**Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports** is part of Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions. Here we have given Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports.

## Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports

**1 Mark Questions**

Question 1.

What is planning in games and sports?

OR

What do you mean by planning in sports?

Answer:

Planning is a process of development of a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate action. With the help of appropriate planning in the field of games and sports, even some hitherto unachievable tasks can be achieved.

Question 2.

List the various types of tournaments.

Answer:

Various types of tournaments are

- Knock-out or Elimination tournament
- League or Round Robin tournament
- Combination tournament
- Challenge tournament

Question 3.

Define knock-out tournament.

OR

What are knock-out tournaments?

Answer:

This type of tournament is also known as elimination tournament. In this type of tournament, loser of each bracket is immediately eliminated from the tournament.

Question 4.

Round Robin tournament is of two types. Name them and give one major difference between them. (All India 2017)

Answer:

There are two types of league or round robin tournaments

(i) Single League Tournament In single league, every team plays with every other team once.

Number of matches \(=\frac{N(N-1)}{2}\)

(N = number of teams)

(ii) Double League Tournament In double league, every team plays with every other team twice.

Number of matches =N(N-1) (N = number of teams)

Question 5.

What do you mean by consolation tournament?

Answer:

Consolation tournament are those tournaments in which an additional chance is given to the defeated teAnswer:

Question 6.

What is seeding? (CBSE 2013,11)

Answer:

Seeding is a procedure by which good teams are placed in fixtures in such a way that stronger teams do not meet each other at the very start of a tournament. In seeding, the strong teams are selected to keep them at appropriate places in the fixtures so that they should not meet in the earlier rounds.

Question 7.

What is bye? (All India 2016,14)

Answer:

Bye is a privilege given to a team which is decided generally by seeding it or by draw of lots.

Question 8.

Explain procedure for giving bye. (CBSE 2013,12)

Answer:

Byes can be applied equally to single person competitions and team sports as well as to single-game eliminations and best of series eliminations. If the number of competitors or competing teams are not a multiple of 2 then some teams may get ‘bye.’

Question 9.

Write formula for giving bye. (All India 2016)

Answer:

Formula for giving bye

= Next power of 2-No. of Teams

Upper Half \(=\frac{\mathrm{nb}-1}{2}\)

Lower Half \(=\frac{\mathrm{nb}+1}{2}\)

Question 10.

What do you mean by league tournament?

OR

What is league tournament?

Answer:

A league tournament is also known as round robin tournament. In this type of tournament, each contestant meets all other contestants in turn.

Question 11.

Enlist two objectives of intramurals. (Delhi 2016, 15, 14)

Answer:

The two objectives of intramurals are

- To provide incentive, motivation and opportunity to learn various skills.
- To develop sportsman spirit among students.

Question 12.

What do you mean by extramural?

Answer:

Extramural means ‘between institutions’ or we can say that these competitions are conducted between the players of two or more institutions.

Question 13.

What does the school intend by stating that, “only such students shall participate in the Basketball Intramurals who have not represented the school in Basketball in the past and minimum 10 substitutions shall be compulsory.” (CBSE Model Paper 2015)

Answer:

To promote mass participation and to explore the hidden talent of the students.

Question 14.

Mention any four specific sports programmes.

Answer:

Specific sports programmes are

- Health run
- Run.for fun
- Run for specific causes
- Run for unity

**3 Marks Questions**

Question 15.

Write the name of various committees. (All Indio 2016)

Answer:

Arrangement Committee, Technical Committee, Discipline Committee, Reception Committee, Boarding and Lodging Committees, Certificate Writing Committee, Medical Committee, Announcement Committee, Recorders and Bulletin Board Committee.

Question 16.

Discuss any two importance of tournaments.

Answer:

The importance of tournaments are

- Source of Recreation A large number of people go to watch various games and sports for getting recreation. Sports tournaments provide ample recreation to the spectators.
- Development of Social Qualities Social qualities such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, group cohesion, brotherhood and discipline are developed among participants through sports tournaments.

