Julius Caesar William Shakespeare NCERT Solutions CBSE Class 10 English
Question 1. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference between
(a) Killing is an act Of a person or a thing that kills.
(b) Murder means killing of a person under conditions specifically covered by law. It is characterised by deliberation or during committing another crime.
(c) Assassination refers to killing suddenly or secretively especially a politically prominent person, or to destroy or harm viciously, as
assassination of character.
2. Popular and powerful leaders have been assassinated in the past and in recent times. Can you name some of them?
Answer Some of popular and powerful leaders who have been assassinated in the past and in recent times are
Mahatma Gandhi The father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30th January, 1948.
Indira Gandhi The prime Minister Of India, Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31st October, 1984.
Raiiv Gandhi The former Prime Minister Of India and the son Of Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated on 21st may. 1991.
John F Kennedy The thirty-fifth President Of the United States, John F Kennedy was assassinated on 22nd November, 1963.
Robert F Kennedy The younger brother of John F Kennedy and a senator fr01T1 New York. Robert F Kennedy was assassinated on 5th June, 1968.
Abraham Lincoln The sixteenth President Of the United States. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on 14th April, 1865.
Benazir Bhutto The former prime Minister of Pakistan. Benazir Bhutto was assassinated on 27th December, 2007
Martin Luther King Jr One of the leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated on 4th April, 1968.
Question 3. Discuss in groups the reasons why the leaders you named in (2) were assassinated. Is assassination the end to a problem?
Have a group discussion on the topic in the context of past/present day political assassinations.
Answer Some details and reasons have been given for the assassination of the above mentioned leaders. The reasons highlight the fact hat the assassinations did not cause the problem to end.
Mahatma Gandhi The father of the Nation. Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by Nathuram Godse on 30th January. 194B. A Hindu radical Godse later surrendered to the po ice and was hanged on 15th November 1949. The reason was severe dislike for Gandhi’s policies and the partition
Indira Gandhi The former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, her own bodyguards, on 31st October, 1984. While Beant Singh was killed by Gandhi’s other bodyguards. Satwant Singh was later arrested and executed. The reason were differences related to the measures taken to suppress Sikh militancy.
Rajiv Gandhi The former prime Minister of India and the son of Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in a suicide bomb attack carried out by LTTE suicide bombers. The reasons were political.
John F Kennedy The thirty-fifth President of the United States, John F Kennedy was assassinated on 22nd November 1963, allegedly by Lee Harvey Oswald. Lee was later killed by Jack Ruby on 24th November, 1963, even before he could be indicted or tried. The reasons were political.
Robert F Kennedy The younger brother Of John F Kennedy and a Senator from New York, Robert F Kennedy was assassinated on 5th June, 1968, by Sirhan Sirhan (a Palestinian). Initially sentenced to death in a gas chamber, he was later handed the punishment Of life imprisonment. The reasons were Political.
Abraham Lincoln The sixteenth president of the United States. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on 14th April, 1865, by John Wikes Booth, a well-known actor. Both later died in an encounter with soldiers. The reasons were political.
Benazir Bhutto The former Prime Minister of Pakistan. Benazir Bhutto was assassinated on 27th December, 2007 Her assassinator first shot and then detonated a bomb. when she was leaving from a rally at Liaquat National Bagh. Though Baitullah Mehsud is being alleged as the main
mastermind behind the murder, nothing has been proved yet. The reasons were political.
Martin Luther King Jr One of the leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement. Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated 4th April, 1968, by James Earl Ray, Ray was convicted and sentenced to 99 years in prison. He later died in prison at the age of 70. The reasons were believed to be political.
The above given material can be used in the group discussion in the class.
Question 4. Answer the following questions by ticking the correct options.
(i) When Caesar says “Nor heaven nor Earth have been at peace to-night” he sounds
(ii) Caesar’s reference to the senators as ‘graybeards’ shows his
(a) confidence (b) cowardice (c) arrogance (d) ambition
(iii) Decius Brutus changes Caesar’s mind about going to the Senate
by appealing to his
(a) ambition (b) vanity (c) greed (d) genorosity
(iv) The offer that Cassius makes to Antony assassination is that
(a) the conspirators would like to be friends with him
(b) he may take Caesar’s body to the pulpit and speak to the crowd praising Caesar for his achievements
(c) his recommendations Will be strong as that Of the conspirators While distributing the powers and benefits to friends
(d) he may join the conspiracy against Caesar
(v) Cassius tries to stop Brutus from letting Antony speak at Caesars funeral as he
(a) knows the Roman mob loves Caesar and Antony
(b) knows Brutus is not a good orator
(c) knows they should not have killed Caesar
(d) knows Antony is a good orator who can away the mob
(vi) What prophecy does Antony make over Caesars dead body?
