CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 80
- Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
- Answer to questions no. 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.
- Answer to questions no. 4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words each.
- Answer to questions no. 10 to 12 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words each.
- Questions no. 13 to 15 are source based questions.
- Question no. 16 is a Map question that includes identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer-book.
** Answer is not given due to change in present syllabus
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Delhi Set – I
Part – A
“The burials in Harappan sites reveal the economic and social differences amongst the people living within a particular culture.” Give two evidences in support of your answer. 
The evidences that reveal the social and economic differences in Harappan sites are :
- Burials : From the site, it is found that few deads were laid down in ordinary pits whereas few others were laid down in proper lined and hollowed out spaces with brick coverings.
- In some graves, pottery and ornaments were also found indicating the belief that these could be used in the afterlife.
Examine why Bernier was against the idea of crown ownership of land in Mughal India. 
Bernier saw that the crown ownership of land is harmful for both the state and its people. The crown owner distributed the land among his nobles which had disastrous consequence for economy and society as it led to the ruination of agriculture, excessive oppression of peasantry and continuous decline in the living standard. This was the reason Bernier was against the idea of crown-ownership of land in Mughal India.
Why were many Zamindaris’ auctioned after the Permanent Settlement in Bengal ? Give two reasons. 
- The East India Company had fixed the revenue with the zamindars. The estates of those who failed to pay were to be auctioned to recover the revenue or accumulated arrears.
- Due to the Sunset Law (if the payment did not come in by the sunset of the specified date) the zamindaris were liable to be auctioned.
- Jotedars deliberately delayed payments to the zamindars.
- Peasants too delayed payments to tne jotedars and the zamindars.
- Zamindars because of their own reasons delayed payments.
Part – B
What evidences have been put forward to explain the collapse of the Harappan Civilization ? 
- After 1900 BCE there were disappearance of the distinctive artefacts of the civilization — weights, seals, special beads, etc.
- Writing, long distance trade and craft specialization also disappeared.
- House construction techniques deteriorated.
- Large public structures were no longer produced.
- Artefacts and settlements indicated a rural life called as Late Harappan and Successive Culture.
- Disappearance of the seals, the script, distinctive beads and pottery.
Explain the sources used by historians to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. 
Variety of sources have been used by historians to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. There are archaeological discoveries, especially sculpture, and accounts of Megasthenes who was a Greek ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. Another source which is used, is the Arth- Shastra, parts of which were probably composed by Kautilya or Chanakya, minister of Chandragupta Maurya.
The Mauryans are also mentioned later on in Buddhist, Jaina and Puranic literature as well as in Sanskrit literature. The other valuable sources are the inscription of Ashoka Chakra on rocks and pillars.
“Kabir was and is to the present a source of inspiration for those who questioned entrenched social institutions and ideas in their search for divine.” Explain. [2 + 2 = 4]
- He believed in the Nirguna Bhakti.
- The range of traditions Kabir drew on to describe the Ultimate Reality include Islam: as Allah, Khuda, Hazrat and Pir.
- Verses ascribed to Kabir have been compiled in the KabirBijak, KabirGranthavali and Adi Grantha Sahib. The terms with mystical connotations such as shabda (sound) or shunya (emptiness) were drawn from yogic traditions.
- He probably crystallised through dialogue and debate with the traditions of Sufis and Yogis.
- He believed in divinity rather than any particular religion.
“The nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers from diverse ethnic and religious groups.” Justify. 
One of the most important pillar of the Mughal state was its Corps of officers also referred to by historians collectively as the nobility. The officer corps of the Mughals were described as a bouquet of flowers herd together by loyalty to the emperor. People from many races (Arabs, Iranians, Turks, Tajiks, Kurds, Tatars, Russians, Abyssinians, people from Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Arabia, Iran, Khurasan, Turan)—have sought refuge in the imperial court. Aurangzeb appointed the Rajputs to high positions and Marathas accounted for a sizeable number within the body of officers. Raja Bharmal of Kachhwaha dynasty, a small kingdom of Amer (Jaipur), was the father-in-law of Akbar. This ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of the state.
