NCERT solutions class 10 History The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China -CBSE
Q.1. Write a note on
(a) What was meant by the ‘civilizing mission’ of the colonisers ?
(b) Huynh Phu So.
Ans. Like the British in India, the French claimed that they were bringing modem civilisation to the Vietnamese. They were of the opinion that Europe had developed the most advanced civilization. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce modem ideas in their colonies.
(i) They introduced modern education.
(ii) Tonkin Free Schools were opened to provide modern education.
Motive : The real motive behind this motion was to exploit the natural and human resources of Vietnam.
(b)Huynh Fhu So was a Buddhist religious scholar who was a native of the Mekong river delta.
His role in arousing the anti-imperialist sentiments :
(i) Founder of Hoa Hao Movement: Huynh Phu was the founder of the Hoa Hao Movement which drew on religious ideas popular in the anti-French uprisings of the nineteenth century.
(ii) Social reformer : He was a great social reformer as he opposed the sale of child brides, gambling, and the use of alcohol and opium.
(iii) Struggle against foreign rule: Huynh Phu So faced a great deal of trouble when he began to spread his ideas of religion, because most of his followers were Vietnamese nationalists.
The colonial government declared him mad, called him the Mad Bonze, and put him in a mental asylum. The French authorities exiled him to Laos, and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.
Q.2. Explain the following –
(a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.
(b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.
(c) The government made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the students it had expelled. [CBSE 2014(D)]
Why did a major protest erupt in 1926 in the Saigon Native Girls School in Vietnam ? Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Describe the incident that took place in 1926 in Saigon Native Girls School.
(d) Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi.
Ans. (a) This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particularly in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs. Usually, as many as two-thirds of the students were failed, (b) The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. The vast system of irrigation works – canals and earthworks – built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production, and allowed the export of rice to the international market. The area under rice cultivation went up from about 274,000 hectares in 1873 to around 1.1 million hectares in around 1900 and about 2.2 million in 1930. Vietnam exported two- thirds of its rice production and by 1931, had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
(b) In 1926, a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class, and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench. She refused. The principal, also a colon (French people in the colonies), expelled her. When angry students protested, they too were expelled, leading to a further spread of open protests. Seeing the situation getting out of control, the government forced the school to take the students back.
(c) The French part of Hanoi was built as a beautiful and clean city with wide avenues and a well-laid-out sewer system, while the ‘native quarter’ was not provided with any modem facilities. The refuge from the old city drained straight but into the river or, during heavy rains or floods, overflowed into the streets. Thus, what was installed to create a hygienic environment in the French city became the cause of the plague. The large sewers in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for the rats. The sewers also served as a great transport system, allowing the rats to move around the city without any problem. And rats began to enter the well-cared homes of the French through the sewage pipes.
Q.3. Describe the ideas behind the Tonkin Free School. To what extent was it a typical example of colonial ideas in Vietnam ? [CBSE 2009 (F), 2013 (O)]
Ans. Ideas behind Tonkin Schools :
(i) Spread of Western style Education : These schools were started in 1907 to provide a Western style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately).
(ii) To consolidate their power : The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
(iii) Educated labour for administration : The French needed an educated local labour force.
(iv) To demonstrate superiority of French culture : Many scholars believed that by learning the language, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French
It was a typical example of colonial ideas as
(i) Civilising Mission : Like the British in India, the French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnamese. They took for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. So it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modem development.
(ii) Racial Discrimination policy : The French considered themselves as superior race. They started policy of discrimination even in schools also. The front rows in the schools were reserved for the French students only.
(iii) Justification of French rule : School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the
fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.
(iv) Use of education to change the values and culture : By introducing French schools the French tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese.
(v) Failing the Vietnamese in the final year : Only the Vietnamese elite – comprising a small fraction of the population – could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the schoolleaving examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particularly in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs.
Q. 4. What was Phan Chu Trinh’s objective for Vietnam ? How were his ideas different from those of Phan Boi Chau ? [CBSE March 2011]
Ans.Both Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chau Trinh were Vietnamese nationalists to the core. Both were absolutely anti-colonialists and worked to free Vietnam from the French domination.
Chau and Trinh, both wanted to modernise Vietnam.
In short, both Chau and Trinh were looking at the same end – a free sovereign modern Vietnam.
However, they differed on the means to pursue the same end. Their views on different issues can be briefly tabulated as follows :
Q. 5. How did the textbooks represent Vietnamese during the period of French colonization ? Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule while Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward.
(ii) They were capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection.
(iii) They could work in the fields but not rule themselves.
(iii) They were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative.
(iv) School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam. Since the establishment of French rule, the Vietnamese peasant no longer lives in constant terror of pirates.
Q.6. To counter the Chinese influence what steps did the French take in the sphere of education ? What were the two broad opinions on this question ? [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (1) To counter Chinese influence, French took the following steps:
(i) They dismantled the traditional education system of Vietnam.
(ii) They established French school of Vietnamese.
(iii) They propagated Western culture among Vietnamese youths.
(iv) The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.
(2) Two broad opinions:
(i) Some emphasized the need to use the French language as medium of instruction.
(ii) Others were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested French to be taught in higher classes and Vietnamese in lower classes.
Q.7. How was the idea of “looking modem” implemented in Tonkin Free School ? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Students were suggested to adopt Western style of education.
(ii) This education included classes in science, hygiene and French.
(iii) Traditionally, Vietnamese youths kept long hair. They were asked to cut their hair short.
(iv) These schools encouraged students to wear western clothes to play western games.
(v) French promoted the youths to study Western customs.
Q.8. How did the long war between the US and Vietnam come to an end ? Describe. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) The US failed to achieve its objective. Vietnam’s resistance could not be crushed.
(ii) It proved costly to the US. There were high casualties on the US side.
(iii) It was the first war shown on the television. Battles were shown on daily news world over.
(iv) People were disillusioned with the US and its policy of war was criticized.
(v) Widespread questioning of government policy strengthened moves to end war. Finally, a peac treaty was signed in Paris in January, 1974.
Q.9. Explain the reasons for the French Colonisers to scrap the bounty programme for rat hunting in 1902-03. [CBSE 2014]
What was the purpose to start ‘Rat Hunt’ programme by the French in Vietnam in 1902 ? How the purpose got defeated ?[CBSE 2012]
Describe the ‘Rat Hunt’ activity introduced by the French in Vietnam. [CBSE 2015 (O)]
Ans. (1) (i) The modern part of Hanoi was struck by bubonic plague. To fight the plague, French started Rat Hunt programme in 1902.
(ii) The people were paid for each rat they hunted.
(2) (i) The purpose of rat hunt was finally defeated.
(iii) The French hired Vietnamese workers to catch the rats and paid them for the same. This proved a failed attempt.
(iv) Vietnamese befooled the government by just showing the tail and allowing the rate to go free.
(v) They took it as a way to earn profit.Defeated by the resistance of the weak, the French were forced to scrap the bounty programme.