CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Physical Education 2019 Outside Delhi
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Physical Education 2019 Outside Delhi Set-I
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 70
- The question paper contains 26 questions.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Question no. 1 to 11 carry 1 mark each. Answers to these questions should be in approximately 10-20 words each.
- Questions no. 12 to 19 carry 3 marks each. Answers to these questions should be in approximately 30-50 words each.
- Questions no. 20 to 26 carry 5 marks each. Answers to these questions should be in approximately 75-100 words each.
** Answer is not given due to change in the present syllabus
Section – A
What do you understand by ‘Planning in Sports’? 
According to Cambridge dictionary, Planning is the act of deciding how to do some¬thing. Planning in sports is the act of deciding activities or events or training schedules in an organized way so that the athlete or athletes achieve their aim in a particular time frame.
Write briefly about ‘Micronutrients’. 
Suggest two reasons, why our body requires food-supplements.
Micronutrients are those nutrients which are needed only in minuscule or small amounts. They (Vitamins and Minerals) enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones and other substances essential for proper growth and development. Lack of it may cause a major threat to the health.
Example : Iodine deficiency may result in impaired cognitive development in children. Vitamin A deficiency results in night blindness, Iron deficiency results in anaemia.
Two Reasons for requirement of Food Supplement in the body are :
- They ensure that one is getting a measurable amount of essential nutrients and make up for the poor nutrient content of the many foods we eat.
- Athletes suffer from many nutritional deficiencies and can use supplements to ensure optimum supplies of nutrients for maximum performance. It helps to improve physical performance, fat loss and also muscle gain.
Mention any two disability ettiquettes. 
Two Disability Ettiquette are :
- While going to help someone with a disability, ask if he or she needs it, and listen to any instructions the person may want to give.
- When planning events involving persons with disabilities, consider their needs ahead of time.
What do you mean by Intellectual Disability? 
Intellectual Disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It involves problems with general mental abilities that affect functioning in two areas :
- Intellectual functioning (such as learning, problem solving, judgement).
- Adaptive functioning (activities of daily life such as communication and independent living).
Which type of deformity is “Kyphosis”? 
What is Motor Development ?
Kyphosis is an excessive outward curvature of the spine, causing hunching of the back. In other words kyphosis is a deformity of the spine of the upper back causing an exaggerated outward curve.
Motor development refers to the development of a child’s bones, muscles and ability to move around and use his or her environment. Motor development can be divided into two sections:
gross motor development and fine motor development.
- Gross motor development involves the development of the large muscles in the child’s
body. These muscles allow us to sit, stand, walk and run, among other activities.
- Fine motor development involves the small muscles of the body, especially in the hand.
Among females, what type of Menstrual Dys-function is called Amenorrhea? 
Amenorrhea is when menstruation is absent during the reproductive years, between puberty and menopause.
- Primary amenorrhea—Menstruation never takes place. It fails to occur at puberty.
- Secondary amenorrhea—Menstruation starts but then stops.
What do you mean by “Bulimia” ? 
Give two objectives of Extramural activities.
It is a life-threatening eating disorder. People with bulimia may be eat large amounts of food with a loss of control over the eating and then purge, trying to get rid of the extra calories in an unhealthy way. There is a fear of to puton weight.
Two Objectives of Extramural Activities are :
- To provide experience to students.
- To provide the knowledge of new rules and advanced techniques.
Which test will you suggest to measure general motor ability ? 
Barrow Motor test measures the general motor ability (speed, strength, coordination, power). In this test there are three item standing broad jump, zigzag run and medicine ball throw.
On the basis of physiological parameters, mention any two gender differences. 
Which type of sports injury is known as “Strain” ? 
What do you mean by soft tissue injuries?
Strain is an injury to muscle or tendon. Tendons are fibrous cords of tissue that attach muscles to the bone. Strains often occur in foot, leg (typically the hamstring) or back.