(a) Romans will see Caesar’s ghost roaming on the streets
(b) Rome will experience fierce civil war in Which many people Will die
(c) Rome will be ruled by Ate
(d) Roman women will smile at the death Of Caesar
(vii) After listening to Brutus speech, the third citizen says’ ‘let
him be Caesar. This clearly shows he
(a) has not understood Brutus reason for killing Caesar
(b) loved Caesar more then he loves Brutus
(c) loves Brutus more then he loved Caesar
(d) thinks Brutus killed Caesar to assume power
(viii) When Antony calls the conspirators ‘honourable man’ tone is
(a) admiring (b) flattering (c) angry (d) mocking
(ix) Antony’s reference to Caesar’s conquest of the Nervii is to
(a) remind the mob of Caesars greatness a warrior
(b) make the mob feel afraid Of being attacked by the war-like race
(c) make the crowd weep for Caesar who died at war
(d) stop and collect his emotions as he is feeling very upset
(x) Antony’s remark Mischief; thou art afoot, Take thou what
course thou wilt; shows him to be
(a) a ruthless manipulator
(b) an honourable man
(c) a loyal friend
(d) a tactful man
Question 5. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a) How do the heavens forth’ the death of Julius Caesar?
Answer lt was believed that when kings or princes die. a bright star shoots in the sky and falls down. It leaves a blazing light behind it. So, when Caesar was murdered. a star blazed forth in the sky.
(b) What does Calpurnia try to convince Caesar of?
Answer Calpurnia tries to convince Caesar that what she has seen in her dream means a danger to his life. So. he must not go to the senate-house. He must not leave home. Caesar doesn’t listen to hers and murdered
(C) Why does Calpurnia say ‘Caesars wisdom is consumed in confidence’? what does she mean?
She says this because she is afraid Of something happening to Caesar if he goes Out. What she means is that he is overconfident because Of his wisdom, but the ill omens mean that something bad will happen today
(d) What does Calpurnia dream about Caesar? How does Decius Brutus interpret the dream?
Amwer: Calpumia dreamt that statue had a hundred spouts and pure blood ran from them. Many strong Romans came smiling. They bathed their hands into it. She meant this as an ill-omen. So. she asked Caesar rot to go the senate-house that day. But Decius Brutus interpreted the dream saying that the Romans’s bathing their hands in his blood that Caesar’s blood was his ‘spirit of influence’. It should be treated as a great thing, It shall serve as colours added to a coat of arms, an object of reverence, mementos and a badge of service.
(e) What are the arguments put forward by Decius Brutus to convince Caesar to go to the Capitol?
Answer First, Decius Brutus convinces Caesar that the dream is good omen. Secondly, the senators want to crown If he does not go to senate today. the senators’, minds may change and they may not offer him the crown later on.
(f) Why is Decius more successful than Calpurnia in persuading Caesar?
Answer Decius Brutus appeals to Caesar’s vanity by telling him that the senators want to crown him. whereas Calpurnia only talks about her dream, which was ominous. It appears that Caesar s not very superstitious and his vanity overcomes any doubts that he had.
(g) What is the petition put before Caesar by the conspirators? How does Caesar respond to it?
Answer: The conspirators put a petition before Caesar to repeal the banishment of Metellus Cimber’s brother, who had been banished by Caesar on valid grounds. Caesar responds to it by refusing to do so because this will undermine h s authority and also make laws made earlier meaningless.
(h) Who says ‘Et tu Brute When are these words spoken? Why?
Answer: The words ‘Et tu Brute’ are spoken by Caesar just before dying conspirators when Brutus stabs Caesar. Caesar speaks these words as Caesar has not expected such a treacherous act from him as Brutus was his trusted friend.
(i) In the moments following Caesar’s death what do the conspirators proclaim to justify Caesar death?
Answer: In the moments following Caesar’s death the conspirators proclaim that tyranny is over with his killing. Now the people will have liberty, freedom and enfranchisement because Caesar is no alive.
(j) Seeing the body of Caesar, Antony is overcome by grief. What does he say about Caesar?
Answer He praises Caesar. He his conquests, glories, triumphs and spoils. He calls him ‘mighty’ and wonders how ‘low’ he lies in his death. He pays him a warm homage by calling him a ‘bleeding piece of Earth’ and ‘the ruins of the noblest man’. He also calls him ‘the choice and master spirits Of this age’ that ever lived.
(k) Whom does Antony call “the choice and master spirits of this age”. Why?
Antony calls Caesar as ‘the choice arid master spirits Of this age’ because no human being matched him in any way. He was simply unparalleled in every human aspect.
(l) How do Brutus and Cassius respond to Antony’s speech?
Answer Brutus and Cassius respond to the of Antony in different ways. Cassius feels the Antony’s words will affect the audience so that it goes against them. At this Brutus’s that he will address the public first, giving the reasons for Caesar’s assassination. He (Antony) will speak later on only with their permission.
(m) Why does Cassius object to allowing Antony to speak at Caesars funeral? How does Brutus overcome this objection?
Cassius does not think it proper that Antony Should speak at Caesars funeral because his words may change the mood of the audience. But Brutus tells that Antony will be allowed to say only their permission.
(n) What are the conditions imposed by the conspirators before allowing Antony to speak at Caesars funeral?
Answer: The conspirators laid down the following conditions on Antony’s speaking at Caesars funeral.