Question 17.

What do you mean by knock-out tournament? Draw the fixture of 21 teams on knock-out.basiS, (CBSE 2016,14,13)

Answer:

In this type of tournament, the team which is defeated once’ gets eliminated immediately and will not be given another chance to play. The total number of matches to be played in this tournament will be equal to the number of teams participating minus one (AT—1),

**E.g.,
**if 21 teams are participating, the total number of matches will be 21-1=20. Number of teams in upper half.

\(=\frac{N+1}{2}=\frac{21+1}{2}=11\)

Number of teams in lower half

\(=\frac{\mathrm{N}-1}{2}=\frac{21-1}{2}=10\)

Total number of byes

= Next power of two – total teams

= 32 – 21 = 11 byes

Question 18.

What is a knock-out tournament? Mention any two disadvantages of knock-out tournament. Delhi 2016

Answer:

A single elimination tournament (also called an Olympic system tournament) or a knock-out tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each bracket is immediately eliminated from the tournament. In some such tournaments, consolation or ‘classification’ contests are subsequently held among those already defeated to determine the awarding of lesser places. For instance, a third-place playoff.

The disadvantages of knock-out tournament are

- There are chances of weaker team to get to finals.
- In case of poor play in a particular match, the better team may not qualify for the next round.

Question 19.

What are the advantages of knock-out tournaments?

Answer:

The advantages of knock-out tournaments are

- Minimum number of officials are required in organising tournaments.
- Less number of matches are played, thus requiring less time to complete the tournaments.
- It helps in enhancing the standard of sports.

Question 20.

Draw the fixtures of 7 teams on knock-out basis.

Answer:

Total number of matches = N -1 = 7 -1 = 6

Number of teams in upper half

\(=\frac{N+1}{2}=\frac{7+1}{2}=\frac{8}{2}=4\) tems

Number of teams in lower half

\(=\frac{N-1}{2}=\frac{7-1}{2}=\frac{6}{2}=3\) terms

Total number of byes = Next power of two – Total teams = 8 – 7 = 1 bye

Question 21.

Draw a fixture of 11 Football teams participating in a tournament on the basis of knock-out. (All India 2016)

Answer:

Total number of teams = 11

Upper half

\(=\frac{\mathrm{n}+1}{2}=\frac{11+1}{2}=6\)

Lower half

\(=\frac{n-1}{2}=\frac{11-1}{2}=5\)

No. of Byes = Next power of two – of teams = 16 – 11 = 5

No. of Byes in Lower Half

\(=\frac{n b+1}{2}=\frac{5+1}{2}=3\)

No. of Byes in Upper Half

\(=\frac{n b-1}{2}=\frac{5-1}{2}=2\)

Question 22.

Briefly explain types of league tournaments.

Answer:

There are two types of league tournaments

**Single League Tournament**In single league, every team plays with every other team once.

Number of matches \(=\frac{N(N-1)}{2}\)

(N=number of teams)**Double League Tournament**In double league, every team plays with every other team twice.

Number of matches =N(N—1) (IV= number of teams)

Question 23.

Explain the staircase method of a league tournament for 7 teams.

Answer:

In staircase method, fixtures are made just like a ladder or staircase. This method is the easiest method because no bye is given to any team and there is no need of the stipulation of odd or even number of teams.

Question 24.

Explain cyclic method of league tournament for 4 teams.

Answer:

In this method, one team is kept fixed and other teams are moved clockwise. When the number of teams is even, no bye is given, but if the number of teams is odd, one bye is given in each round.

Total matches

\(\begin{array}{l}{=\frac{N(N-1)}{2}=\frac{4(4-1)}{2}} \\ {=\frac{4 \times 3}{2}=\frac{12}{2}=6}\end{array}\)

(2 matches in each round) where team 1 is fixed.

Question 25.

