CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Geography 2015 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 70
General Instructions :
- There are 22 questions in all.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Question number 1 to 7 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40
- Question numbers 8 to 13 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 80-100 words.
- Question numbers 14 to 20 are long-answer questions carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 150
- Question numbers 21 to 22 are related to identification or locating and labelling of geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.
- Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached within your answer-book.
- Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
** Answer has not been given due to change in present syllabus.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Geography 2015 Outside Delhi Set – I
How is density of population of a region calculated ? 
Density of population is ratio between the numbers of people to the size of land. It is usually measured in persons per sq. km. Population
Who are called red collar workers ?
People engaged in primary activities are called red collar workers, due to the outdoor nature of their work.
In which country are motorways called ‘autobahns’ ? 
Motorways are called as ‘autobahns’ in Germany.
Mention any two characteristics of sub-urbanisation. [1/2 + 1/2 = 1]
- It is a new trend of people moving away from congested urban areas to clear areas outside the city.
- Everyday thousands of people commute from their homes in the suburbs to their workplaces in the city.
What two factors mostly helped in the development of ancient towns in India ? 
Expain the term ‘Golden Quadrilateral’. 
The Golden Quadrilateral is the fifth longest highway project in the world. It is 4/6 lane, high density traffic corridor to’ connect India’s four big metro cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. It is 5,846 km long. With the construction of Golden Quadrilateral, the time—distance and cost of movement among the mega cities of India will be minimized.
Mention any two sources of water pollutants created by humans. 
- Sewage disposal.
- Urban run-off. ’
- Toxic effluents from industries.
- Run-off over cultivated lands.and nuclear power plants.
“The knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop technology.” Support this statement by giving three examples. 
Technology indicates the level of educational development of society. Human beings were able to develop technology after they developed better understanding of natural laws.
- The understanding of concepts of friction and heat helped us discover fire.
- Understanding of the secrets of DNA and ’ genetics enabled us to conquer many diseases.
- The laws of aerodynamics are used to develop faster planes.
Knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop technology. Technology loosens the shackles of environment on human beings.
Explain with examples the ‘population size’ criteria used by most countries to define urban areas. 
The lower limit of the population size for a settlement to be designated as urban area is different for different countries . The criterion is as follows :
- It is 1,500 in Columbia.
- 2,000 in Argentina and Portugal.
- 5,000 in India.
- 30,000 in Japan.
- In Denmark, Sweden and Finland, all places with a population size of 250 persons are, called Urban areas.
- The minimum population size for a city is 300 in Iceland.
- In Canada and Venezuela, it is 1,000 persons.
Explain any three characteristics of clustered rural settlements of India. [3×1 = 3]
- The rural settlement is a compact built up area of houses.
- In this type of village, the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms and pastures.
- The closely built-up area and its intervening streets present some recognisable pattern geometric shapes such as rectangular, radical, linear etc.
- Such settlements are found in fertile alluvial plains and in north-eastern states.
- Sometimes, people live in compact village for security reasons, such as in Bundelkhand and Nagaland.
- In Rajasthan, scarcity of water has necessitated compact settlement for; maximum utilization of available water resources.
Differentiate between protective irrigation and productive irrigation. [3 × 1 = 3]
|Protective Irrigation||Productive Irrigation|
|(i) The objective of protective irrigation is to protect crops from adverse effects of soil moisture deficiency.||Productive irrigation is meant to provide sufficient soil moisture in the cropping season to achieve high productivity.|
|(ii) This type of irrigation is to provide soil moisture to maximum area.||It provides maximum soil moisture to limited area, as required for a particular crop.|
|(iii) In such irrigation, the water input per unit area of cultivated area is lower than productive irrigation.||In such irrigation, the water input per unit area of cultivated area is higher than protective irrigation.|
|(iv) Productivity is relatively lower.||Productivity is relatively higher.|
Electricity is one of the greatest inventions of all times. It is mostly generated by using coal, natural gas and petroleum, which are exhaustable resources. Can you imagine the human society without electricity ? This may happen in future, when all energy resources will be exhausted. Explain the values that can change this possible darkness scenario. ** 
What is noise pollution ? Explain any four sources of noise pollution. [1 + 2 = 3]
Noise pollution refers to the state of unbearable and uncomfortable to human beings which is caused by noise from different sources. In recent years, noise pollution has become a serious problem.
