Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Carbon and Its Compounds
Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Carbon and Its Compounds
Catenation(Self linking of carbon atoms to form long chains) and Tetravalency.
n-butane and iso-butane.
(a) 20 hexagons
(b) 12 pentagons
Yes, current will flow through the circuit since graphite is a good conductor of electricity.
Graphite is used as a lubricant in the form of graphite powder or mixed with petroleum jelly or with any lubricant oil to form graphite grease.
C60 is called buckminsterfullerene
Isopentane and neopentane.
(i) Isomer of hexane: 2-methylpentane
(h) Low; covalent
(a)The atomic number of carbon is 6. Its electronic configuration is 2,4.
(b)Carbon forms covalent bonds because it can achieve the inert gas electron arrangement only by sharing of electrons.
(c)Diamond, graphite and buckminsterfullerene.
(b) Carbon forms covalent bonds because it can achieve the inert gas electron
arrangement only by sharing of electrons.
(a) The property of self combination of carbon atoms to form long chains is called catenation. Carbon and Silicon exhibit the property of catenation.
(a) Buckminsterfullerene is an allotrope of carbon containing clusters of 60 carbon atoms joined together to form spherical molecules. It burns on heating to form carbon dioxide and nothing is left behind. This shows that it is made up of carbon only like diamond and graphite.
(b) Diamond used for making cutting tools but graphite is not because diamond is a very hard substance and graphite is a soft substance.
(c) Graphite is used for making dry cell electrodes but diamond is not b ecause graphite is a good conductor of electricity whereas diamond is a bad conductor of electricity.
(a) (i) CnH2n+2
(a) (i) Ammonium
(ii) Urea, CO(NH2)2
(b) The molecular
formula of butane is C4H10; Its isomers are n-butane
and 2-methylpropane; LPG.
(a) Methane (single bond):
Ethyne (triple bond): C2H2
(b) Benzene: C6H6
Carbon forms strong bonds among themselves and with other elements and this makes the carbon compounds stable whereas silicon shows catenation property due to which it forms compounds with hydrogen having chains of up to 7 or 8 silicon atoms; but due to weak bonds, these compounds are unstable.
(a)Diamonds can be made artificially by subjecting pure carbon to very high
pressure and temperature. The synthetic diamonds are small whereas natural
diamonds are big.
(b)(i) Diamond is hard whereas graphite is soft.
(ii)Diamond is a non-conductor of electricity whereas graphite is a good conductor of electricity. The difference in the physical properties of diamond and graphite arises because
of the different arrangements of carbon atoms in them.
(a) Carbon forms a large number of carbon compounds because carbon atoms can link with one another by means of covalent bonds to form long chains of carbon atoms.
(b) (i) Acetylene
(a) The most unique property of carbon atom is its ability to combine itself, atom to atom to form long chains. This property of self combination is useful to us because it gives rise to an extremely large number of carbon compounds (or organic compounds).
(b) A diamond crystal is a giant molecule of carbon atoms. Each carbon atom in the diamond crystal is linked to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. The four surrounding atoms are at the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. This rigid structure of diamond makes it a very hard substance.
The structure of graphite is very different from that of diamond. A graphite crystal consists of layers of carbon atoms or sheets of carbon atoms and these layers are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Due to this sheet like structure, graphite is a comparatively soft substance.
(a) (i) Ethyne:- Single bonds: Two; Triple bond: One
(ii) Ethene:- Single bonds: Four; Double bond: One
(iii) Ethane:- Single bonds: Nine; Double bonds: Three
(i) Each carbon atom is linked to four other carbon atoms.
(ii) A diamond crystal has a tetrahedral arrangement of carbon atoms.
(i) Each carbon atom is joined to only three other carbon atoms.
(ii) A graphite crystal has flat hexagonal rings structure.
(b) Due to its softness, powdered graphite can be used a lubricant whereas diamond being extremely hard can not be used as lubricant.
(c) Due to its rigid structure, diamond is the hardest known substance to man. Hence, it is used in rock drilling equipments but graphite is soft and hence not used in rock drilling equipments.
(d) Diamonds are used for making jewellery.
Graphite is used for making pencil cores or ‘pencil leads’.
(a) Diamond is a colourless transparent substance having extraordinary brilliance. It is made up of carbon.
(b) A diamond crystal is a giant molecule of carbon atoms. Each carbon atom in the diamond crystal is linked to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. The four surrounding carbon atoms are at the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. This rigid structure of diamond makes it a very hard substance.
(c) Diamond has a high melting point because a lot of heat energy is required to break the network of strong covalent bonds in the diamond crystal.