Soft-tissue injury includes damage of muscles, ligaments, and tendons. The result can be pain, swelling, bruising, and damage. Soft-tissue injuries are classified as the following :
Contusions, Sprains, Tendonitis, Bursitis, Stress injuries, Strains.
Which method will you suggest to develop endurance? 
Methods to develop endurance are Interval Method, Repetition Method, Continuous method, Fartlek Method.
Section – B
Explain about the procedure and advantages of ‘Bhuj angasana’. 
The meaning of Bhujang is cobra and asana means yoga pose. Bhujangasana is the stretching yoga exercise of the front torso and the spine. Bhujangasana is the final stage when the cobra is ready to attack its prey by raising its hood; hence the name is cobra pose.
- Lie down on the stomach by keeping legs together.
- Put palms besides shoulder and the head should rest on the ground.
- With inhaling raise head up to navel region and try to see the roof.
- Maintain the position till 10 to 60 seconds with steadily inhaling and exhaling.
- Come to the original position slowly with deep exhalation.
- It helps to strengthen up the spine and relieves backache.
- Helps in improving the efficiency of the kidneys.
- It is good for digestion. It gives a good massage to the organs of abdominal region such as stomach, pancreas, liver and gallbladder.
- It is helpful in treating of many digestion relation conditions such as constipation, indigestion, etc.
- It is beneficial against slipped disc or sciatica.
- It regulates thyroid gland thus helps to maintain good health.
- It improves lung capacity: The cobra pose helps to expand the chest thus beneficial for breathing related problems.
What is the role of Yoga in preventing lifestyle diseases? 
Discuss about meal intake guidelines for pre, during and post sports event. **
Yoga places a great importance on a proper and healthy lifestyle whose main components are healthy activities, healthy relationships, healthy thoughts, healthy food, and healthy recreation. The holistic art and science of yoga is the best lifestyle ever designed and is effective in managing prevalent lifestyle disorders such as diabetes and hypertension.
(i) Role of Yamas and Niyamas :
Yama is for building interpersonal relationship and niyama is for developing self-discipline majorly through healthy relationships, healthy food, and healthy thoughts and this helps in developing the ability to face stress thereby preventing lifestyle diseases.
(ii) Yoga asanas :
It works in the human body through tissues and muscles. Asana helps in removal of waste products and carbon dioxide, supply of oxygen, internal secretion of the endocrine glands and functioning of nerve-connections. Yoga asana creates a feeling of gentle massage to the digestive systems and makes abdominal muscles strong and elastic thereby our digestive system functions better.
Deep and rhythmic breathing multipes the competence of the respiratory system. Further, oxygen-rich blood is supplied to every tissue of the body and this in turn helps the body to be healthy. All the above development helps in better healthy activities and healthy recreation there by preventing life-style diseases.
(iii) Pranayama increases lungs capacity :
Pranayama increases lungs capacity helps to perform endurance activity with ease. Pranayama provides relaxation. Relaxed mind helps to understand the situations of life better and also helps to keep oneself cool during demanding situation. It helps in removal of toxins like lactic acid from the muscles which helps in removing muscle soreness.
All the above development helps in healthy activities, healthy relationships, and healthy thoughts there by preventing lifestyle diseases
(iv) Role of Pratyahar, Dhrana, Dhyana :
Helps to concentrate. Improvement in concentration helps to get involved in the work meaningfully for longer duration. It helps to overcome stress. Dhama and Dhyana helps one to relax and face the situation boldly. This helps in developing healthy activities, healthy relationships, and healthy thoughts there by preventing lifestyle diseases.
Pawan got admission in class IX in a reputed school. All the students of his class welcomed him. After few days Aryaman, the class monitor observed that Pawan’s behaviour is different from other students. He is aggressive, rude and non-cooperative. He finds it difficult to make friends. Even in school, nobody wants to be his friends. Aryaman had read about ODD in a science magazine in the library, which was similar to Pawan’s behaviour. He discussed this situation with his classmates and suggested to interact and be friends with Pawan. This would help him to remain calm and happy.