Briefly mention the objectives of intramurals. Delhi 2015

Answer:

The objectives of intramurals are

- To provide incentive, motivation and opportunity To learn various skills.
- To develop sportsman spirit among students.
- To help in recreation of the students.
- To improve social interaction among the Students.

Question 26.

Mention the activities which are included in intramurals and extramurals.

Answer:

Activities that are included are

**Intramurals**

Lazium, Dumb-bell, Marching, Tag game, Roller skating, Sack race, Shuttle run, Volleyball, Football, Cricket, Basketball, Athletics, Kho-kho, Cycling etc.**Extramural**

Friendly matches, Restricted competitions, Open competitions etc.

Question 27.

Differentiate between intramural and extramural competitions in detail. (Delhi 2016,11)

Answer:

Differences between intramural and extramural competitions are

S.No. |
Intramural Competition |
Extramural Competition |

1. | Intramural competitions are organised by the schools, institutions or faculty of the institution. | Extramural are being organised by either schools, institutions or associations. |

2. | It is played among the group of students of one school or institution. | The participants are from more than one organisation or school or institute. |

3. | In it a large number of students are known to each other. | In it most students are not known to each other. |

4. | Intramurals are campus competitions and played within the boundaries of an institution. | Extramural are out of boundary competitions and may be played at any place where infrastructure is available. |

Question 28.

Briefly explain about any two specific sports programmes.

Answer:

Sports programmes can be explained as

**Run for Fun**

It can be organised by any educational institution for another institution or organisation and for people of all ages. It is arranged just for the sake of fun to create good habits for good health.**Run for Unity**

An institution can organise a run for unity to create a feeling of unity among the people and communities for the unity of the country.

**5 Marks Questions**

Question 29.

What are specific sports programmes? Explain with suitable example. (All India 2017)

OR

What do you mean by specific sports programmes? Explain any three. (CBSE 2013)

Answer:

Specific sports programmes are those programmes of sports which are not usually related to competitions. The programmes have various objectives like creating awareness, creating a sense of integration among people and raising funds for charitable organisations. Various specific sports programmes are

**1. Sports Day**

is rapidly growing in popularity and deserves a prominent place in the intramural and extramural athletic programmes of any school, college or other organisation.

Sports day refers to a programme when one or several schools, colleges or other organisations participate in physical education activities. They may invite several teams for various sports. When thus organised, each team is identified with the institution it represents. Sports day may also be used to culminate a season of activity for participants within the same school or college.

**2. Health Run**

It is organised in almost every part of the world. In India, it is organised by many states to make people health conscious. For this, WHO allots sufficient funds to different organisations. These organisations organise and promote health runs.

These health runs lay stress on removing deadly diseases. Health runs and rallies are organised every year in the world on 1st December to commemorate AIDS day. These runs give knowledge to people about AIDS, symptoms and causes and how to take preventive measures.

**3. Run for Unity**

It is a kind of mass running which generates the feeling of unity. It is organised by different nations by their Central Government, State Government, Sports federations etc to create a feeling of oneness among the people. By organising such runs, people of all ages from different states come together and such runs develop the feeling of patriotism in children and students feel that they all belong to one nation.

Question 30.

Being sports captain of the school, prepare five important committees with their responsibilities to conduct one day run for health race. (Delhi 2015)

Answer:

Being the sports captain I will form five committees. These are as follows

- Publicity Committee This committee will prepare the advertisement plans, announce the sports events dates, venues and notify the same to public through newspaper, television, e-mail and websites.
- Boarding and Lodging Committee This committee will arrange the accommodation of the participants and ensure the provisions for food and refreshments.
- Transportation Committee This committee provides the necessary transportation to the participants to and fro the venue.
- Grounds and Equipment Committee This committee takes care of the ground where the event is to take place. At the same time, it also takes care of the equipment and check if they are running properly.
- Reception Committee The members of this committee are responsible to welcome the Chief Guest and spectators at opening and closing ceremonies.

Question 31.

