NCERT Solutions CBSE Class 10 History The Making of Global World
Q.1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the 17th century, choosing one example from Asia, and one from the America.
Ans. (i) Exchange of food : Food offers many examples of long distance cultural exchange. It is believed that ‘noodles’ travelled west from China to become ‘spaghetti’.
(ii) Exchange of germs : The Portuguese and Spanish conquests and colonisation of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century. The European conquest was not just a result of superior firepower. In fact, the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person. Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any European reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.
Q.2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modem world helped in the colonisation of America. [CBSE 2008 (O), Sept. 2010, 2011]
Ans. Refer Q.No. 2, Value Based Questions.
Q.3. Write a note and explain the effects of the following :
(a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
(b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
(c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
(d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
(e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
Ans. (a) Refer Q.No. 2, Long Answer Type Questions.
(b) Refer Q.No. 5, Value Based Questions.
(c) (i) Reduction in the work force : Most of the killed and injured were men of working age. These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe. With fewer numbers within the family, the household income declined after the war.
(ii) New Social Set-up : The entire societies were reorganised for war – as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
(d) Refer Q.No. 17, Long Answer Type Questions.
(e) (i) Wages are relatively low in Asian countries due to excess supply of workers.
(ii) Most of these economies have low cost structure.
(iii) Most of these countries have a huge market.
Q.4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of Science and Technology on food availability.
Ans. (i) Availability of cheap food in different markets : Improvements in transport; faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from the far away farms to the final markets.
(ii) Impact on meat : Till the 1870s, meat from America was shipped to Europe in the form of live animals which were then slaughtered in Europe. But live animals took up a lot of ship space. But the invention of refrigerated ships made it possible to transport meat from one region to another. Now animals were slaughtered in America, Australia or New Zealand, and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. The invention of refrigerated ship had the following advantages :
1. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe.
2. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet.
3. To the earlier, monotony of bread and potatoes many, not all, could add meat, butter and eggs.
4. Better living conditions promoted social peace within the country, and support for imperialism abroad.
Q.5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement ?
Ans. Refer Q.No. 10, Long Answer Type Questions.
Q.6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
Ans. Self-explanatory Note : Students can refer Q.No. 4 LAQ and 5 LAQ (Long Answer Type Questions.)
Q.7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it. [CBSE 2008, Sept. 2011]
Explain the three types of flows within international economic exchange by giving any one example each. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. Refer Q.No. 9, Short Answer Type Questions
Q.8. Explain the cause of the Great Depression.
Ans. Refer Q.No. 15, Long Answer Type Questions.
Q.9. (i) Explain what referred to as the G-77 countries.
(ii) In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods Twins ?
Ans. (i) Refer Q.No. 52, Very Short Answer Type Questions
(ii) By establishing G-77, they could.
1. Get real control over their natural resources.
2. More assistance in their development.
3. Fairer prices for raw materials.
4. Better access for their manufactured goods.