CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences Geography Agriculture Notes
♦ Agriculture: The art and science of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forests.
♦ Commercial Agriculture: Farming in which farmer grows the crop with the aim of selling it in the market.
♦ Cash Crops: Cash crops are those which are grown by the farmers to sell in the market, e.g., tobacco and cotton.
♦ Dry Farming: Dry farming is adopted in scanty rainfall areas. Such types of crops are grown which require less irrigation facilities.
♦ Extensive Agriculture: Agriculture in which the agriculturist tries to get the greatest output by bringing more and more new land areas under cultivation.
♦ Fallow Land: Leaving the field free without growing a crop for recoupment of soil fertility.
♦ Green Revolution: A breakthrough in seed technology which has led to a considerable increase in agricultural production, especially in wheat as a result of better inputs.
♦ Golden Fibre: Jute is the Golden Fibre of India as its export brings a lot of foreign exchange.
♦ Grbss Cultivated Area: The net sown area and the land cultivated more than once, together make the gross cultivated area.
♦ Horticulture: Intensive cultivation of vegetables, fruits and flowers.
♦ Intensive Agriculture: Increase in the agricultural production by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.
♦ Kharif Season: Kharif season starts with the onset of the monsoon i.e., June-July and continues till the beginning of winter i.e., October-November. For example, rice, millets etc.
♦ Mixed Farming: Farming in which animals are also used on the farm while raising crops.
♦ Multiple Cropping: When two or more than two crops are grown simultaneously on the same field.
♦ Net Sown Area: The land cultivated in a year is called the Net Sown Area.
♦ Plantation Agriculture: A large-scale farming of one crop resembling the factory production, based on capital investment and application of modem science and technology in cultivating, processing and marketing the final products.
♦ Rabi Season: The crops which are grown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Wheat, Barley, Peas, Gram are some examples of rabi crops.
♦ Sericulture: Rearing of silkworms and producing raw silk.
♦ Support Price: Support price is the minimum and reasonable price fixed by the government at which the farmer can sell his produce either in the open market or to the government agencies.
♦ Shifting Agriculture: It is that type of agriculture in which farmers clear the forest land and use it for growing crops. The crops are grown for 2 to 3 years. When the fertility of the soil decreases, the farmer shifts to a new land.
♦ Subsistence Agriculture: Farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmer’s household.
♦ White Revolution: It is also known as ‘Operation Flood’ and is related to the increase in the production of milk.
♦ Biotechnology: Use of biological agents and processes for beneficial purposes is known as biotechnology.
♦ Zaid Crops: These are crops which are sown between the rabi and the kharif crops. Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber and vegetables are some examples of zaid crops.
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