Suggest the formation of various committees for systematic and smooth conduct of sports day in your school. (All India 2014)

Answer:

- Selection of Members Students who are interested and motivated to take part should be included in the committee.
- Define Tasks Clearly Next step is to define the tasks of each committee. All the committee members should be given clear guidelines about their task.
- Planning the entire event properly/looking at each and every aspect of the sports day.
- Establish Goals Each committee should be clearly told about their goals so that they know what is expected of them.

Question 32.

What is the meaning of tournament? Draw knock-out fixture for 27 teams. (CBSE 2012)

Answer:

A tournament is a competition held among various teams in a particular activity according to a fixed schedule where a winner is decided.

Total no. of teams = 27

Total no. of matches = 27 – 1 = 26

Number of teams in upper half

\(\begin{array}{l}{=\frac{N+1}{2}} \\ {=\frac{27+1}{2}=14}\end{array}\)

Number of teams in lower half

\(=\frac{N-1}{2}=\frac{27-1}{2}=13\)

Total no. of byes = 32 – 27 = 5

Number of byes in upper half

\(=\frac{5-1}{2}=2\)

Number of byes in lower half

\(=\frac{5+1}{2}=3\)

Question 33.

What do you understand by fixture? Draw a fixture of 13 teams in knock-out tournament.

OR

What do you mean by tournament? Draw a fixture of 13 teams in knock-out tournaments. (CBSE 2011)

Answer:

Fixture is the process of arranging the teams in systematic order in various groups for competition in a physical activity. In other words, it is the set-up of various teams for competitive matches where they play in a systematic order as per the fixture schedule. A tournament is a competition held among various teams in a particular activity according to a fixed schedule where a winner is decided.

**Fixture of 13 teams**

Total teams =13

Total matches = N – 1 = 13 – 1 = 12 matches

Number of teams in upper half

\(=\frac{N+1}{2}=\frac{13+1}{2}=\frac{14}{2}=7\) terms

Number of teams in lower half

\(=\frac{N-1}{2}=\frac{13-1}{2}=\frac{12}{2}=6\) teams

Total number of byes

= Next power of two – total teams

= 16-13= 3 byes

Number of byes in upper half

\(=\frac{\text { Total number of byes }-1}{2}=\frac{3-1}{2}=\frac{2}{2}=1\) bye

Number of byes in lower half

\(=\frac{\text { Total number of byes }+1}{2}=\frac{3+1}{2}=\frac{4}{2}=2\) bye

Question 34.

Draw a knock-out fixture of 21 teams mentioning all the steps involved. (All Indin 2015)

Answer:

Total no. of matches = N – 1 = 21 – 1 = 20

\(=\frac{N+1}{2}=\frac{21+1}{2}=11\) terms

No. of teams in lower half

\(=\frac{N-1}{2}=\frac{21-1}{2}=10\) terms

Total no. of byes = 32 – 21 = 11 byes

No. of byes in upper half

\(=\frac{\mathrm{NB}-1}{2}=\frac{11-1}{2}=5 \mathrm{byes}\)

No. of byes in lower half

\(=\frac{\mathrm{NB}+1}{2}=\frac{11+1}{2}=6 \mathrm{byes}\)

Total rounds = 5

No. of byeš in I quarter

\(=\frac{\mathrm{NB}-1}{2}=\frac{5-1}{2}=2 \mathrm{byes}\)

No. of byes in II quarter

\(=\frac{\mathrm{NB}+1}{2}=\frac{5+1}{2}=3\) byes

No. of byes in III quarter

\(=\frac{N B}{2}=\frac{6}{2}=3\) byes

No. of byes in IV quarter

\(=\frac{\mathrm{NB}}{2}=\frac{6}{2}=3 \mathrm{byes}\)

Question 35.

What is league tournament? Draw a fixture of 9 teams participating in league tournament.

Answer:

League Tournament It is also known as round robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other team irrespective of winning or losing. The number of matches played in league tournament is calculated by Number of teams

\(=\frac{N(N-1)}{2}\)

where N is the number of teams If the number of teams = 9, then Number of matches

\(=\frac{9(9-1)}{2}=\frac{9 \times 8}{2}=36\) matches

Question 36.