(i) He will speak only after Brutus has finished speaking.
(ii) He will not blame the conspirators for killing Caesar.
(iii) He can speak whatever good he wants Of Caesar, but must
mention that he is speaking this With the permission of all of them.
(o) When he is left alone with the body of Caesar what does Antony call Brutus and the others?
Answer He calls them butchers and curses them.
(p) What prediction does Antony make regarding the future events in Rome?
Answer Antony predicts that the Whole Of their country will witness a civil war, which will be bloody and destructive. Foul be so
Common that all feelings Of compassion Will vanish from the hearts of man. The ghost Of Caesar shall roam about to take revenge and
punish. tie enemies. The Earth polluted by the evil smell of rotting bodies.
(q) What reasons does Brutus give for murdering Caesar?
Answer: Brutus gives various reasons for murdering Caesar. First of all, he says that Caesar was ambitious. He would have become a dictactor if he had lived. He loved Caesar, no doubt, but he loved Rome more. so, Brutus states that they killed Caesar more for the sake of Rome and not for any personal reasons.
(r) Who says, “Let him be Caesar”? What light does this throw on the speaker?
Answer The third citizen. who signifies the common citizen of Rome. speaks the above words while Brutus has finished his speech justifying the reasons for Caesars death. Brutus too has proclaimed that the people can slay him if he becomes ambitious like Caesar. This shows that the citizens were fully satisfied with the reasons given by Brutus and there was all praise for Brutus. They praise Brutus and show their sympathy for the act _
(s) Why is Antony’s speech more effective?
Answer Antony’s speech is more effective because he appeals to the basic sentiments of the common people. i.e. the mob. He very cleverly directs his speech towards Caesar S greatness as a human being. He, in that way, arouses their basic instinct of revenge against the conspirators. He does so by stating from will that Caesar’s has left everything to them.
(t) At the end of the scene, what is the fate of Brutus and Cassius?
Answer By his skillful oratory Antony has aroused the anger and hatred Of the mob against Brutus, Cassius and Other conspirators. The mob plans to torch their houses with the burring sticks of wood from Caesars pyre. Pursued by such a hostile, furious and bloodthirsty mob. Brutus and Cassius have no option but to run away from Rome to save their lives.
Question 9: Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow?
(i) Caesar Cowards die many time before their deaths; the valiant never taste of death but once. Of all the wonders that, I yet have heard. It seems to me most that men should fear: seeing that death, a necessary end, come when it will Come.
(a) Whom is Caesar speaking to? Why does he say these words?
Answer Caesar is speaking to his Wife Calpurnia. Caesar says these words because Calpurnia has seen a horrible dream indicating Caesar’s death. So, she requests him not to go to the senate-house and remains at home.
(b) What fears has the listener expressed?
The listener Calpurnia has shown her fear that her dream means danger to Caesars life. It indicates that Caesar may be killed or may die, This is the fear
(c) What is the basis for the fears expressed?
Answer The basis is that Calpurnia has seen a horrible dream. In it she has seen unnatural occurrences These are like the lioness giving birth in the streets and graves opening up with throwing of the dead persons.
(ii) But here’s a parchment with the seal of Caesar: I found it in his closet, ‘it’s his will: Let but the commons hear this testament-
which, pardon me. I do not mean to read— and they would go and kiss dead Caesars wounds.
(a) Who speaks these words? Where is the speaker at this moment?
Antony says these words to the mob. He is in ‘he Capitol at this moment.
(b) What are the contents of Caesars will that he is referring to?
Answer The contents of Caesar’s will are that he has given everything belonging to him to the people Of Rome, These are his money, gardens and orchards,
(c) Why does the speaker read Caesar’s will to the citizens?
Answer The speaker reads Caesars will to prove that Caesar was not ambitious and should not have been assassinated. On the other hand, he was a prey of the conspirators ambition.
(d) What is the reaction of the listeners to the will?
Answer The listeners get agitated and violent. They are after the conspirators who have murdered Caesar in cold blood.
Question 10. A reporter covers the event Of the assassination of Julius Caesar in the Senate giving graphic details and a catchy headline. Write the newspaper report in about 200 words.
Julius Caesar Murdered in Cold Blood in the Senate by Rohit Basu, Special Today our beloved leader Julius Caesar was killed by fellow senators in the
Senate House by stabbing. The details of this dastardly deal are really frightening.
In the morning when Caesar had just taken his seat in the Senate, Metellus Cimber petitioned him to repeal tre banishment of his brother. Caesar
refused to accede to his request. as his brother was valid grounds. Many senators, Who were all part of the conspiracy then surrounded him to press him to repeal the order. When Caesar also refused them. one by they all stabbed him with daggers which had been hidden in their clothes.
Caesar fell down, crying, “Et tu Brute”, as Brutus, who of the persons who had stabbed him, was a friend of his. Then the conspirators started proclaiming that Caesars tyranny was over and also started celebrating.
Just then, Mark Antony, who was a follower of Caesar, entered tre Senate and was aghast at what he saw. He told the conspirators to kill him also if
they wanted, as there was nothing left for him in life.
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