:
- According to Gandhiji, satyagraha is not physical force. In the use of satyagraha there should not be any scope of ill-will.
- Satyagraha is about soul-force and truth is the very substance of soul and the soul is informed with knowledge.
- According to Gandhiji, satyagraha is not the wreapon of the weak, instead it can only be used by the strongest of the strong as it totally depends upon mental strength but not on physical strength.
- Gandhiji said “Satyagraha is passive resistance, lohich is about intense activity but in a non¬violent manner.” India cannot rival Britain in force of arms as the British worship the war-god and all of them are bearers of arms. Indians can’t compete with them in arms but can only defeat them using the wreapon of “ahimsa” alone,’ “that is by using mental strength Indians can defeat the British. Tolerance and non-violence can only become the pillar of strength for the Indians.”
- Non-violence is the supreme dharma which could unite all Indians. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi can win the battle.
Question.23. Mention any two inland waterways of India. Write three characteristics of each.
Answer. Two inland water ways are:
(A) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia:
- The Inland Waterways Authority has declared this waterway as National Waterway No.1.
- Its total length is 1620 km.
- It is one of the most important waterway of India which is navigable by mechanical boats upto Patna.
(B) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri:
- The total length is 891 km.
- It is declared as National Waterway No. 2.
- It is navigable by steamers upto Dibrugarh.
Question.24. Describe any five factors that control industrial location.
- Raw material. Cheap and abundant availability of raw material. Industries which use heavy and perishable raw material have to be located close to the source of raw material.
- Labour. Availability of cheap labour is necessary for keeping the cost of production low.
- Power. Cheap and continuous supply of power is extremely necessary for continuity in the production process.
- Capital. It is necessary for developing infrastructure, for the entire manufacturing process and for meeting manufacturing expenditure.
- Banking and insurance facilities, favourable government policies are other factors which affect location of an industry.
The ‘key’ to the decision of a factory location is least cost so that the venture is profitable.
Question.25. How do democracies accommodate social diversity? Explain.
Answer. No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can certainly learn to respect these differences and evolve a mechanism to negotiate the differences. Belgium is an example of how successfully differences were negotiated among ethnic groups. Therefore, democracy is best suited to accommodate various social divisions as it usually develops a procedure to conduct their competition. But the example of Sri Lanka shows how distrust between two communities turned into widespread conflict, and thus a democracy must fulfil the following two conditions in order to achieve a harmonious social life:
- Majority and minority opinions are not permanent. Democracy is not simply rale by majority opinion. The majority needs to work wrth minority so that government may function to represent the general view.
- Rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic groups, etc. Democracy remains democracy so long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority’ at some point of time. No individual should be debarred from participating in a democracy7 on the basis of religion, caste, community, creed and other such factors.
Question.26. Explain the growing role of money and muscle power in political parties.
Answer. Political parties need to face and overcome the growing challenge of Money and Muscle power during elections in order to remain effective instruments of democracy.
Since parties are focussed only on winning elections, they tend to use shortcuts to win elections, for example, like booth-rigging, distribution of food, money, alcohol, etc. to the poor voters to get their votes. Political parties tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money. Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party. These days, parties are supporting criminals who can win elections. This is a major cause of concern to the democrats all over the world who are worried about the increasing role of rich people and big companies in democratic politics.
Question.27. What is globalization? Explain with three examples how top Indian companies have benefitted from globalization.
Answer. Globalization is the process of rapid integration or interconnection among countries. It is the integration between countries through foreign trade and foreign investments by multinational corporations. It means the coming together of various economies of the world to form a global economy.
The top Indian companies have benefitted from the increased competition and globalization.
- They have invested in new technology and production methods and raised their production standards.
- Some have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies.
- Moreover, globalization has enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as multinationals themselves. For example, Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy, Asian Paints, Sundaram Fasteners etc.
Question.28. ‘Banks and cooperatives help people in obtaining cheap and affordable loans.
Which values according to you does this support?
Answer. Cheap and affordable loans help people to grow crops, do business, set up small scale industries or trade in goods.
- Self reliance and financial security and independence of people.
- Protection of the relatively poor against corrupt moneylenders.
- Eradication of poverty in general.
- All this indirectly helps in the country’s development.
Question.29. Identify and label the following on the map of India:
(a) The place where the Indian National Congress session of September 1920 was held.
(b) The place where the movement of Indigo Planets took place.
(c) The place where No Tax campaign was held.