(d) (i) Used in rock drilling equipment (ii) Used in making jewellery.
(a) Graphite is a greyish-black opaque substance. It is made up of carbon.
(b) The structure of graphite is very different from that of diamond. A graphite crystal consists of layers of carbon atoms or sheets of carbon atoms. Each carbon atom in a graphite layer is joined to other three carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds to form flat hexagonal rings. The various layers of carbon atoms in graphite are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Due to this sheet like structure, graphite is a comparatively soft substance.
(c) Due to the presence of free electrons in a graphite crystal, it conducts electricity however; a diamond crystal does not have free electrons so it does not conduct electricity.
(d) (i) Used as a lubricant (ii) Used for making pencil leads.
(a) The organic compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures are known as isomers for ex: n-butane and iso-butane are isomers.
(d) (i) 2-methylpropane
(a) A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon only is called a hydrocarbon (Hydrogen + Carbon= Hydrocarbon). For exampe: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), ethene (C2H4), and ethyne (C2H2), all are hydrocarbons as they are made up of only two elements: carbon and hydrogen.
(b) Saturated Hydrocarbons: These are the ones in which the carbon atoms are connected by only single bonds. They are also known as alkanes.
Example: Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6)
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: These are the ones in which two carbon atoms are connected by a double bond or a triple bond.
Example: Ethene (C2H4) and ethyne (C2H2)
(c) Saturated cyclic hydrocarbon: Cyclohexane, C6H12
Unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon: Benzene, C6H6
(d) Hexane, C6H14
(e) (i) None (ii) Two (iii) Three (iv) Five
(a) Element X : Carbon
(b) Allotrope Y: Graphite
(c) Y is a good conductor of electricity.
(d) Y is used for making graphite electrodes or carbon electrodes in dry cells.
(e) Allotropes of X: Diamond and buckminsterfullerene
(a) Element A: Carbon
(b) Gas B: Carbon dioxide
(c) Allotrope C: Diamond
(d) Used for making jewellery
(a) Element E: Carbon
(b) Allotrope A: Buckminsterfullerene
(c) Allotrope B: Graphite
(d) Allotrope C: Diamond
Molecular formula: C8H16
Molecular formula: C4H8
(ii) C20H40 (iii) C20H38
IUPAC name: methanal
Formic acid; HCOOH
(a) Methanoicacid – Formic acid
(b) Ethanoic acid – Acetic acid
Ethanoic acid; CH3COOH
(a) Methanoic acid: HCOOH
(b) Ethanoic acid: CH3COOH
Common name: Ethyl alcohol
IUPAC name: Ethanol
(a) Butanol, C4H9OH
(b) Pentanol, C5H11OH
(i) 14 u
(ii) Two consecutive homologues differ by 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms in their molecular formulae.
(a) Fuels which vaporise on heating, burn with a flame.
(b) Fuels which do not vaporise on heating, burn without a flame.
(d) -OH (alcohol)
(e) Carboxylic acids
(a) Alkynes, CnH2n-2
First member: Ethyne
(b) Second member: C3H6
Fourth member: C5H10
(c) Third member: C3H8
Fifth member: C5H12
(a) (i) C4H8 (ii) C3H8
(b) 14 u
(c) 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms i.e. a CH2 group.
(a) Acetone – CH3COCH3
(b) (i) Chloromethane – CH3Cl
(ii) Chloroethane – C2H5Cl
(iii) Chloropropane – C3H7Cl
(a) C5H12O or C5H11OH
(b) (i) Aldehyde group
(ii) Alcohol group
(iii) Carboxylic acid group
(iv) Ketone group
(v) Halo group
(c) When a candle is lighted, the wax melts, rises up the wick and gets converted into vapours. In a candle, there is no provision for the proper mixing of oxygen (of air) for burning wax vapours. So, the wax vapours bum in an insufficient supply of oxygen (of air) which leads to incomplete combustion of wax. This incomplete combustion of wax produces small unburnt carbon particles. These solid carbon particles rise in the flame, get heated and glow to give out yellowish light. This makes the candle flame yellow and luminous.
(a) A homologous series is a group of organic compounds having similar structures and similar chemical properties in which the successive compounds differ by CH2 group.
Example of Homologous series: All the alkanes have similar structures with single covalent bonds and show similar chemical properties, so they can be grouped together in the form of a homologous series.
Homologous series of alkanes: Methane, CH4; Ethane, C2H6; Propane, C3H8; Butane, C4H10; Pentane, C5H12
(b) (i) All the members of the homologous series can be represented by the same general formula.
