CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences The Age of Industrialisation VSAQ
Q.1. What is proto-industrialisation ?
Ans. The parly phase ol industrialisation in which large-scale production was carried out for international market not at factories but in decentralised units.
Q.2. How was proto-industrialisation different from factory production ?
Ans. Proto-industrialisation was a decentralised method of production which was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers located in different places whereas under factories production became centralised. Most of the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
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Q.3.Why was it difficult for the new European merchants to set up business in town in the 17th and 18th centuries ?
Ans. This was because urban Crafts and trade guilds were very powerful in the town.
Q.4 What were guilds ?
Ans. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices. and restricted the entry of new people within the trade. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.
0.5. Which industry was symbol of the new era ?
Q.6. Who created the cotton mill ? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. Richard Arkwright.
Q.7.Who invented the steam engine ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. James Watt.
Q.8.Who discovered the Spinning Jenny ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. James Hargreaves.
Q.9.The introduction of which new technology in England angered women ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. The Spinning Jenny.
Q.10.Which pre-colonial port connected India to the Gulf countries and the Red Sea ports ? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Q.11.What was Spinning Jenny ?
Ans. It was a machine devised by James Hargreaves io speed up the spinning process. The machine could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time
Q.12.Name any two regions of colonial India which were famous for large-scale industries.
Ans. (i) Bombay (ii) Bengal
Q.13.Which were the two most dynamic industries of Britain in the early 19th century ?
Ans. Cotton and metal.
Q.14.“In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand”. Give reason.
Ans. Handmade products came to symbolise refinement and class.
Q.15.Why women workers attacked the spinning Jenny a machine which was introduced in Britain ?
Ans. The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology.
Q.16. Name the goods from India Which dominated the international market before the age of machine industries.
Ans. Silk and Cotton.
Q.17. Name any three pre-colonial ports of India.
Ans. Surat. Masulipatnam and Hoogly
Q.18. Why the pre-colonial ports i.e. Surat and Masulipatnam declined by the 1750’s ?
Ans. Because the European companies gradually gained power-first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade.
Q.19.Name the ports which grew during the colonial period.
Ans. Bombay and Calcutta
Q.20.Why was the East India Company keen on expanding textile exports from India during 1760’s ?
Ans. The consolidation of East India Company power after the 1760s did not initially lead to a decline in textile exports from India. British cotton industries had not yet expanded and Indian fine textiles were in great demand in Europe. So the company was keen on expanding textile exports from India.
Q.21.”Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760 and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export. Give reasons.
Ans. The French. Dutch. Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer.
Q.22.Who were Gomasthas ? [CASE 2014]
Ans. They were the paid servants o: the East India Company who use to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
Q.23.Why there were clashes between weavers and gomasthas ?
Ans. The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long term social link with the village. So they acted arrogantly, marched into villages with the police and punished weavers for delay in supply. So. there were reports of dashes between weavers and gomasthas.
Q-24. ‘By I860. Indian weavers could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.’ Give reason.
Ans. When the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies bom the US were cut oil. Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton ‘hot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies.
Q.25. Name the European Managing agencies which controlled the large sector of Indian industries.
Ans. (i) Bird Heiglers and Co.
(ii) Andrew Yule.
(iii) Jardine Skinner and Co.
Q.26. When was the first cotton mill established in Bombay ?
Q.27. Name any four major centres of cotton textile of India during the colonial period.
Ans. (i) Bombay – 1854
(ii) Kanpur – I860
(iii) Ahmedabad – 1861
(iv) Madras – 1874
Q.28. Name any four entrepreneurs of India who set factories during colonial period.
Ans. (i) Dwarakanath Tagore
(ii) Dinshaw Petit
(iii) Jamset Ji Nusserwanji Tata
(iv) Seth Hukumchand.
Q.29. “Under the colonial era the Indian merchants were discriminated and space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited’. Justify.
Ans. They were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export mostly raw materials and food grains, raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo – required by the British. They were also gradually edged out of the shipping business.
0.30. What was fly shuttle ?
Ans. It is a mechanical device used for weaving moved by means of ropes and pullies. It places the horizontal threads (called the weft) into the verticle ? threads (called the warp). The invention of the fly shuttle made it possible for weavers to operate large looms and weave wide pieces of cloth.
Q.31. What was the impact of the First World War on the British industries ?
Ans. After the war. Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market. Unable to modernise and compete with the US. Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed ar.d exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.
Q.32. Who was a jobber ?
Ans. Jobber was an old and trusted worker employed by the Indian industrialists to recruit the new workers.
Q.33. During the first world war years industrial production in India boomed. Give reason.
Ans. (i) Manchester imports into India declined as British mills were busy with war production.
(ii) Indian industries were also called upon to supply war needs ;jute bags, cloth for army uniform, tents and leather boots.
Q.34. What was the result of the import of Manchester cloth to India ?
Ans. (i) It ruined the cloth industry in India because the Manchester cloth was both cheap, showy and durable.
(ii) The weavers were forced to give up their ancestral profession of cloth weaving and had to work as labourers in urban areas.
Q.35. Name the provinces where most of the large-scale industries were located during the colonial period.
Ans. Bengal and Bombay.
Q.36. What technological change helped in improving production of India industry during the 20th century ?
Ans. The introduction of Fly shuttle.
Q.37. Mow the Indian and British manufacturers tried to expand their market ?
Ans. They tried to expand their market through advertisements.
Q.38. What was importance of advertisements in expanding the market during the colonial period ?
Ans. (ii) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary, (ii) These try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.
Q.39. “When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud.” What was the message ?
Ans. if you care for the nation, then buy products that the Indians produce.