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(1) The place where the Indian National Congress session of September 1920 was held.
(2) Name the place where the Civil Disobedience Movement started.
(3) Name the place where No Tax campaign was held.
Answer. (1) Calcutta (Kolkata) (2) Chhmparan (3) Bardoli
Question.30. On the given political outline map of India:
A. Coal Mine
B. International airport
(b) Locate and label
(i) Kandla—Sea Port
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 30.
(1) Name the state where Bhadravati Iron and Steel Plant is located.
(2) In which state is the Kandla Sea Port located?
(3) Name the international airport in Tamil Nadu.
Answer. (1) Karnataka (2) Gujarat (3) Meenam Bakkam Airport
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I.
Question.10. Why did the industrialists participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. The industrialists participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement because of the following reasons:
- The merchants and the industrialists had made huge profits and became powerful . during the First World War. As they were keen on expanding their business, they reacted against colonial policies as it restricted business activities.
- Industrialists wanted protection against import of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
- Most businessmen came to see Sioaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without any obstacles.
Question.11. Explain any three causes of conflict in the ‘Balkan area’ after 1871.
Answer. The nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans due to the following reasons:
- Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were known as the Slavs. A large part of Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman empire.
- After the decline of the Ottoman empire and the growth of romantic nationalism in the Balkans, the region became very explosive. Its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
- As the different nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others.
- Balkan also became the scene of big power rivalry. Russia, Germany, England, Austria, Hungry—all big powers were keen in countering the hold of other powers. This ultimately turned Balkan into a war region which eventually provided a minor cause for the First World War.
Explain any three points, how school textbooks in Vietnam glorified the French and justified colonial rule?
Answer. Three points to prove that the school textbooks in Vietnam glorified the French and justified colonial rule:
- The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection.
- Vietnamese were said to be only capable of working in the fields but not rule themselves as they were merely copyists and lacked creativity.
- School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam. The French claimed that the establishment of French rule had led to an atmosphere of security against the constant terror of pirates, so that Vietnamese peasants could live and work in peace.
Question.12. Explain the use of petroleum as an energy resource and as an industrial raw material.
Answer. The use of petroleum as a source of energy:
- It is used as a fuel for internal combustion engines in automobiles.
- It is used as a fuel for railways and aircrafts.
- It provides fuel for heat and lighting.
The use of petroleum as an industrial raw material:
- It is used as lubricant for machinery.
- It is used as raw material for a number of manufacturing industries, for example, chemical industry.
- Its numerous by-products are used in petrochemical industries such as fertilizer, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibre, medicines, vaseline wax, soap, cosmetics etc.
Question.15.Differentiate between sectional interest groups and public interest groups with examples.
Question.20. What steps have been taken by NTPC towards environmental protection?
- Optimum utilization of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
- Minimizing waste generation by maximizing ash utilization.
- Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance
- Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
- Ecological monitoring of all its power stations.
Question.27. Explain why a consumer should learn to be well informed.
Answer. Consumers should learn to be well informed to avoid exploitation and unfair trade practices that happen in the market place in various ways. For example, sometimes shopkeepers weigh less than what they should or when traders add charges that were not mentioned before or when adulterated and defective goods are sold to ignorant consumers.
At times false information is passed on through the media to attract consumers. Consumers have the right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services that they purchase. Consumers can then complain and ask for compensation and replacement if the product proves to be defective in any manner.
One can also protest and complain if someone sells a good at more than MRP or can bargain with the seller to sell at less than the MRP.
When we as consumers become conscious of our rights, while purchasing various goods and services, we will be able to discriminate and make informed choices. This calls for acquiring the knowledge and skill to become a well informed consumer.
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I and Set-II
Question.10. How did the plantation workers understand the idea of ‘Swaraj’? Explain.
Answer. For the plantation workers of Assam, “Swaraj” meant freedom to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they all were enclosed and also to be able to keep the link with their native village intact. .
Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not allowed to leave their tea gardens without permission, which they were rarely given.
When they heard of the Non-cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
Question.11. Explain the contribution of Giuseppe Mazzini in spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe.
Answer. The year following 1815, was the period of revolutionaries. Most of the revolutionaries were committed to oppose monarchical forms and to fight for liberty and freedom One such prominent revolutionary was ”Giuseppe Mazzini”, an Italian revolutionary. Mazzini also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part in the struggle for freedom. He strongly believed in the unification of Italy as a single unified republic which could be the basis of Italian liberty.
Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of a democratic republic frightened the Conservatives. His ideas also influenced the revolutionaries of .Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
Explain the role of women as warriors in Vietnam during the 1960s.
Answer. Role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam:
- In the 1960s, photographs in magazines and journals showed women as brave fighters. There were pictures of women militia shooting down planes. Women were portrayed as young, brave and dedicated. Some stories spoke of their incredible bravery in single-handedly killing the enemy—Nguyen Thi Xuan, for instance, was reputed to have shot down a jet with just twenty bullets.
- Women were represented not only as warriors but also as workers. They were shown with a rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other. Whether young or old, women began to be depicted as selflessly working and fighting to save the country.
- Many women joined the resistance movement. They helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels and fighting the enemy.
- Along the Ho Chi Minh trail, voung volunteers kept open 2195 kms of strategic roads and guarded 2500 key points. They built six airstrips, neutralized tens of thousands of bombs, transported tens of thousands of kilograms of cargo, weapons and food and shot down fifteen planes. Of the 17,000 youth who worked on the trail, 70 to 80 per cent were women.
Question.12. Explain any three steps to be taken to conserve the energy resources. 3*1=3
- We need to develop a sustainable path of energy development, i.e., increased use of renewable or non-conventional energy resources.
- We have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources.
- As concerned citizens we can do our bit by using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles, switching off electricity when not in use, using power saving devices etc.
Question.13. Examine the contribution of manufacturing industry to national economy.
Answer. Over the last two decades, the share of manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17% of GDP—out of a total of 27% for the industry which includes 10% for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas. The trend of growth rate over the last decade has been around 7% per annum. Since 2003 it has shown the increased growth rate of 9-10% per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%.
To attain this target, follozving steps can be taken:
- Appropriate policy interventions by the government.
- Renewed efforts by the industries to improve productivity.
Question.15. Explain with examples the two types of political movements.
Answer. The movement in Nepal and movement in Bolivia are examples of two types of political movements for democracy.
The movement in Nepal was to regain popular control over the government from the King. This was a struggle to restore democracy. The movement in Bolivia was against a specific policy of the elected democratic government. The people of Bolivia agitated and protested against the government’s decision of privatization of water.
Both these movements are instances of political conflicts that led to popular struggles. Even though in both cases public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute, their level of impact was different.
Question.19. Why are rules and regulations required in the marketplace? Give reasons.
Answer. Rules and regulations are required in the market place for the following reasons:
- Individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position, whenever there is a complaint regarding a good or service that had been bought. The seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer as if the seller has no responsibility once a sale is completed.
- To check exploitation in the market place that happens in various ways. For example, unfair trade practices such as when shopkeepers weigh less than what they should or when traders add charges that were not mentioned before or when adulterated goods are sold. –
- Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful whereas consumers purchase in small amounts and are scattered. Large companies sometimes manipulate the market in various ways.
For example, at times false information is passed on through media to attract consumers.
Hence there is a need for rules and regulations to ensure protection for consumers.
Question.27. What is an MNC? Give two examples of Indian companies that have emerged as MNCs. What are the harmful effects of MNCs to a host country? Give three examples.
Answer. A Multi-National Corporation (MNC) is a company that owns or controls production in more than one nation. The goods and services are produced globally. The production process is divided into small parts and spread out across the globe.
Tate Motors (automobiles), ‘Tnfosys (IT), Ranbaxy (medicines), Asian Paints (paints), Sundaram Fasteners (nuts and bolts), etc. are some of the Indian companies which are spreading their operations worldwide as MNCs.
Harmful effects of MNCs to a host country:
- Small producers compete or perish. MNCs have posed major challenges for a large number of small producers and workers. The small manufacturers have been hit hard due to competition. Several of the units have shut down rendering many workers jobless. Batteries, taps, tyres, dairy-products, vegetable oil are some of the industries that are badly affected due to stiff competition from MNCs.
- Uncertain employment. In order to maximize the profit MNCs look for a location with minimum labour costs. Faced with competition, most employers these days prefer to employ workers on temporary basis so that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year. This has changed the lives of workers and their jobs are no longer secure.
- The Condition of employment. Workers also have to put in very long working hours and work night shifts on a regular basis during the peak season. Wages are low and workers are forced to work overtime to make both ends meet. The workers are denied their fair share of benefits and no longer get the protection that they enjoyed earlier, for example, the Indian garment export industry often deny their workers their fair share of benefits.