Examine the circumstances that led to the passing of ‘Limitation Laws’ by the British in 1859. 
- In 1859, British passed a limitation law that stated that the loan bonds signed between moneylenders and ryots would have validity for only three years.
- This law was meant to check the accumulation of interest over time.
- Cotton boom and the American civil war.
- The moneylenders were powerful and were violating the customary norms that regulated the relationship between moneylenders and ryots.
- Moneylenders were unwilling to give the loan to ryots without legal bonds. This way ryots faced unjustice in the hands of moneylenders.
Highlight the measures taken to ensure unity among the rebels of 1857. 
Following measures were taken to ensure unity among rebels :
- The rebel proclamations in 1857 repeatedly appealed for unity to all sections of the population, irrespective of their caste and creed.
- The rebellion was seen as a war in which both Hindus and Muslims had equally to lose or gain.
- The ishtahars harked back to the pre-British Hindu-Muslim past and glorified the coexistence of different communities under the Mughal Empire.
- The proclamation that was issued under the name of Bahadur Shah appealed to the people to join the fight under the standards of both Muhammad and Mahavir.
- Fear and suspicion that British wanted Indian to convert Indian to Christianity.
Part – C
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : [4 × 1 = 4]
“For the success of democracy one must train oneself in the art of self-discipline. In democracies, one should careless for himself and more for others. There can’t be any divided loyalty. All loyalties must exclusively be centered round the state. If in a democracy, you create rival loyalties or you create a system in which any individual or a group, instead of suppressing his extravagance cares not for larger or other interests, then democracy is doomed.”
In the light of the above passage highlight the values which a loyal citizen of a democratic country should uphold.**
“The Mahabharata is a story of kinship, marriages and patriliny.” Examine the statement. [8 × 3 = 24]
“Because of the diversity of the Indian subcontinent there have always been populations whose social practices were not influenced by the Brahminical ideas during 600 BCE-600 CE.” Examine the statement.
Mahabharata is a story of kinship, marriages and patriliny:
- The Mahabharata is a story about kinship describing a feud over land and power between the Kauravas and the Pandavas.
- Pandavas became victorious due to their virtues.
- Kinsmen claimed the throne, and, in very exceptional circumstances, women such as Prabhavati Gupta exercised power.
- Under patriliny, sons could claim the authority of their fathers.
- Men acquired wealth through means led by the Manusmriti like inheritance, work, etc.
- Women acquired wealth through Stridhan( by father, brother, husband).
- While sons were important for the continuity of the patriliny, daughters had no claims to the resources of the household.
- Various systems followed for the marriage were endogamy, exogamy, polygamy and polyandry.
- Members of the same gotra could not marry.
- One of the most challenging episode in the Mahabharata is Draupadi’s marriage with the Pandavas an instance of Polyandry.
Brahmanical ideas during 600 BCE-600 CE :
- In Sanskrit texts populations whose social practices were not influenced by Brahmanical ideas are often described as odd, uncivilised, or even animal-like.
- In some instances, these included forest-dwellers- for whom hunting and gathering remained an important means of subsistence.
- Categories such as the Nishada, to which Ekalavya is supposed to have belonged, are examples of this.
- While the Brahmanas considered some people as being outside the system, they also developed a sharper social divide by classifying certain social categories as “untouchables but historians have tried to find out whether chandalas accepted the life of degradation prescribed in the shastras.
- Hidimba marrying Bhima against the social practices prescribed in the Dharamshastras.
- Others who were viewed with suspicion included population such as Pastoralist.
- Whenever brahmanical authorities encountered new groups which did not easily fit into the fourfold varna system they classified them as Jatis.
- Others who were viewed with suspicion included populations such as nomadic pastoralists, who could not be easily accommodated within the framework of settled agriculturists who spoke non-Sanskritic languages were labelled as Melachhas.
Identify the rituals and practices associated with the Mahanavami Dibba, a structure in the Royal Centre of Vijaynagar Empire.