Answer the following questions based on the above passage :
(a) What do you mean by ODD?
(b) What are the symptoms of ODD?
(c) What values are shown by Aryaman? ** 
(a) Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a childhood disorder that is defined by a pattern of hostile, disobedient, and defiant behaviours directed at adults or other authority figures.
(b) Symptoms of ODD are as follows :
- Rude, aggressive and non-cooperative.
- Difficulty to make friends.
- Often and easily loses temper.
- Is frequently touchy and easily annoyed by others.
- Is often angry and argumentative.
- Often argues with adults or people in authority.
- Often actively refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules.
What are the causes of Osteoporosis ? 
Write briefly about the prevention and management of “Anorexia”.
Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle, so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture.
Causes of Osteoporosis are as follows :
- Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than are men. Lowered sex hormone levels tend to weaken bone. The reduction of oestrogen levels in women at menopause is one of the strongest risk factors for developing osteoporosis.
- The old age people are at greater risk of osteoporosis.
- Having a parent or sibling with osteoporosis puts greater risk to have osteoporosis
- Low calcium intake contributes to diminished bone density, early bone loss and an increased risk of fractures.
- Severely restricting food intake and being underweight weakens bone in both men and women.
- Long-term use of oral or injected corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone and cortisone, interferes with the bone-rebuilding process.
Prevention of Anorexia
Prevention is a term that can refer to either the elimination of factors causing eating disorders :
- Teach children not to be pre-occupied with their weight. It means placing less emphasis on appearance and more on personality and individuality.
- Teachers and school counsellors should educate about the causes and perpetuating factors of eating disorders.
- Teachers should also educate students about accepting a wide range of weights and the dangers of dieting.
- School students can be engaged in discussions about social pressures on women to be thin, pressure to achieve, as well as prejudice against fat.
- Teachers can initiate discussions focussing on ways of achieving a sense of self-worth and role-play exercises to develop assertiveness skills.
- Teachers identifying students with low self-esteem or family problems should recommend counselling for those students.
Management of Anorexia
- The treatment options should be discussed fully with the patient in order that he or she can make informed choices.
- Health care professionals involved in the treatment of anorexia nervosa should take time to build an empathic, supportive and collaborative relationship with patients.
- Motivation to change may go up and down over the course of treatment and the therapist needs to remain sensitive to this.
Explain the various factors affecting projectile trajectory. ** 
Explain the various types of axes of rotation. 
An axis is a straight line around which an object rotates. Movement at the joint takes place in a plane about an axis. There are three axis of rotation.
- Sagital Axis : It passes horizontally from posterior to anterior and is formed by the intersection of the sagital and transverse planes.
- Frontal Axis : It passes horizontally from left to right and is formed by the intersection of the frontal and transverse planes.
- Vertical Axis : It passes vertically from inferior to superior and is formed by the intersection of the sagital and frontal planes.
What do you mean by coping strategies? Write briefly. ** 
Explain the strategies for enchancing adherence to exercise.
Getting started and continuing an exercise program can be a challenging yet, rewarding undertaking. There is no clear ‘best strategy’ for increasing exercise adherence, rather following interventions should be considered a tool box of strategies that could be used in order to find a successful formula for different groups or individuals for the purpose of adhering to exercise:
- Work out with friends.
It helps to have companion, social support and encouragement.
- Choose an activity you like.
Start by identifying activities that you enjoy. One is more likely to stick to a program if it is fun and convenient. Activity of one’s choice will pull one to continue practicing it.
- Learning new activity.
The new challenge will prompt one to come back and learn challenge.
- Begin easy and slowly increase effort. Slowly increase the load of performing the activity reduces, the chances of sore muscles or injury. Aim for small but regular improvements.
Performing same thing every day may be boring. Try different activities. This type of training will keep one away from becoming bored with exercise.