The following sources are mainly responsible for noise pollution :
- Mechanised construction and demolution works.
- Loud speakers used in various festivals.
Of all these sources, the biggest nuisance is the noise produced by traffic. Its intensity and nature depend upon the type of vehicle, trains, the condition of road as well as that of vehicle. In sea traffic, noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading activities being carried, creating noise.
What is sex ratio ? Explain the world pattern of sex ratio with suitable examples. 
Sex Ratio : Ratio between the number of women and men in the population is defined as sex ratio. It is expressed as the number of males per thousand females.
World pattern of Sex Ratio :
- On an average, the world population reflects a sex ratio of 990 females per 1000 males.
- The highest sex ratio in the world has been recorded in Lativia which is 1187 females per 1000 males.
- The lowest sex ratio occurs in UAE which is 468 females per 1000 males.
- The world pattern of sex ratio does not exhibit variations in the developed regions of the world.
- The sex ratio is favourable for females in 139 countries of the world and unfavourable for them in the remaining 72 countries listed in united nations.
- In general, Asia has a low sex ratio, countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan have a lower sex ratio.
- On the other extreme is greater part of Europe including Russia where males are in minority.
- A deficit of males in the population of many European countries is attributed to better status of woman and an excessively male-dominated out-migration to different parts of the world in the past.
Define the term ‘commercial livestock rearing’. Explain any four characteristics. 
Commercial livestock rearing is the practice of nurturing the animals for food and for other human uses. The word ‘Livestock’ applies to dairy cows, chickens, goats, pigs, horses and sheep. Today, even animals like donkeys, mules, rabbits and insects such as bees are being raised as part of commercial livestock rearing.
Characteristics of commercial livestock rearing are :
- Commercial livestock rearing is practiced in the western cultures.
- Ranches cover large areas and are divided into parcels.
- The number of animals in the pastures is kept according to the carrying capacity of the pasture.
- Only one type of animal is reared.
- Rearing of animals in ranching is organized on a scientific basis.
- It h as emphasis on breeding, genetic improvement, disease control and health care of the animals.
What is medical tourism ? Explain the scope of medical services for overseas patients in India.
Medical tourism is defined as the process of travelling outside the country of residence for the purpose of receiving medical care. Traditionally, people travel from under-developed countries to medical centers in highly developed countries for treatment not available in their own country. The trends have reversed now people started travelling from developed countries to third-world countries for medical treatments because of low cost medical treatment with results at par with the best in the world with zero waiting time.
Scope of medical services for overseas patients in India :
- About 55,000 patients from U.S.A visited India in 2005 for treatment.
- India has emerged as the leading country of medical tourism in the world.
- World class hospitals located in metropolitan cities of India.
- Medical tourism brings abundant benefits for the developing countries like India by boosting its economy.
Which is the longest trans-continental railway of north America ? Describe its any four features.
[1 + 4 = 5]
The longest trans-continental railway of North America is Trans—Canadian Railway.
Features of Trans-Canadian Railway are :
- It is 7,050 km long rail-line in Canada which was constructed for British Columbia.
- It runs between Halifax in the east to Vancouver in the west.
- It connects Quebec-Montreal Industrial Region with the wheat belt of the Prairie region and the coniferous forest region in the north.
- A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunder Bay located on lake Superior connects this rail- line with one of the important waterways of the world.
- This line is the economic artery of Canada.
- Wheat and meat are the ‘important exports on the route.
Define the term ‘growth of population’. Describe the third (III) phase of growth of population in India. [1 + 4 = 5]
Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. The rate of the growth of the population is expressed in percentage (%).
Third (III) phase of growth of population :
- India’s population entered the third stage of transition sometime in the close of the 1960s.