Outline the distinctive features of the Virupaksha temple and the Vitthala temple in the Royal Centre of Vijaynagar Empire. [5 + 3 = 8]
The Mahanavami Dibba is located on one of the highest points in the city. It is a very large platform rising from a base of about 11,000 feet to a height of 40 feet. The platform must have supported a wooden structure and other perishable material during festivals. The base of the platform is covered with relief carvings.
Rituals and Practices:
- Rituals associated with the structure must have coincided with Mahanavami of ten day Hindu festival during the autumn months of September and October, known variously as Dussehra (North India), Durga Puja (West Bengal) and Navratri (Peninsular India).
- Ceremonies performed on the occasion included worship of image, worship of state hbrse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
- Dances, wrestling, procession of horse elephants and chariots as ritual presentation before the king.
- On the last day of festival, the king inspected his army and armies of nayaks in a grand ceremony in an open field. .
- The Nayakas brought gifts and tribute for the king. It had two of the most impressive platforms, the “Audience Hall” and the “Mahanavami Dibba”. The entire complex was surrounded by high double walls with a street running between them.
- The audience hall was a high platforrtlwith slots for wooden pillars at close and regular intervals. It had a staircase going up to the second floor. The pillars were closely spaced.
Features of Virupaksha and Vitthala temples :
- It is built over centuries, may be during ninth or tenth centuries as suggested in the inscription.
- It is dedicated to Lord Virupaksha, the guardian deity of kingdom.
- It is decorated with carved pillars.
- There are many big halls which are used for marriages, social programmes and other social occasions.
- Rulers indicated close links with God using title “Hindu Suratrana”.
- Kings visits to temples along with Amaranayakas were important occassion.
Vitthala Temple :
- The Prinicipal deity of this important shrine is Vitthala, a form of Lord Vishnu.
- Temple has several halls and a unique shrine designed as chariot.
- A feature of temple complexes is the chariot streets that extended from temple Gopuram in a straight line.
- These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.
Part – C
Explain how Non-Cooperation Movement made Gandhiji a national leader.
Explain why some scholars see partition of India as the culmination of communal politics. 
About Non-Cooperation Movement, Louis Fisher wrote, “it became the name of epoch in the fife of India, the land of Gandhiji”. Non-Cooperation Movement was negative for British ruler but at the same time was peaceful and positive enough to be effective. It was in South Africa, he first focussed in distinctive technique of non-violent protest known as Satyagrah and promoted harmony between religion.
- He successfully organised Satyagraha at Champaranl (1917), Ahmedabad and Khera (1918). ,Ths was the beginning of Gandhiji’s popularity among the public.
- After Jallianwala Bagh massacre, he called for a campaign of non-cooperation with British rule and joined hands with Khilafat movement.
- Gandhiji became popular amongst Indians because he dressed like them, lived like them and spoke their language.
- When he was in prison in 1924, he devoted himself in constructive work like promotion of home spun khadi clothes, abolition of untouchability, Hindu-Muslim unity.
- He also promoted the concept of self rule through the charkha.
- Gandhiji displayed a concern for the laboring poor of India, as he believed that salvation for India could come only through the farmers and workers who constituted the majority of the Indian population.(reference to BHU speech)
- He wanted Indian nationalism, from being an elite phenomenon- a creation of lawyers doctors and landlords, to nationalism more suitably representative of the Indian people as a whole.
- He popularised Satyagraha.
- Non-Cooperation-a much wider and popular Movement in terms of participation from all sections, widespread over India, participation by both Hindus and Muslims-Khilafat & Non Cooperation, a united Challenge to British imperialism like never before under his leadership.
- British adopted a policy of divide and rule and encouraged communal politics in India.
- Encouragement to formation of Muslim League. The demand of Separate Electorate for Muslims was agreed to by the British in 1909 which began to dig a big gap between the two communties.
- Govt, of India Act 1919 expanded communal electorate and thus the gap between the two kept increasing.