- Goal Setting
Goals should be self-set, flexible, and time based. Setting realistic short-term goal will motivate one to do task and note ones progress toward goal.
- Keep a record of progress.
It will act as a progress chart showing where one has reached are and how much one has to progress. Seeing one’s improvement motivates one work towards one goals.
- Establish a routine.
Fix a time for exercise. As one sticks to routine, exercise will become a habit
- Combine family-time with exercise. Evening walk, yoga with family will help develop bond with family members and also in exercise adherence.
- Provide cues for exercises.
Place posters and quotes to motivate while performing exercise.
Write briefly about the techniques of Stress management. 
Stress induces bodily or mental tension. Techniques of stress management are as follows :
- Own one’s own feelings-Do not blame someone else for personal feelings.
- Express what one is feeling-Do not blame someone else for personal feelings.
- Express what one is feeling, get it out or forgive.
- Reduce caffeine and sugar-By reducing the amount of coffee, soft drinks, chocolate, and sugar snacks in diet, one will feel more relaxed and will sleep better.
- Get enough sleep-Adequate sleep refreshes the mind and body.
- Include rest and relaxation in daily schedule-This time provides a break from all responsibilities and recharge oneself.
- Spend time with positive people-A strong support system will buffer one from the negative effects of stress.
- Keep sense of humour. This includes the ability to laugh at one self. The act of laughing helps the body fight stress.
- Don’t try to control the uncontrollable. Many things in life are beyond our control-particularly the behaviour of other people.
- Learn to forgive-Free oneself from negative energy by forgiving and moving on.
- Focus on the positive-When stress is getting one down, take a moment to reflect on all the things one appreciates in one’s life, including one’s own positive qualities and gifts.
- Eat a healthy diet.
- Go for a walk.
- Spend time in nature.
- Call a good friend.
- Play with a pet.
- Work in garden.
- Read a good book.
- Take a long bath.
- Listen to music.
- Watch a comedy.
- Get a massage.
Section – C
What is league tournament? Draw a fixture of nine (9) teams on the basis of league tournament using cyclic method. Explain British method to declare the Winner. 
In a league tournament, each team competes with every other team participating in the tournament. Winners are decided on the basis of the points acquired after all the competitions. For each win a team may be awarded 2 points, for draw 1 point and for a loss no point is awarded. Formulae to find the number of matches in a league tournament = n (n – 1)/2, where n = number of teams participating in the tournament. The number of matches in a league tournament of 9 teams = 9 (9 -1)/2 = 36 matches. In a single league tournament, every team competes with every other team participating in the tournament once. In a double league tournament, every team competes with every other team participating in the tournament twice.
Advantages of league Tournament:
- Luck factor does not have a role to play as each team gets to play with all the teams.
- If a good team has lost a match, it still can be winner of the tournament because it has other matches to play.
- There is less pressure on players to perform well bacause each match is not crucial.
- More number to matches for players to show their talent and also for the selectors to spot the talent.
Disadvantages of league Tournament:
- It takes more time to finish the tournament. Number of matches in a league tournament is more compared to knock-out tournament.
- It is not economical
Each match is not crucial. So, some matches may become boring for sopectators
Number of Matches = N(N-1)/2 = 9(9-1)/2= 36
N = Number of teams
British Method to Decide the Winner
In British method to decide winner in a league tournament, team which wins secures 2 points and for a draw 1 point and for a loss a team gets zero points.
Formulae for deciding the winner in a league tournament by British Method is number of points secured divided by maximum point which can be secured whole multiplied by 100. Percentage scored by a team = (Number of points secured/Maximum point which can be secured) 100
If there are 9 teams maximum points which can be scored by a team are 18 points (9 × 2) and the team which has secured 10 points will have a percentage score of (10/18 ) 100 is equal to 55 percentage. The team which has higher percentage will be considered winner.
Explain macro-nutrients and their role in our diet. 