(ii) Any two adjacent homologues differ by 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms in their molecular formulae.
(c) Alkene, CnH2n
(d) Alkanes: CH4, C2H6, C4H10?
Alkenes :C2H4, C3H6
Alkynes : C2H2, C3H4
(e) In an organic compound, any atom other than carbon and hydrogen is called a heteroatom.
Example: Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Oxygen (O)
Chloromethane – CH3Cl and methanol – CH3OH
(a) An ‘atom’ or ‘a group of atoms’ which makes a carbon compound (or organic compound) reactive and decides its properties (or functions) is called a functional group. The alcohol group, -OH, present in ethanol, C2H5OH, is an example of a functional group.
(b) (i) Halo group: -X
(ii) Alcohol group: -OH
(iii) Aldehyde group: -CHO
(c) (i) Carboxylic acid group
(ii) Aldehyde group
(iii) Alcohol group
(iv) Ketone group
(d) Ketone group, -CO-
(a) X is coal; Y is wax; Z is natural gas
(b)(i) Y (wax)
(ii) X (coal)
(iii) Z (natural gas)
(a) Liquid X is ethanoic acid; it belongs to homologous series of carboxylic acids. Methanoic acid is another member of this homologous series.
(b) Liquid Y is Propanone; it belongs to homologous series of ketones. Butanone is another member of this homologous series.
(c) Propanal; it belongs to homologous series of aldehydes.
(d) Liquid Z is ethanol; it belongs to homologous series of alcohols. Methanol is another member of this homologous series.
(a) Chloropropane, CH3-CH2-CH2-Cl
(b) Propanol, CH3-CH2-CH2-OH
(c) Butanal, CH3-CH2-CH2-CHO
(d) Butanoic acid, CH3-CH2-CH2-COOH
(e) Propanone, CH3-CO-CH3
Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is evolved in the reaction. When passed through lime water, it turns lime water milky.
CH3COOH will give brick effervescence. Being acid, it reacts with sodium hydrogencarbonate to produce carbon dioxide gas.
Carboxylic acid group, -COOH gives brisk effervescence with NaHCO3
Ethene is formed when ethanol is heated with conc. H2SO4 at 170oC. This reaction is called dehydration.
Ethyne (acetylene) burn with a sooty flame because ethyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon and the percentage of carbon in these hydrocarbons is comparatively higher which does not get oxidised completely in oxygen of air.
Ethane is formed when hydrogen is added to ethene.
Ethene decolourises bromine water because ethene is an alkene. And all alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated compounds which decolourise bromine water. On the other hand, ethane being an alkane is a saturated compound which does not decolourise bromine water.
Nickel or palladium can be used as catalyst in the hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds.
Disadvantages of incomplete combustion:
(i) It leads to the formation of soot which is nothing but unburnt carbon which pollutes the atmosphere, blackens cooking utensils.
(ii) It leads to the formation of an extremely poisonous gas called carbon monoxide.
Ethanol is used as an additive in petrol.
(i) Vegetable oil (like castor oil, cottonseed oil or soyabean oil)
(ii) Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
(iii) Sodium chloride (common salt)
No, we would not be able to check the hardness of water by using a detergent because a detergent forms lather easily even with hard water.
Litmus test: Some blue litmus solution is added to the organic compound (to be tested). If the blue litmus solution turns red, it shows that the organic compound is acidic in nature and hence it is a carboxylic acid.
Alkanes burn in air to produce a lot of heat due to which they are known to be excellent fuels.
Sodium hydrogencarbonate can be used to distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid.
(d) Ethanoic acid
CH4, C3H8 and C5H12; all these are saturated hydrocarbons (Alkanes) and hence will give substitution reactions.
C2H4 and C3H4 will give addition reactions because these are unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkene and Alkyne) and unsaturated hydrocarbons give addition reactions.
(b) Since, ethanol burns with a clear flame giving a lot of heat, therefore, it is used as a fuel.
(c) Uses of ethanol:
(i) It is used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, lacquers, medicines, perfumes, dyes, soaps and synthetic rubber.
(ii) It is used as a solvent. Many organic compounds which are insoluble in water are soluble in ethyl alcohol.
(a) Propanoic acid will react with the alcohol in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid to form esters.
(b) Red litmus paper turns blue in soap solution and no change occurs on blue litmus paper because soap is basic in nature.
(c) Denatured alcohol is ethyl alcohol which has been made unfit for drinking purposes by adding small amounts of poisonous substances like methanol, pyridine, copper sulphate etc. This is done to prevent the misuse of industrial alcohol for drinking purposes or black marketing (as it is supplied duty free for industrial purposes by the government).