- Development in 1920s. — Tabligh, Tanzim and Shuddhi movement music before mosque.
- Jinnah’s two nation theory also instigated feelings of alienation and difference between the two communities.
- In 1940 in the Lahore session, the Muslim League placed their demand for autonomous province with Muslim majority. Aim of the Muslim League was to establish an autonomous state in the north western and eastern parts of India.
- Indian National Congress began the Quit India Movement but the Muslim League did not support it.
- The proposal of the Cabinet Mission was first accepted by the Muslim League and the Congress but soon the Muslim League rejected it and refused to take part in the Interim Govt.
Communal violence in 1946, erupted in 1946, which was a result of the direct action called on by the Muslim League and other such factors.
- Mountbatten Plan endorsed a separate nation for Muslims and partitioned India.
- Hindu Muslim riots after partition of India.
Part – D
Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow : [7 × 3 = 21]
The world beyond the palace
Just as the Buddha’s teachings were compiled by his followers, the teachings of Mahavira were also / , recorded by his disciples. These were often in the form of stories, which could appeal to ordinary people. Here is one example, from a Prakrit text i, known as the Uttaradhyayana Sutta, describing how a queen named Kamalavati tried to persuade her husband to renounce the world :
If the whole world and all its treasures were yours, f you would not be satisfied, nor would all this be able to save you. When you die, O king and leave all things behind, dhamma alone, and nothing else, will save you. As a bird dislikes the cage, so do I dislike (the world). I shall live as a nun without offspring, without desire, without the love of gain, and without hatred ….
Those who have enjoyed pleasures and renounced them, move about like the wind, and go wherever they please, unchecked like birds in their flight ….
Leave your large kingdom ….. abandon what pleases the senses, be without attachment and property, then practice severe penance, being firm of energy ….
(14.1) Who compiled the teachings of Buddha and Mahavira ? 
(14.2) Explain how did the queen try to convince her husband to renounce the world. 
(14-3) Describe any three principles of Jainism. 
(14.1) (i) Buddha’s teachings were compiled by his followers at a council of elders of senior monks,
(ii) Mahavira’s teachings were also recorded/ compiled by his disciples.
(14.2) The queen Kamlawati tried to persuade her husband to renounce the world. She said “The treasures of whole world will be able to save you. When you die, O King and leave all things behind, dhamma alone, and nothing else, will save you. As a bird dislikes the cage, I do dislike the world. I shall live like a nun without offspring, without desire, without the love of gain, and without hatred”.
(14.3) The three principles of Jainism are :
(a) Life exists even in rocks and stones normally considered as non-living.
(b) The principle of non-violence is practised in extreme form in Jainism. No harm should be caused to anyone* including non-living.
(c) The cycle of birth and re-birth is shaped through karma, one must practice ascetism and penance to free oneself from this cycle of Karma. It is possible when one renounces the world. So, one has to live in monastery to attain salvation.
(d) Jain monks and nuns have to take vows to observe the following:
- Not to kill anyone.
- Not to steal anything.
- Not tell lies.
- Not to possess property.
- To observe celibacy.
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Irrigating trees and fields
This is an excerpt from the Babumama that describes the irrigation devices the emperor observed in Northern India:
The greater part of Hindustan country is situated on level land. Many though its towns and cultivated lands are, it nowhere has running waters. For water is not at all a necessity in cultivating crops and orchards. Autumn crops grow by the downpour of the rains themselves; and strange it is that spring crops grow even when no rains fall. (However) to young trees water is made to flow by means of buckets or wheels….
In Lahore, Dipalpur (both in present-day Pakistan) and those other parts, people water by means of a wheel. They make two circles of rope long enough to suit the depths of the well, fix strips of wood between them, and on these fasten pitchers. The ropes with the wood and attached pitchers are put over the wheel-well. At one end of the wheel-axle a second wheel is fixed, and close to it another on an upright axle. The last wheel “the bullock turns; its teeth catch in the teeth of the second (wheel), and thus the wheel with the pitchers is turned. A trough is set where the water empties from the pitchers and from this the water is conveyed everywhere. In Agra, Chandwar, Bayana (all in present-day Uttar Pradesh) and those parts again, people water with a bucket. At the well-edge they set up a fork of wood, having a roller adjusted between the forks, tie a rope to a large bucket, put the rope over a roller, and tie its other end to the bullock. One person must drive the bullock, another empty the bucket.