Macronutrients are defined as chemical substances required in large amounts by the body for survival. The three macro-nutrients are protein, carbohydrates, and fats. The amounts of different macro-nutrients a person needs as well as the ratio of nutrients to each other varies by age, lifestyle (sedentary, active, or very active), gender, health status, and health goals.
|Types of Macronutrients||Calories per Macronutrient|
|Carbohydrates||4 calories per gram of carbohydrates|
|Protein||4 calories per gram of protein|
|Fats||9 calories per gram of fat|
Role of micro-nutrients in our diet :
(a) Carbohydrates include starches, sugars, and fiber.
(b) Body uses carbohydrates to fuel the body.
(c) Carbohydrates come in two forms complex and simple. Simple carbohydrates include sugars like table sugar and high fructose corn syrup, which have one or two sugar molecules (mono- and disaccharides). Honey and maple syrup contain simple sugars, as well as other nutrients. Complex carbohydrates are long chains of simple sugars stuck together, also called polysaccharides. They can be either starches or fiber (cellulose from plants). Foods like whole wheat pasta and white potatoes contain complex carbohydrates.
(d) Adults should get between 45-65% of their daily calories from carbohydrates.
(e) Humans don’t produce the enzymes necessary to digest fiber.
(f) Sources of Carbohydrates : The best carbohydrates are micro nutrients dense whole foods that contain sugar or starches along with fiber. Breads, cereals, pasta, rice, beans and peas, and starchy vegetables such as potatoes, green peas, corn honey, candy, soft drinks, and frosting or icing are sources of carbohydrates.
(a) Protein is the building block responsible for the growth and maintenance of eyes, skin, hair, nails, organs, and muscle tissue.
(b) During digestion, protein is broken down into smaller chains called polypeptides and individual units called amino acids for absorption. Of the 22 amino acids that make up proteins, nine are called “essential” amino acids, which means that our bodies do not produce them and must get them from food. These include histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Histidine is unique in that it is only required during infacy.
(c) Protein embeds themselves in cells to regulate what goes in and out. They even envelop and transport some molecules to other locations in the body.
(d) Enzymes that catalyze the various chemical reactions in the body are made of folded chains of amino acids.
(e) The body creates hormones like leptin, immune proteins like interferon and antibodies using amino acids.
(f) Sources of Protein
Nuts, seeds, grains and vegetables, are called incomplete proteins because they do not contain all nine essential amino acids together, as meats, eggs and dairy products do. One won’t develop a protein deficiency on a plant-based diet as long as one eats a balanced died that combines plant foods with different amino acids.
(a) Fat is the densest source of energy in the diet.
(b) In the body, fats make up cell membranes, steroids, cholesterol, and 60% of the brain.
(c) Fats support the absorption of fat soluble vitamins, cushion organs, and acts as largest form of energy storage.
(d) Fats should account for 25-35% of the daily calories.
(e) Dietary fats include saturated and unsaturated fats.
(f) Saturated fats tend to come from animal sources, while most plant fats are unsaturated. There are also important essential fatty acids, namely omega-3 and omega-6. As with essential amino acids, the term essential means that the human body cannot produce it and we must get these from our diet. There is also an unnatural type of fat known as trans fats. Trans fats are often described as poison. Trans fat raise “bad” LDL cholesterol and have no place in a healthy diet.
(g) Sources of Fat
Nuts, seeds, avocados, olives, coconut, dark chocolate, grape seed oil, sunflower oil, walnut oil, sesame oil, coconut oils, meat are good source of fat.
Explain ‘Flat Foot’ and ‘Knock Knees’ and also suggest corrective measures for both postural deformities. 
1. Flat Foot
Flat foot is one physical deformity on which the medial longitudinal and transverse arches of foot are depressed and medial border of foot comes in contact with ground. In other words, in this deformity the arch of the foot collapses, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. Flat foot deformity can be diagnosed with a very simple test called as ‘Wet Foot test’. It creates problem in walking and running.’