(a) Sodium metal test: Add a small piece of sodium metal to the organic liquid (to be tested), taken in a dry test tube. If bubbles (or effervescence) of hydrogen gas are produced, it indicates that the given organic liquid is an alcohol.
(b) Harmful effects of drinking alcohol:
(i) Alcohol slows down the activity of the nervous system and brain due to which the judgement of a person is impaired and his reaction becomes slow.
(ii) Heavy drinking of alcohol on a particular occasion leads to staggered movement, slurred speech and vomiting.
(c) Unlike ethanol, drinking methanol, even in a small quantity can be fatal leading to permanent blindness and even death. Methanol damages the optic nerve causing permanent blindness in a person. This happens because methanol is oxidised to methanal in the liver of a person. This methanal reacts rapidly with the components of the cell causing coagulation of their protoplasm. Due to this, the cells stop functioning normally.
(a) Air holes of a gas burner have to be adjusted b ecause blackening of vessels show that the air holes of the gas stove are getting blocked and hence the fuel is not burning completely (due to insufficient supply of oxygen).
(b) Some of the detergents (synthetic) are not bio-degradable, that is they cannot be decomposed by micro organisms like bacteria and hence cause water pollution.
(a) On adding 5% alkaline potassium permanganate solution drop by drop to some warm ethanol, we would observe that the purple color of potassium permanganate starts disappearing; the product formed by this process; ethanoic acid can turn blue litmus red.
(b) A carboxylic acid reacts with sodium hydrogencarbonate to give brisk effervescence of carbon dioxide gas but an alcohol does not react with sodium hydrogencarbonate.
Alkenes can be hydrogenated.
The addition of hydrogen to an unsaturated hydrocarbon to obtain a saturated hydrocarbon is called hydrogenation.
Example: Ethene reacts with hydrogen in the presence of finely divided nickel as catalyst to form ethane.
Liquid vegetable oils are hydrogenated into vegetable ghee (solid fat).
(a) Hydrogen gas is evolved when ethanol reacts with sodium.
(b) Esters are formed when a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol in the presence of conc. H2SO4.
(c) Dilute ethanoic acid turns universal indicator paper to orange, showing that its pH is about 4 which tell us that ethanoic acid is a weak acid. On the other hand, dilute hydrochloric acid turns universal indicator paper to red, showing that its pH is about 1. This shows us that hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.
(a) CH3COOH is a c arboxylic acid.
(b) Ethanol, CH3CH2OH should be oxidised to prepare CH3COOH.
(c) Liquid state
(d) Soaps are biodegradable whereas detergents are non-biodegradable.
(a) When ethanol is oxidised with alkaline potassium permanganate (or acidified potassium dichromate), it gets oxidised to form ethanoic acid.
(b) CH3COOH and HCOOH can turn blue litmus solution red. These are organic acids.
(a) Soap can be prepared in the laboratory as follows:
1. Take about 20 ml of castor oil (cottonseed oil, linseed oil or soya bean oil) in a beaker.
2. Add 30 ml of 20% sodium hydroxide solution to it.
3. Heat the mixture with constant stirring till a paste of soap is formed.
4. Then add 5 to 10 grams of common salt (sodium chloride).
5. Stir the mixture well and allow it to cool. On cooling the solution, solid soap separates out.
6. When the soap sets, it can be cut into pieces called ‘soap bars’.
(b) Common salt is added to the mixture to make the soap come out of solution. Though most of the soap separates out on its own but some of it remains in solution. Common salt is added to precipitate out all the soap from the aqueous solution.
(c) When soap is used for washing clothes with hard water, a large amount of soap in water is reacting with the calcium and magnesium ions of hard water to form an insoluble precipitate called scum, before it can be used for the real purpose of washing.
(a) (i) Single bond: Methane, CH4. They are quite unreactive hence they undergo substitution reaction with chlorine in presence of sunlight.
(ii) Double bond: Ethene, CH2=CH2. They undergo addition reaction in the presence of a catalyst like nickel or palladium.
(b) A detergent is the sodium salt of long chain benzene sulphonic acid which has cleansing properties in water. Ex: Sodium n-dodecyl benzene sulphonate.
(c) Detergents are better cleansing agents than soaps because they do not form insoluble calcium and magnesium salts with hard water, and hence can be used for washing even with hard water.
(a) Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH gives brisk effervescence with sodium hydrogencarbonate.