(15.1) Explain the irrigation technology as observed by the Emperor. 
(15.2) What was the necessity of irrigation ? 
(15.3) Explain any three factors which are responsible for the expansion of agriculture in India. 
(15.1) The Emperor observed that technology used for irrigation was that people water by means of a wheel. They make two circles of rope to suit the depth of the well, fix strips of wood between them, and on this fasten pitchers (Earthen pot, Ghara). Such ropes are put over the wheel-well. At one end of the wheel axle, a second wheel is fixed. And close to it another on an upright axle. The last wheel the bullock turns and thus the wheel with pitchers is turned. A trough is set where the water empties from the pitchers and from this water is conveyed everywhere.
(15.2) Most of Hindustan country is situated on level land. This had many towns and cultivated lands, but nowhere has running water. Water was required to water young trees.
(15.3) Factors which are responsible for the expansion of agriculture in India :
- Its level land which can be cultivated without running water.
- Autumn crops can grow by the down pour of the rains.
- Spring crops grow even when no rains fall.
- Better irrigation technology.
- The abundance of land.
- Availability of labour.
- Mobility of peasants.
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
Escaping to the countryside
This is how the famous poet Mirza Ghalib described what the people of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857.
Smiting the enemy and driving him before them, the victors (i.e., the British) overran the city in all directions. All whom they found in the street they cut down…. For two to three days every road in the city, from the Kashmiri Gate to Chandni Chowk, was a battlefield. Three gates—the Ajmeri, the Turkman and the Delhi—were still held by the rebels … At the naked spectacle of this vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the colour fled from men’s faces, and a vast concourse of men and women took to precipitate flight through these three gates. Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, they drew breath to wait until such time as might favour their return.
(16.1) Who was Mirza Ghalib ? What did he describe ? 
(16.2) Why did British attack Delhi ? Give two reasons. 
(16.3) How did the people escape from Delhi and where did they take shelter ? 
(16.1) Mirza Ghalib the famous Urdu poet who described what the people of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857.
(16.2) Reasons of British attack on Delhi:
- Rebels recognised the symbolic value of Delhi.
- To establish the British control over the heels.
- To uproot the parallel government set up by the rebels.
- To suppress the revolt of 1857.
(16.3) As the three gates, the Ajmeri Gate, Turkman gate and Delhi gate were in control of rebels, people who saw with naked eyes, spectacle of this vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred, fled through these three gates. Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, wherever they could found safe shelter.
Part – E
(17.1) On the given outline political map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols : [1 × 2 = 2]
(a) Ajmer, a territory under Mughals.
(b) Gwalior, a centre of the Revolt of 1857.
(17.2) On the same map three places related to the mature Harappan sites has been marked as A, B, C. Identify them and write their names correctly on the lines drawn near them. 
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Delhi Set – II
Part – A
Explain how different methods of irrigation were developed for agriculture in the Harappan sites. 
Canals and wells were constructed for irrigation. Traces of canals e.g., Shortugai in Afghanistan and water reservoirs e.g., Dholavira.
Why did the Santhals rebel against Zamindars and Colonial Power ? Give two reasons. 
- Santhals were settled in Danim-i-koh area.
- Moneylenders charged the high rate of interest and took over their land when they were unable to pay the money.
- The state was levying heavy taxes on them. The ‘ Zamindars also had begun to increase their hold over their Damin area.
So, the Santhals revolted against the exploitations of the zamindars, moneylenders and the state.
Part – B
Describe the contribution of John Marshall in the Indian archaeology. 
