The Rise of Nationalism in Europe CBSE History NCERT Solutions
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe CBSE Class 10 History NCERT Solutions
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe CBSE History NCERT Solutions
Write a note on Guiseppe Mazzini.
Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807, and he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.
Write a note on Count Camillo de Cavour.
Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray.
Write a note on The Greek war of independence.
An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of independence. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture.
Write a note on Frankfurt parliament.
In the German regions a large number of political associations whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly. On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. This liberal initiative to nation-building was, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property. The memory of the French Revolution nonetheless continued to inspire liberals. One of the major issues taken up by the liberal-nationalists, who criticised the new conservative order, was freedom of the press.
Parallel to the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers in many European countries in the year 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was under way. Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe where independent nation-states did not yet exist – such as Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire – men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
In Britain the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process. There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands. The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members. The growth of a British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. The Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence. The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who, among the following, hosted the Congress at Vienna in 1815. [AI 2012]
(a) King of Netherlands
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini
(c) Duke Metternich
(d) Otto von Bismarck
2. Which one of the following is true about the ‘Treaty of Constantinople’ in 1832. [AI 2012]
(a) It recognised Turkey as an independent nation.
(b) It recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(c) It recongnised Germany as an independent nation.
(d) It recognised France as an independent nation.
3. Who among the following formed the secret society called ‘Young Italy’. [Delhi 2012]
(a) Otto von Bismarck
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) Johann Gottfried Herder
Who among the following took power in the Southern part of Vietnam after the division of the country? [Delhi 2012]
(a) Ngo Dinh Diem
(b) Ho Chi Minh
(c) Bao Dai
4. Which one of the following types of government was functioning in France before the revolution of 1789?
(c) Body of French Citizen
Who among the following were known as ‘Colons’ [Delhi 2012]
(a) French citizens living in Vietnam
(b) French citizens living in France
(c) Educated people of Vietnam
(d) Elites of Vietnam
5. Which one of the following statements is false regarding the Act of Union 1707 ? [Delhi 2011]
(a) It was an agreement between England and Scotland.
(b) It was an agreement between England and Ireland.
(c) It resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
(d) It gave England control over Scotland.
6. Which one of the following states was ruled by an Italian princely house before unification of Italy ? [AI 2011]
(a) Kingdom of Two Sicilies
7. Which one of the following statements is not true about Giuseppe Mazzini? [Foreign 2011]
(a) He wanted a united Italian Republic.
(b) He founded an underground society called ‘Young Italy’.
(c) He wanted Italy to be a monarchy.
(d) He was exiled for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
8. Who said “when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold” ?
9. Which treaty recognised Greece as an independent nation ?
(a) Treaty of Versailles
(b) Treaty of Vienna
(c) Treaty of Constantinople
(d) Treaty of Lausanne
10. Who was responsible *for the Unification of Germany ?
11. Which area was known as the powder keg of Europe ?
(d) Ottoman Empire
12. Elle, the measuring unit in Germany was used to measure
13. Zolleverin started in 1834 in Prussia refers to a
(a) Trade Union
(b) Customs Union
(c) Labour Union
(d) Farmer’s Union
14. The Ottoman Empire was ruled by the emperor of
15. At which of the following places was the Frankfurt Assembly convened
(a) at the church of St. Paul.
(b) at the church of St. Peters.
(c) at the palace of Prussia.
(d) at the Hall of Mirrors in the palace of Versailles.
16. What did the crown of oak leaves symbolise ?
17. By which of the following treaties was the United Kingdom of Great Britain formed ?
(a) Treaty of Versailles
(b) Act of Union
(c) Treaty of Paris
(d) Treaty of Vienna
18. Who was Wolfe Tone ?
(a) A French revolutionary.
(b) An Irish Catholic who revolted againstthe British dominance.
(c) A German rebel who revolted against Kaiser William IV
(d) A British protestant leader.
19. Which of the following best explain Utopian society ?
(a) A society where everybody is equal.
(b) A democratic society.
(c) An idealist society which can never be achieved.
(d) A society with a comprehensive Constitution.
20 After the French Revolution (1789) the right to vote was given to
(a) all adult population of the country.
(b) all property owning male citizens of the country.
(c) all property owning male and women of the country.
(d) all adults excluding women of the country.
21. The main function of the Prussian Zolleverin was to
(a) impose custom duty on imported goods.
(b) abolish tariff barrier.
(c) reduce custom duties.
(d) impose new rules for trade.
22. Which of the following group of powers collectively defeated Napoleon ?
(a) England, France, Italy, Russia.
(b) England, Austria, Spain, Russia.
(c) Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain.
(d) Britain, Prussia, Russia, Italy.
23. Which of the following countries is considered as the ‘cradle of civilization’ ?
24. The Treaty of Vienna signed in 1815
(a) brought the conservative regimes back to power.
(b) destroyed the conservative powers of Europe.
(c) introduced democracy in Austria and Prussia.
(d) set up a new Parliament in Austria.
25. Romanticism refers to a
(a) cultural movement
(b) religious movement
(c) political movement
(d) literary movement
26. In Prussia, who were referred as ‘Junkers’ ?
(a) Military officials
(b) Large landowners
(c) Factory owners
(d) Aristocratic nobles
27. Which of the following is an allegory/attribute for ‘liberty’ ?
(a) Crown of Oak
(b) Red Cap
(c) Olive Branch
28. What does a blind folded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales symbolise ?
29. Who among the following was proclaimed the first King of United Italy ?
(a) Nicholas II
(b) King George II
(c) Wilhelm IV
(d) Victor Emannuel II
30 A nation-state is a state where
(a) people of all groups enjoy equal rights.
(b) where the nation has its own emblem and flag.
(c) a state which has a contiguous territory.
(d) a state where people live in a common territory, develop a sense of identity and share a common history.
31. Most important outcome oftfhe French Revolution of 1789 was
(a) abolition of absolute monarchy.
(b) making of a new Constitution.
(c) transfer of sovereignty from monarch to the French citizens.
(d) Formation of the National Assembly.
32. Identify and mark the incorrect response. The Napoleonic Code
(a) did away with all the privileges based on ‘birth and established equality.
(b) destroyed feudalism in France.
(c) formulated codes for the army.
(d) ensured right to property for the privileged class.
33. A large number of people were hostile to the Napoleonic code because
(a) it was not suitable for all.
(b) it destroyed the special privileges of the rulers.
(c) administrative changes did not go hand-in-hand with political freedom.
(d) none of the above.
34. For the middle class of Europe, the most important feature of Liberalism was
(a) abolition of conservatism.
(b) right to be liberal and educated.
(c) individual freedom and equality before law.
(d) representative government.
35. Why did the Frankfurt Parliament fail to achieve its goal?
(a) Women were excluded from the membership.
(b) Did not have the support of the peasants.
(c) Kaiser William refused to accept the crown and opposed the assembly.
(d) None of the above.