(b) A mixture of ethyne and air is not used for welding because burning of ethyne in air produces a sooty flame (due to incomplete combustion) which is not hot enough to melt metals for welding.
(c) Addition reactions are a characteristic of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
(a)Salt X is sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa; Gas Y is carbon dioxide, CO2
Activity: Take a boiling tube and put about 0.5 g of sodium carbonate in it. Add 2 ml of dilute ethanoic acid to the boiling tube (through a thistle funnel). We will observe that brisk effervescence of carbon dioxide gas is produced. Let us pass this gas through lime water taken in a test tube. We will find that lime water turns milky. Only carbon dioxide gas can turn lime water milky. So, this experiment proves that when ethanoic acid reacts with sodium carbonate, then carbon dioxide gas is evolved.
(b)(i) Dilute ethanoic acid (in the form of vinegar) is used as a food preservative in the preparation of pickles and sauces.
(ii) It is used in the manufacture of acetone and esters used in perfumes.
(i) Take 1 ml of pure ethanol (absolute alcohol) in a test-tube and add 1 ml of glacial ethanoic acid to it. Then add 2 or 3 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid to the mixture.
(ii) Warm the test-tube containing above reaction mixture in hot water bath (a beaker containing hot water) for about 5 minutes.
(iii) Pour the contents of the test-tube in about 50 ml of water taken in another beaker and smell it.
(iv) A sweet smell is obtained indicating the formation of an ester.
(c) Uses of esters:
(i) Esters are used in making artificial flavours and essences. These are used in cold drinks, ice-creams, sweets and perfumes.
(ii) Esters are used as solvents for oils, fats, gums, resins, cellulose, paints, varnishes, etc.
(a) A soap is the sodium salt (or potassium salt) of a long chain carboxylic acid (fatty acid) which has cleansing properties in water.
Example: Sodium stearate, C17H35COO–Na+
(b) A soap molecule has two parts: the long chain organic part and the ionic part containing the -COO–Na+ group. It has to be remembered that this is not an ion, the atoms are all covalently bonded, the electrical charges show how the charges get polarized in the group. A soap molecule has a tadpole like structure shown below:
(c) Cleaning action of soap has been explained with the help of the image below:
Soaps are molecules in which the two ends have differing properties, one is hydrophilic, that is it dissolves in water, while the other end is hydrophobic, that is it dissolves in hydrocarbons. When soap is at the surface of water, the hydrophobic ‘tail’ of soap will not be soluble in water and the soap will align along the surface of water with the ionic end in water and the hydrocarbon ‘tail’ protruding out of water.
Inside water, these molecules have a unique orientation that keeps the hydrocarbon portion inside the water. This is achieved by forming clusters of molecules in which the hydrophobic tails are in the interior of the cluster and the ionic ends are on the surface of the cluster. This formation is called a micelle. When a dirty cloth is put in water containing dissolved soap, then soap in the form of a micelle is able to clean. The hydrocarbon ends of the soap attach to the oily dirt particles and entrap them at the centre of the micelle. the ionic ends in the micelles remain attached to water. When the dirty cloth is agitated in soap solution, the oily dirt particles entrapped by soap micelles get dispersed in water and the cloth gets cleaned.
X is ethanol
Y is ethanoic acid
Z is ethyl ethanoate
Ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid to form ethyl ethanoate ester.
C2H5OH and CH3COOH react in the presence of conc. H2SO4 to form an ester. Ethyl ethanoate, CH3COOC2H5 is formed in the reaction.
Alcohol group, -OH. Acids react with alcohols to form sweet smelling esters.
(a) C4H9COOC2H5; Ester
(b) C2H5OH; Alcohol forms ethene, C2H4
(c) CH4; Methane
(d) CH3OH; Methanol
(e) CH3COOH; Acetic acid
(f) C2H5OH; Ethanol
(a) A is propanol, CH3-CH2-CH2OH
(b) B is propene, CH3CH=CH2
(c) Dehydration reaction
(d) C is propane, CH3CH2-CH3
(e) Addition reaction
A is ethanoic acid, CH3COOH
B is sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa
C is methanol, CH3OH
D is methyl ethanoate, CH3COOCH3
C6H12 and C6H10 c an decolourise bromine water since these are unsaturated hydrocabons.
C6H14 cannot decolourise bromine water since it is a saturated hydrocarbon.
(a) X is butanol, C4H9OH
(b) Y is butanoic acid, C3H7COOH
(c) Z is butyl butanoate, C3H7COOC4H9
(d) Sweet smell is given by the compound Z.
(f) Esterification reaction.
Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Carbon and Its Compounds Notes