Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts – CBSE Notes for Class 12 History
• Chronicles of the Mughal Emperor provides us valuable informations about the institution of Mughal state. These texts clearly depicted the policies of Mughal Empire which they sought to impose on their domain.
• Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire. His grandson, Akbar, was considered as the greatest Mughal Emperor.
• Akbar did not only consolidate his empire but also made it one of the strongest empires of his time.
• Mughal chronicles were written by mostly Mughal courtiers, who mainly focused on the events related to the rulers, their family, the court and wars and the administration.
• Persian was used as the main language.
• Paintings were done on the choronicles to make them attractive.
• Two most important illustrated Mughal official histories were—Akbar Nama and Badshah Nama.
• According to Abu’l Fazl, the Mughal emperor had the responsibility to protect the Jan, Mai, names and din of his subject.
• Shahjahan’s daughter Jahanara took part in many architectural planning of new capital of the empire, Shahjahanbad.
• Imperial Kitabkhana were the main centres for the creation of manuscripts. Painters played an important role in the creation of Mughal manuscripts.
• Paper-makers required to prepare folio of manuscripts, calligrapher copied the text, gilders illuminated the pages, painter illustrated the scene from the text, bookbinders collected the individual folios and set them within ornamental covers.
• Akbar Nama has three volumes. Every volume contained information of ten lunar years. Its first two volumes were written by Lahori, which were later on revised by Wazir Sadullah Khan. The third volume is written by wazir, because at that time Lahori became very old and was unable to write.
• Gulbadan Begum wrote Humayun Nama. It gives us a glimpse into the domestic world of Mughals.
• Jharokha darshan was introduced by Akbar. According to the emperor it began his day at sunrise with a few religious prayer and then used to appear in a small balcony, i.e. the Jharokha in East direction. Below, a crowd wanted to have a look of the emperor.
• Court histories of the Mughals were written in Persian language in the 10th /17th centuries came from different parts of the subcontinents and they are now the Indian languages.
• All Mughal government officials held rank with two designation—zat and sawar. In the 17th century, mansabdar of 1,000 Zat or above was ranked as nobles.
1. Chronicles: It is a continuous chronological record of events.
2. Manuscript: The handwritten records.
3. Divine theory of kingship: The king was believed as the representative of god, acquired his powers from him and therefore had to be obeyed.
4. Sulh-i-kul: It is state policy of religious tolerance.
5. Jizya: A tax imposed on non-muslims in lieu of military service.
6. Mansabdar: All royal officers were known as mansabdars.
7. Chahar taslim: A form of salutation to the emperor which is done four times.
8. Tajwiz: A petion presented to the emperor by a nobleman recommending an application to the post of a mansabdar.
1526 Babur established Mughal dynasty in India.
1530 Humayun succeeds the Mughal throne.
1556 After the second battle of Panipat Akbar succeeds to the throne.
1563 Akbar abolished the pilgrimage tax.
1585 Akbar shifted his capital from Fatehpur Sikri to Lahore.
1589 Babur Nama was translated in Persian and Abu’l Fazl wrote the Akbar Nama.
1605-22 Jahangir wrote Jahangir Nama.
1648 Shahjahanabad became the new capital of the Mughal Empire.
1668 Alamgir Nama was written by Muhammad Kazim. It gives a historical account of the first decade of Aurangzeb’s rule.
1707 Aurangzeb died.
1857 The last ruler of the Mughal dynasty was overthrown by the British.