What do you understand by intramural? What is its importance?

Answer:

The word intramural is derived from the Latin words intra and muros, which means ‘within walls’. The teams

compete within the walls of an institution e.g. inter-class tournament or inter-house tournament in a school.

Importance of Intramurals

- It improves the sense of citizenship and adult living.
- It helps in selection of teams for participation in extramural competitions.
- It brings out the hidden talent of the students.
- It develops leadership qualities in students.
- It creates recreational atmosphere among the teachers and students.
- It helps the students to learn about the conduct of various games.
- It develops the physical fitness of students.
- It develops social values and qualities.
- It develops personality.
- It provides relaxation from strenuous school work.

**Value-Based Question**

Question 37.

Mohan with the intention to win the extramural sports event practised long jump every day for about a month. He participated and won 1st position in interschool sports event.

(i) What is extramural?

(ii) Comment on the values Mohan possesses.

Answer:

(i) Extramural is the activity performed outside the walls of the institution or school. It means two or more schools organise a competition where their students participate.

(ii) Mohan shows determination and dedication. He plans beforehand, prepares well for the event then executes his plans successfully. This develops his self-esteem, social skills and sportsmanship.

**1 Mark Questions:**

**Question.1. Explain procedure for giving bye. [CBSE 2013,2012]**

** Answer.** Before drawing a fixture, two things are ensured, i.e. whether the number of teams participating is a power of two or not. If the number of teams is a power of two, byes are not given. In case the number of teams is not a power of two, then byes shall be given. For instance if the number of teams participating are 11, next higher power of two will be 16. So, the number of byes is 16 – 11 =5.

**Question.2. What is seeding? [CBSE 2013,2011]**

** Answer.** Seeding is given to some special teams or those teams which are winners/runners up of the last year’s tournament. In seeding, the strong teams are selected to keep them at appropriate places in the fixtures so that they should not meet in the earlier rounds.

**Question.3. Define knock-out tournament.**

** Or**

** What are knock-out tournaments?**

** Answer.** This type of tournament is also known as elimination tournament. In this type of tournament, a team which is once defeated automatically gets eliminated from the tournament and only the winning team continues in the tournament.

**Question.4. What do you mean by league tournament?**

** Or**

** What are league tournaments?**

** Answer.** A league tournament is also known as round-robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other irrespective of winning or losing.

**Question.5. Mention any four specific sports programmes.**

** Answer.** Specific sports programmes are

(i) Health run (ii) Run for fun

(iii) Run for unity (iv) Run for awareness

**Question.6. List the various types of tournaments.**

** Answer.** Various types of tournaments are

(i) Knock-out tournament (ii) League tournament

(iii) Combination tournament (iv) Challenge tournament

**Question.7. What is bye?**

** Answer.** Bye is a privilege given to a team, generally by drawing lots, exempting it from playing a match in the first round.

**Question.8. What do you mean by consolation tournaments?**

** Answer**. Consolation tournaments are those tournaments in which an additional chance is given to the defeated team.

**Question.9. What do you mean by extramural?**

** Answer.** Extramural means ‘between institutions’ or we can say that these competitions are conducted between the players of two or more institutions.

**Question.10. What is planning?**

** Or**

** What do you mean by planning in sports?**

** Answer.** Planning is a process of development of a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate action. Planning covers all the aspects of any tournament.

**3 Marks Questions:**

**Question.11. Briefly mention the objectives of intramurals.**

** Answer.** The objectives of intramurals are

- To provide incentive, motivation and opportunity to learn various skills.
- To develop sportsman spirit among students.
- To help in recreation of the students.
- To improve social relations among the students.

**Question.12. Discuss any two importance of tournaments.**

** Answer.** The importance of tournaments are

- Source of Recreation A large number of people go to watch various games and sports for getting recreation. Sports tournaments provide ample recreation to the spectators.
- Development of Social Qualities Social qualities such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, group cohesion, brotherhood and discipline are developed among participants through sports

tournaments.