- This is the period of population explosion in India.
- Decline in the death rates was much more rapid then birth rate, the rate of increase in the population went up from 1.2 to 1.3 per cent during 1921-51 and 2 to 2.2 per cent during 1951-81.
- Improvement in the economy results in increase in the standard of living which in turn resulted in the decline of death rate.
Explain the importance of food grains in the Indian agricltural economy. Describe any three
characteristics of rice cultivation. [2 + 3 = 5]
The importance of foodgrains :
- Foodgrain crops occupy about two-third of the total cropped area in the country.
- Foodgrains are dominant crops in all parts of the country since they form the staple food, are consumed and exported.
- Foodgrains are classified as cereals and pulses.
- Cereals include rice, wheat, jowar, bajara, maize and ragi.
- India accounts for about one fifth of the total production of pulses in the world.
- Gram and tur are the main pulses cultivated in India.
Characteristics of rice cultivation :
- Rice is a staple food for the majority of population in India. India is the second largest rice producer in the world.
- It is considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas.
- It has about 3000 varieties which are grown in different agro-climatic regions.
- In West Bengal farmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’.
- India contributes 22 per cent of rice production in the world.
“Indian railways brought people of diverse cultures together.” Support this statement with suitable examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
Indian Railways brought people of diverse cultures together :
- Indian Railway was introduced in 1853.
- Indian Railways network is one of the longest in the world which is more than 64,000 kms.
- It connects people of different regions through its 16 zones.
- Railway is the life line of India which facilitates the movement of the passengers and freight.
- People from different languages with different customs and food habits could connect with each other using Indian Railways.
In the given political outline map of the World, five features A, B, C, D and E have been shown. Identify these features, with the help of the information given below and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them. [5 × 1 = 5]
(A) A country having the lowest rank in Human Development Index-2003
(B) A railway terminal station
(C) A major seaport
(D) A major airport
(E) A mega city
On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols :
(22.1) The state having the largest area.
(22.2) The leading tea producing state.
(22.3) An oil refinery in Karnataka.
(22.4) An integrated Iron and Steel Plant in Odisha.
(22.5) The international airport in punjab.
(22.6) The major seaport in Gujarat.
(22.7) Khetri copper mines
(22.8) The state with lowest level of urbanisation.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Geography 2015 Outside Delhi Set – II
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Explain any three features of semi-clustered rural settlements of India. 
- Semi-clustered settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement.
- Semi-clustered settlements results from fragmentation of a large compact village.
- One or more sections of the village society is forced to live little away from the main village.
- The dominant community occupies the central part of the main village.
- People of lower strata of society and menial workers settle on the outer planks of the village.
- Such settlements are widespread in Gujarat plain and some parts of Rajasthan.
Explain any three consequences of air pollution. 
Consequences of Air pollution are :
- Air pollution causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
- Smog in urban areas is caused by atmospheric pollution. It is very harmful to human health.
- Air pollution can also cause acid rain which is very harmful for flora, fauna and property.
Explain three economic and two social and cultural factors influencing the distribution of population in the world. 
Factors influencing the distribution of population in the world are :
- Minerals: The regions which are rich in natural resources like coal, water, minerals and forest wealth favour the growth of population. These resources help in the development of trade, commerce and industry.
- Urbanization : People move from villages to live in cities to get better employment opportunities, medical facilities and other amenities which results in the growth of the population of the cities.
- Industrialization: Industrial areas provide job opportunities for the people as a result more and more people are attracted towards the industrial belt.
- Agriculture: Rich and fertile soil always help in the growth and development of agricultural activities to support dense population.
Social and Cultural factors :
- People are attracted towards certain areas as they these areas have some religious or cultural significance.
- Social and political unrest results in the moment of people towards the areas where they can live peaceful life.
- Government offer incentive to people to live in sparsely populated areas.
What is the importance of railways as a mode of land transport ? Explain any four main features of the railway network in Europe. 
Railways are a mode of land transport for carrying bulky goods and passengers over long distances.-Commuter trains are very popular in UK, USA, Japan and India. These carry millions of passengers daily.