Causes of knock knee are
- Birth defect.
- Overweight or obesity.
- Deficiency of the vitamin D, calcium, etc. during childhood.
Knock-knee is a type of postural deformity. In this deformity, both the knees touch each other in normal standing position. It creates problem in walking and running. Causes of Knock Knee are :
- Birth defect.
- Overweight or obesity.
- Deficiency of the vitamin D, calcium, etc. during childhood.
Corrective Measures for Knock Knee and Flat Foot
Following exercises can be performed as a remedy for Flat Foot deformity :
- Walking on heels.
- Walking on inner and outer side of feet.
- Walking on toes.
- To perform up and down the heels.
- Jumping on toes for some time.
- To skip on rope.
- To perform the yogic asana.
- Standing on toes
- Picking small stone with toes and placing it a little far
- Perform yogic asana like Tadasana (Tree posture), Vajrasana and Utkatasana (Chair posture).
Following exercises can be performed as a remedy for Knock Knee deformity :
- Walking on the outer edge of the brick (One feet on one side and other on other side)
- Names of the yoga exercise which help in treatment of knock knee : Padmasana (Lotus posture), Vatayanasan (Horse face posture), Bhadrasana (Gracious pose) etc.
- Use of walking callipers may also be beneficial.
- Keep a pillow between the knees and stand erect for some time.
Write in detail about AAPHER (American Alliance For Health, Physical Education and Recreation) Motor Fitness Test. ** 
What do you know about Harvard Step Test? Explain its procedure and administration.
The Harvard Step test is a test to test aerobic fitness :
Equipment required : Step or platform 20 inches / 50.8 cm high for men and 16 inches for women, stopwatch, and metronome or cadence tape. Things to be done before the test: Explain the test procedures to the subject. Perform screening of health risks and obtain informed consent. Prepare forms and record basic information such as age, height, body weight, gender, test conditions. Check step height and set metronome.
Procedure : The athlete steps up and down on the platform at a rate of 30 steps per minute (every two seconds) for 5 minutes or until exhaustion. Exhaustion is defined as when the athlete cannot maintain the stepping rate for 15 seconds. The athlete immediately sits down on completion of the test, and the total number of heart beats are counted between 1 to 1.5 minutes after finishing. This is the only measure required if using the short form of the test. If the long form of the test is being conducted, there is an additional heart rate measures at between 2 to 2.5 minutes, and between 3 to 3.5 minutes.
Scoring : The Fitness Index score is determined by the following equations :
Fitness Index (short form) = (100 × test duration in seconds) divided by (5.5 × pulse count between 1 and 1.5 minutes).
Fitness Index (long form) = (100 × test duration in seconds) divided by (2 × sum of heart beats in the recovery periods).
|Rating||Fitness index (long form)|
What are the effects of exercise on Respiration System ? Write in detail. ** 
What do you understand by fracture? How can fracture be classified? Explain. 
A bone fracture is a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broken. A break in the bone that does not damage surrounding tissue or tear through the skin is known as a closed fracture. On the other hand, one that damages surrounding skin and penetrates the skin is known as a compound fracture or an open fracture.
Classification of Fracture:
- Comminuted fracture: The bone is shattered into many pieces.
- Compression (crush) fracture : Generally occurs in the spongy bone in the spine. For example, the front portion of a vertebra in the spine may collapse due to osteoporosis.
- Greenstick fracture : The bone partly fractures on one side, but does not break completely because the rest of the bone can bend. This is more common among children, whose bones are softer and more elastic.5
- Hairline fracture : A partial fracture of the bone. Sometimes this type of fracture is harder to detect with routine X-rays.
- Impacted fracture : When the bone is fractured, one fragment of bone goes into another.
- Longitudinal fracture : The break is along the length of the bone.
- Oblique fracture : A fracture that is diagonal to a bone’s long axis.