John Marshall is a famous archaeologist who studied Harappan civilization. Marshall tended to excavate along regular horizontal units, measured uniformly through the mound, ignoring the straight lines of the site. This meant that all the artefacts recovered from the same unit were grouped together, even they are found at different layers. As a result valuable information about the contexts of these findings have been found. There are also evidences of seals, toys, games and stringed musical instruments in Indus valley This shows that society at that time was civilised.
“The nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers from diverse ethnic and religious groups.” Justify. .
One of the most important pillar of Mughal state was its corps or officers, known as nobility. Nobility was created from diverse ethnic and religious groups which ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of state. People from many races (Arabs, Iranians, Turks, Tajiks, Kurds, Tatars, Russians, Abyssinians, people from Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Arabia, Iran, Khurasan, Turan) have sought refuge in the imperial court. They were as one bouquet of flowers held together by loyality to the Emperor. Aurangzeb appointed Rajputs to high positions, and under him the Marathas accounted for a sizeable number within the body of officers.
All holders to the government offices held ranks or mansabs having designation of ‘Zat’. It was the indication of the position in the imperial hierarchy and the salary of Mansabdar, and the second one was of Sawar indicating the number of horse men required to maintain in service.
The nobles participated in military campaigns and also served as officers of the empire in provinces.
“In the late 12th Century, the Chishtis adapted to the local environment and adopted features of Indian devotional traditions.” Explain. 
The Chishtis in the subcontinent adapted to local environment and adopted features of Indian devotional traditions :
- Life in the Chishtikhanqah sirnilar to Ashram— The khanqah was the centre of social life. It comprised several small rooms and a big hall where inmates and visitors lived and prayed. The Shaikh lived in a small room on the roof of the hall where he met visitors in the morning and evening.
- Hindus Jogis and qalandars travellers came seeking discipleship from the Shaikh.Visitors, poets such as Amir Hassan, Amir Khusrau and the court historian Ziyauddin Barani wrote about the Shaikh.
- They received the patronage of royal visitors. Verses of Baba Farid were incorporated in the Guru Granth Sahib.
- Short and long poems like “PremAkhyan “were attributed to Chishti Sufis.
- The Chishtis accepted donations in cash and kind.
Part – C
Examine why Quit India Movement was started and how do you think the Quit India Movement was genuinely a mass movement.
“Oral testimonies and memories are the important sources for constructing the history of partition of India.” Examine the statement. 
“Quit India Movement” was started in 1942 because :
- Failure of Cripps Mission led to the launch of Quit India Movement in August 1942 for the liquidation of British imperialism.
- It was a mass movement bringing into the ambit, hundred of thousands ordinary Indians. Younger activitists organised strikes and acts of sabotage all over the country.
- Particularly active in the underground resistance were socialist members of the Congress, such as Jayaprakash Narayan. In several districts, such as Satara in the west and Medinipur in the east, “independent” governments were proclaimed.
- It especially energised the young who in large number left their colleges and joined the Congress, whose leaders were captivated in jails.
- Jinnah and his colleagues worked patiently to expand their influence.
In June 1944, Gandhiji was released from jail.
Oral narratives and memories are the important sources for constructing the history of partition of India.
(i) Millions of people viewed partition in terms of the suffering and challenges of times. For them it was no more constitutional divisions or just the party politics of the Muslim League, Congress and others. For them, it meant the unexpected alterations in life as it is unfolded between 1946 and 1950 and beyond requiring psychological, emotional and social adjustments. Memories and experiences shape the reality of an event.
(ii) Oral history allows historians to broaden, the boundaries of their discipline by rescuing from oblivion, the lived experience of the poor and the powerless. The oral history of partition has succeeded in exploring the experiences of those men and women whose experience has hitherto been ignored, taken for granted or mentioned only in passing in mainstream history. Oral testimonies become more important because official reports lack personal experiences.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Delhi Set – III
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Part – A
Explain the techniques of craft production, especially bead making at the Harappan sites of Lothal and Chanhudaro. 
- The variety of materials used to make beads is remarkable: stones like carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite;
- Metals like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay.