**Question.13. What are the advantages of knock-out tournaments?**

** Answer.** The advantages of knock-out tournaments are

- Minimum number of officials are required in organizing tournaments.
- Less number of matches are played, thus requiring less time to complete the tournaments.
- Less expensive, because the team which gets defeated is eliminated from the competition.

**Question.14. Briefly explain about any two specific sports programmes.**

** Answer.** Sports programmes can be explained as

- Run for Fun It can be organised by any educational institution for another institution or organisation and for people of all ages. It is arranged just for the sake of fun to create good habits for good health. –
- Run for Unity An institution can organise a run for unity to create a feeling of unity among the people and communities for the unity of the country.

**Question.15. Mention the activities which are included in intramurals and extramurals.**

** Answer.** Activities that are included are

**Intramurals** Lazium, Dumb-bell, Marching, Tag game, Roller skating, Sack race, Shuttle run, Volleyball, Football, Cricket, Basketball, Athletics, Kho-kho, Cycling etc.

**Extramurals** Friendly matches, Restricted competitions, Open competitions etc.

**Question.16. Differentiate between intramural and extramural competitions in detail. [CBSE2011]**

** Answer.** Differences between intramural and extramural competitions are

**Question.17. Draw the fixtures of 7-teams on knock-out basis.**

** Answer.**

**Question.18. Explain cyclic method of league tournament for 4 teams.**

** Answer.** In this method, one team is kept fixed and other teams are moved clockwise. When the number of teams is even, no bye is given, but if the number of teams is odd, one bye is given in each round.

**Question.19. Explain the staircase method of a league tournament for 7 teams.**

** Answer.** In staircase method, fixtures are made just Tike a ladder or staircasev This method is the easiest method because no bye is given to any team and there is no need of the stipulation of odd or even number of teams.

**Question.20. Briefly explain types of league tournaments.**

** Answer.**

**5 Marks Questions:**

**Question.21. What do you mean by knock-out tournament? Draw the fixture of 21 teams on knock-out basis. [CBSE2013]**

** Answer.** In this type of tournament, the team which is defeated once gets eliminated immediately and will not be given another chance to play. The total number of matches to played in this tournament will be equal to the number of teams participating minus one (N -1) e.g. if 21 teams are participating, the total number matches will be 21-1 =20.

Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 1 Planning in Sports 14

So, knock-out or elimination tournament for 21 teams will be

**Question.22. What do you mean by specific sports programmes? Explain any three. [CBSE2013]**

** Answer.** Specific sports programmes are those programmes of sports which are not usually related to competitions. The programmes have various objectives like creating awareness, creating a sense of integration among people and raising funds for charitable organisations. Various specific sports programmes are

- Health Run It is organised in almost every part of the world. In India, it is organised by many states to make people health conscious. For this, WHO allots sufficient funds to different organisations. These organisations organise and promote health runs. These health runs lay stress on removing deadly diseases. Health runs and rallies are organised every year in the world on 1st December to commemorate AIDS day. These runs give knowledge to people about AIDS, symptoms and causes and how to take preventive measures.
- Run for Unity It is a kind of mass running which generates the feeling of unity. It is organised by different nations by their Central Government, State Government, Sports federations etc to create a feeling of oneness among the people. By organizing such runs, people of all ages from different states come together and such runs develop the feeling of patriotism in children and students feel that they all belong to one nation.
- Run for Awareness Run for awareness can be organised by educational institutions to create awareness in the students about sports and games, about health, about a particular disease, about studies, about environment, about pollution or some other topic. Such races should be well planned before organizing them.

**Question.23. What is a league tournament? Draw a fixture of 6 teams using round robin method. ****[CBSE 2012]**

** Answer.** In this type of tournament, there is sufficient time to complete the tournament. In this, players or teams play against every other player or team.