Features of Railway network in Europe :
- Europe has one of the most dense rail networks in the world.
- Most of rail network in Europe is double or multiple tracked.
- Belgium has the highest density of railway network.
- The industrial regions of Europe have highest densities.
- London, Paris, Brussels, Milan, Berlin and Warsaw” are the important rail heads.
- There is a very dense network in the west of the Urals in Russia. Railways account for about 90 per cent of the country’s total transport.
What is population doubling time ? Explain the characteristics of the growth of population in India in pahse I and phase II. 
Population doubting time is defined as the time taken by any population to double itself at its current annual growth rate.
Characteristics of the growth of population in India in phase-I:
- The period from 1901 to 1921 is referred to as phase I.
- Population growth during this phase remained stagnant.
- Both birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.
- The decades 1921 to 1951 are referred to as phase II.
- During this phase population growth is steady.
- Lower death rate due to better medical facilities results in the decline in the mortality rate.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Geography 2015 Outside Delhi Set – III
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
How have the modern towns developed in India ? Explain. [3 × 1 = 3]
The modern towns developed in India are :
- The British and other Europeans have first developed some coastal locations and trading points in India such as Surat, Daman, Goa, Puducherry, etc.
- The British later consolidated their hold around three principal nodes — Mumbai, Chennai & Kolkata and built them in British style.
- They developed cantonment areas/towns such as New Delhi and Bengaluru.
- They developed hill stations as summer capital like Shimla.
- They developed administrative and industrial towns such as Chandigarh, Bhilai etc.
- After independence large number of towns has been developed as administrative headquarters such as Chandigarh, Bhuvneswar, Gandhinagar.
- Industrial town such as Durgapur, Bhilai, Barauni are developed to establish big industrial units.
Explain the causes of migration of unskilled migrants from rural to urban areas in India and their sufferings. 
In India, unskilled people migrate from rural to urban areas due to :
- More demand of labour in cities.
- Better job opportunities in urban areas.
- Lack of basic infrastructure facilities in the rural areas.
- The absence of family members and children causes anxiety.
- In rural areas, males set out on migration leaving their wives behind putting extra physical as well as mental pressure on the women.
- Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It creates social vacuum and sense
of dejection among individuals. It may motivate people fall in the trap of anti social activities.
- Menial jobs on low wages.
Explain the trends in population growth of the world with special reference to the help of science and technology. 
- The population on the earth is more than six billions. It has grown to this size over the years. In the early period, population of the world grew very slowly.
- During the last few hundred years population has increased at an rapid pace.
- The expending trade, set the stage for rapid population growth.
- The industrial revolution led to the population explosion around the world.
- Science and technology helped in controlling the birth rate, and reducing death rate.
- Due to advancement in medical facilities.
Which shipping canal links the Atlantic ocean and the Pacific ocean ? Explain its any four characteristics. 
The Panama canal is a man-made water-way in Panama that connects the Atlantic ocean with the Pacific ocean.
Characteristics of the Panama Canal are :
- The canal is constructed across the Isthmus of Panama between Panama City and Colon to facilitate international trade.
- The canal is 48-mile (77 km) waterway. Canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016.
- The Panama canal reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of south America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan.
- The USA government has purchased 8 km area on either side and named it a canal zone.
- It has six lock systems.
- Tolls for the canal are set by the Panama canal authorities and are based on vessel type, size, and the type of cargo it is carrying.
Define the term ‘migration’. Explain any two economic and two demographic consequences of migration in India. 
Movement of the people for the specific purpose from one place to another in the country or to a foreign country is known as Migration. Economic consequences :
- A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by the migrants.
- Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major source of foreign exchange and helps in the growth of economy of the source area.
- Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants.
Demographic consequences :
- Migration leads to the re-distribution of population within a country.
- Rural-urban migration is contributing in the population growth of cities.
- Age and skill selective migration from the rural areas to urban areas have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
- Imbalances in age and sex composition is also one of the adverse consequence of migration.