- Spiral fracture : A fracture where at least one part of the bone has been twisted.
- Stress fracture : More common among athletes. A bone breaks because of repeated stresses and strains.
- Transverse fracture : A straight break right across a bone.
- Complicated fracture : Structures surrounding the fracture are injured.
What do you understand by coordinative ability? Discuss about different types of coordinative abilities. 
Write in detail about strength improving methodisometric, Isotonic and Isokinetic.
Coordination is the ability to integrate separate motor systems with varying sensory modalities into efficient movements. The harmonious working together of the synchrony, rhythm, and sequencing aspect of one’s movements is crucial to coordinated movement. Various parts of the body may be involved, such as eye foot coordination, as in kicking a ball or walking upstairs. Eye-hand coordination is evident in fine motor activities such as bead stringing, tracing and clay modelling or in gross motor activities such as catching, striking or volleying a ball.
Different Types of Coordinative ability Following are different types of coordinative abilities :
(i) Coupling Ability : Coupling ability to synchronize movements and direction efficiently and to let different parts to cooperate in order to achieve a desired and smooth movement. Coupling ability of the body is considered as capacity of an individual to perform better coordination of different parts of the body. For example, while dribbling a basketball, the coordination of both the limbs is required.
(ii) Reaction Ability : Reaction ability is a skill to react quickly to a stimulus. For example, chaser in Kho-Kho runs quickly after Kho is given.
(iii) Balance Ability : Balance ability is known as capability of an individual to maintain balance while the body is in motion. Even during distributed balance regaining the lost balance is known as balance ability.
(iv) Orientation Ability : The orientation ability is a skill to determine and change the position in complex situations. For example, defending an opponent in football, the position is changed according to the movement of opponent.
(v) Adaptation Ability: Adaptation ability is the capability of a person to change the movement on the basis of predicted changes. This ability is achieved after mastering the skills.
(vi) Rhythm Ability : Rhythm ability is to make out motor actions on a well-defined rhythm. Rhythm ability enables to grasp and express rhythm which is externally determined or contained in the motor activity itself.
They are exercises in which muscular tension is built without any visible movement of muscle being used. Contraction during such an exercise is called isometric contraction. Work done during isometric exercise is zero. Isometric exercise is practiced by pushing or pulling an immovable object like a wall or bar anchored to the floor. Isometric exercise increases muscle tension significantly but fails to change the length of the muscles. Today, it is primarily used for rehabilitation purposes.
- Balancing on one foot.
- Pressing against the wall.
- Standing with heavy load on head.
- Maintaining a sitting posture without a chair.
- Holding a weight at arm’s length.
- Attempting to lift an immoveable object. Characteristic of isometric exercise
- The amount of heat generated and tension developed is higher than that of isotonic.
- Increased muscular tension leads to tremor in muscles.
Exercise where we can see movement of an object on application of force is called Isotonic exercise and contraction of the muscle during such an exercise is called isotonic contraction. Isotonic exercises are carried out against a fixed resistance. As each muscle moves through its complete range, isotonic contraction creates tension with maximum effort at the beginning and end of each exercise. Two types of muscular contraction take place while performing Isotonic exercise they are concentric contraction in which length of the muscle decreases from the normal size and eccentric contraction in which length of the muscle increases from the normal size.
|Light rhythmic exercise||Running downhill||Sit-ups and push up||Lifting free weights, like dumbbells and barbells|
|Hammer throw||Triple Jump||Landing on the ground after a jump|
They are exercises in which speed remains same throughout the range of movement. It can be also called as a combination of isometric and isotonic contraction. Isokinetic exercise uses a machine that controls the speed of contraction within the range of motion. Cybex and Biodex machines provide this kind of workout, but these machines are generally used by physical therapists and not readily available to most people. Exercise which can be found similar to isokinetic exercise in sports activity are :
- Ice skating
- Chin ups
- Rope climbing
- While Rowing
- While Swimming