There are two types of league tournaments

(i) Single league (ii) Double league

Fixture of 6 Teams There are three methods of drawing a fixture. We will show the cyclic method.

Cyclic Method Number of teams

**Question.24. What do you understand by fixture? Draw a fixture of 13 teams in knock-out tournament.**

** Or**

** What do you mean by tournament? Draw a fixture of 13 teams in knock-out tournaments. [CBSE 2o11]**

** Answer.** Fixture is a planned process of a tournament to be played. Fixture may be defined as schedule of the teams taking part in the tournament and the methods of deciding the course of competition’. A tournament is played according to the fixture.

A tournament is that series of sports in which a team finally wins and rest of the teams lose.

**Types of Tournament:**

- Knock-out tournament or Elimination tournament
- League tournament
- Combination tournament

**There are two types of combination tournament:**

- League cum knock-out
- Knock-out cum league Fixture of 13 teams

Total teams =13

Total matches = N-1 = 13-1 = 12 matches

**Question.25. Describe the various committees for the organisation of sports events.**

** Answer**. The organisation of sports events requires a lot of planning. The planning is executed properly when different committees work together for the smooth conduct of the sports events.

**The various committees are:**

- Technical Committee This committee is responsible for the technical conduct of the events. This committee selects various officials such as referees, judges, recorders, starters, umpires, time keepers etc.
- Transport Committee This committee is responsible for providing the facilities regarding transportation of various teams to the venue of sports events.
- Reception Committee The members of this committee are responsible to welcome the Chief Guest and spectators at opening and closing ceremonies.
- Boarding and Lodging Committee This committee is responsible for making necessary arrangements for providing accommodation and serving meals to the sportspersons and other officials.
- Ground and Equipment Committee This committee makes necessary arrangements of equipment related to the events.
- Medical and First Aid Committee This committee is formed to provide medical assistance to

participants round the clock. - Protest Committee In case of a protest against a judgement, the members of this committee decide about it.
- Publicity Committee All the press releases and press conferences are conducted by this committee.
- Finance Committee This committee is assigned to make the budget for the event and handle all the expenses.
- Refreshment Committee This committee is formed to provide refreshment to the participants.

**Question.26. What is league tournament? Draw a fixture of 9 teams participating in league tournament.**

** Answer.** League Tournament It is also known as round robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other team irrespective of winning or losing.

The number of matches played in league tournament is calculated by

**Question.27. What do you mean by a specific sports programme ? Explain Health Run and Run for Awareness.**

** Answer.** Specific sports programmes are arranged in India and other countries to promote sports and games. These programmes create a feeling for taking part in sports and games. Students also become conscious that they must try to remain fit and healthy.

In most countries, sports programmes are often organised to keep the people aware about their health and to take part in sports activities.

Health Run To make people health conscious, health runs are organised in most places in India and other countries to make people aware, of deadly diseases like AIDS, Cancer, Tuberculosis, Dengue, Diabetes, Swine flu, Jaundice, Polio, Whooping cough etc. Health runs organised by World Health Organisation (WHO) lay stress on eradication of deadly diseases from the World. Run for Awareness Run for awareness can be organised by educational institutions to create awareness in the students about sports and games, about health, about a particular disease, about studies, about environment, about pollution or some other topic. Such races should be well planned before organising them.

**Question.28. What do you understand by intramural? What is its importance?**

** Answer.** The word intramural is derived from the Latin words intra and muros, which means within walls. The teams compete within the walls of an institution e.g. inter-class tournament or inter-house tournament in a school.

**Importance of Intramurals:**

- It improves the sense of citizenship and adult living.
- It helps in selection of teams for extramural competitions.
- It brings out the hidden talent of the students.
- It develops leadership qualities in students.
- It Creates recreational atmosphere among the teachers and students.
- It helps the students to learn about the conduct of various games.
- It develops the physical fitness of students.
- It develops social values/qualities.
- It develops personality.
- It provides relaxation from strenuous school work.

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