- Steatite, a very soft stone, was easily worked.
- Some beads were molded out of a paste made with steatite powder.
Part – B
Describe the drainage system of the Harappan cities. 
The most distinctive feature of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. In the lower town, the roads and streets were laid out along an approximate “grid” pattern, intersecting at right angles. If the domestic waste water has to flow into street drains, every house needed to have atleast one wall along a street.
Every house was connected to the street drains. The main channels were made of bricks set is mortar and were covered with loose bricks or lime stones that could be removed for cleaning. House drains were first emptied into a sump or cess pit into which solid matter settled while waste water flowed out into the street drains. Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning. Drainage systems were not unique to the larger cities but were found in smaller sedements as well.
“Islam and its principles permeated far and wide through the sub-continent.” Explain the statement. 
Islam and its principles were permeated far and wide through the subcontinent due to the following:
- Islam said that there is one God,’Allah and Prophet Mohammad its messenger.
- Offering the prayers five times a day (Namaz/Salat)
- Giving alms (Zakat).
- Fasting during the month of Ramzan.
- Performing the pilgrimage to Mecca (Haj).
Critically examine ‘the Fifth Report’ of late Eighteenth century. 
- The fifth report was submitted to British Parliament in 1813 about administration activities of “East India Company”.
- There were many groups in Britain who were opposed to the monopoly of trade that “East India Company” had with India and China. These groups wanted revocation against this rule for lifting monopoly.
- It ran into 1002 pages, of which over 800 pages were appendices that reproduced petitions of zamindars and ryots, reports of collectors from different districts.
- It carried statistical tables on revenue returns, and notes on the revenue and judicial administration of Bengal and Madras.
- Information about company misrule and maladministration was hotly debated in Britain and incidence of the greed and corruption of company officials was widely publicised in the press. The British parliament passed a series of acts in late 18th century to regulate the control of company rule in India and appointed committees to enquire into the such report produced by a select committee.
Part – C
Examine why did Gandhiji start the Salt Satyagraha. Why was Salt Satyagraha a notable event ? 
Examine the outcome of the provincial elections of 1937 and explain the role of Congress ministeries and Muslim League on it.
- Mahatma Gandhi led a march against the British monopoly in the manufacture and sale of salt.
- He gave his blessing to the all India campaign against in opposition to All White Simon Commission and the Bardoli Satyagaraha in 1928.
- He supported the Lahore session of INC. He gave instructions for the observation of ‘Independence Day’ and hoisting of national flag bn 26th January, 1930.
- Mobilized a wider discontent against British rule.
- 12 March, 1930 Gandhiji broked the salt law meanwhile, parallel salt marches were being conducted.
- For Swaraj, Hindus, Muslims, Parsis and Sikhs were united steps towards Swaraj.
- It was the first nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers.
- Every strata of people joined the revolt, students, lawyers, officials, peasants, workers, women, traders all joined movement. It was a mass movement.
The salt march was notable for at least three reasons :
- Mahatma Gandhi got the world attention. The march was widely covered by the European and American press.
- Women participated in large numbers.
- The salt march forced upon the British the realization that their Raj would not last forever.
- Only about 10 to 12 per cent of the population enjoyed the right to vote.
- The Congress did well in the elections, winning an absolute majority in five out of eleven provinces and forming governments in seven of them.
- It did badly in the constituencies reserved for Muslims, but the Muslim League also fared poorly.
- The League failed to win a single seat in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP)
- In the United Provinces, the Muslim League wanted to form a joint government with the Congress
- The Congress had won an absolute majority in .the province, so it rejected the offer.
- Some scholars argue that this rejection convinced the League that if India remained united, then Muslims would find it difficult to gain political power because they would remain a minority.
- The League represented Muslim interests.
- The Congress ministries also contributed to the widening rift.
- In the United Provinces, the party had rejected the Muslim League proposal for a coalition
government partly because the League tended to support landlordism, which the Congress wished to abolish.
- The congress ministries resigned in October 1939.